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The Ultimate Election Year:
All the Elections Around the World in 2024

8 minute read

2024 is not just an election year. It’s perhaps the election year.

Globally, more voters than ever in history will head to the polls as at least 64 countries (plus the European Union)—representing a combined population of about 49% of the people in the world—are meant to hold national elections, the results of which, for many, will prove consequential for years to come.

Read More: A Make-or-Break Year for Democracy Worldwide

In Taiwan, for example, who becomes the next president will fundamentally shape Beijing’s approach to the self-governed island it has repeatedly threatened with invasion.

Read More: Taiwan’s Presidential Frontrunner Faces Balancing Act With China

Of course, simply holding an election does not mean the process will be free or fair. Bangladesh’s Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina appears set to win a fourth consecutive term in January, though the election is being boycotted by the country’s main opposition party in protest of a monthslong crackdown on political dissent.

Read More: Sheikh Hasina and the Future of Democracy in Bangladesh

Similarly, in Pakistan, the country’s most popular politician, former Prime Minister Imran Khan, sits in jail, while his party has been suppressed and his supporters arrested in the run-up to February’s election.

Read More: Imran Khan on His Plan to Return to Power

Elections with all-but-certain outcomes can still be worth watching. While Vladimir Putin may be embarking on a sure-win reelection campaign, the March presidential election results, if the true vote breakdown is disclosed, may be viewed as a potential indicator of the strongman’s support—and whether the Russian public continues to back his seemingly endless war. Meanwhile, in Ukraine, it’s unclear if a planned 2024 presidential vote will take place while the besieged nation is currently under martial law, though incumbent leader Volodomyr Zelensky has said he intends to seek another term and his ratings remain high.

Read More: Inside Volodymyr Zelensky’s Struggle to Keep Ukraine in the Fight

Elsewhere, key political successions are also already brewing. With a bleak economic outlook casting a shadow over the U.K.’s ruling Conservative Party, which has been in power for nearly 14 years, opinion polls suggest the opposition Labour Party will likely come out on top in Britain’s next general election, which embattled Prime Minister Rishi Sunak has promised to call at some point in 2024.

Read More: The Man Who Wants to Fix Britain

Not to mention, the elephant in the room; the U.S. presidential race culminating in November has the potential to unleash what the Economist recently described as “the biggest danger to the world” of 2024: former President Donald Trump securing a second term.

Below are all the elections scheduled or expected to take place in 2024—compiled from information by the National Democratic Institute, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, and Anchor Change, among other sources, and ordered by population according to projections by the United Nations.

For context, each listing also includes the country’s “freedom and fairness score” that ranges from zero (least free and fair) to one (most free and fair) from Our World in Data’s free and fair elections index, which is based on expert assessments by the Swedish think-tank V-Dem (Varieties of Democracy).



INDIA

Population: 1.44B
Election(s): Lok Sabha (House of the People)
Date(s): expected April - May
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.53

EUROPEAN UNION

Population: 448M (total of 27 E.U. member states)
Election(s): European Parliament
Date(s): June 6-9
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.91 (average of 27 E.U. member states)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Population: 341M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, and House of Representatives
Date(s): Nov. 5
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.83

INDONESIA

Population: 279M
Election(s): Presidency, Regional Representative Council, House of Representatives
Date(s): Feb. 14
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.68

PAKISTAN

Population: 243M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): Feb. 8
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.30

BANGLADESH

Population: 174M
Election(s): National Parliament
Date(s): Jan. 7
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.16

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Population: 144M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): March 15-17
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.25

MEXICO

Population: 129M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, Chamber of Deputies
Date(s): June 2
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.75

IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)

Population: 89.5M
Election(s):  Islamic Consultative Assembly, Assembly of Experts
Date(s): March 1
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.32

UNITED KINGDOM

Population: 67.9M
Election(s): House of Commons
Date(s): expected in 2024, required by Jan. 28, 2025
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.93

SOUTH AFRICA

Population: 60.7M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): expected May - August
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.72

REPUBLIC OF KOREA [SOUTH KOREA]

Population: 51.8M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): April 10
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.95

ALGERIA

Population: 46M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): expected in December
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.29

UKRAINE

Population: 37.4M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): scheduled* March 31 (*may not occur due to martial law)
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.57

UZBEKISTAN

Population: 35.4M
Election(s): Legislative Chamber
Date(s): expected in October, due by December
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.33

GHANA

Population: 34.4M
Election(s): Presidency, Parliament
Date(s): Dec. 7
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.62

MOZAMBIQUE

Population: 34.4M
Election(s): Presidency, Assembly of the Republic
Date(s): Oct. 9
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.18

MADAGASCAR

Population: 30.7M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): due by May
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.43

VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF

Population: 29.1M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): expected in December
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.11

DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA [NORTH KOREA]

Population: 26.2M
Election(s): Supreme People’s Assembly
Date(s): April 10
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.14

TAIWAN

Population: 23.9M
Election(s): Presidency, Legislative Yuan
Date(s): Jan. 13
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.94

SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

Population: 23.8M
Election(s): People’s Assembly
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.00

MALI

Population: 23.6M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): scheduled for February, junta postponed indefinitely for “technical reasons”
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.00

SRI LANKA

Population: 21.9M
Election(s): Presidency, Parliament
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.76

ROMANIA

Population: 19.7M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, Chamber of Deputies
Date(s): expected November - December
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.86

CHAD

Population: 18.6M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): expected in October
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.00

SENEGAL

Population: 18.0M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): Feb. 25
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.75

CAMBODIA

Population: 17.0M
Election(s): Senate
Date(s): Feb. 25
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.14

RWANDA

Population: 14.3M
Election(s): Presidency, Chamber of Deputies
Date(s): July 15
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.37

TUNISIA

Population: 12.5M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): expected in fall
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.02

BELGIUM

Population: 11.7M
Election(s): Chamber of Representatives
Date(s): June 9
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.97

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Population: 11.4M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, Chamber of Deputies
Date(s): May 19
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.63

JORDAN

Population: 11.4M
Election(s): House of Representatives
Date(s): expected in November
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.49

SOUTH SUDAN

Population: 11.2M
Election(s): Presidency, National Legislature
Date(s): expected in December
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.00

CZECHIA [CZECH REPUBLIC]

Population: 10.5M
Election(s): Senate
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.95

AZERBAIJAN

Population: 10.4M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): Feb. 7
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.08

PORTUGAL

Population: 10.2M
Election(s): Assembly of the Republic
Date(s): March 10
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.95

BELARUS

Population: 9.5M
Election(s): Chamber of Representatives
Date(s): Feb. 25
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.14

TOGO

Population: 9.2M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): expected in early 2024
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.40

AUSTRIA

Population: 9.0M
Election(s): National Council
Date(s): expected on Sept. 29
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.93

EL SALVADOR

Population: 6.4M
Election(s): Presidency, Legislative Assembly
Date(s): Feb. 4
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.35

SLOVAKIA

Population: 5.7M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.93

FINLAND

Population: 5.5M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): Jan. 28
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.96

MAURITANIA

Population: 4.9M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): June 22
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.42

PANAMA

Population: 4.5M
Election(s): Presidency, National Assembly
Date(s): May 5
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.86

CROATIA

Population: 4.0M
Election(s): Presidency, Parliament
Date(s): presidential election expected in December; date of parliamentary elections TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.92

GEORGIA

Population: 3.7M
Election(s): Presidency, Parliament
Date(s): parliamentary elections on Oct. 26; date of presidential election TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.59

MONGOLIA

Population: 3.5M
Election(s): State Great Khural
Date(s): expected in June
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.65

URUGUAY

Population: 3.4M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, Chamber of Representatives
Date(s): Oct. 27
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.93

REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

Population: 3.4M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): expected in November
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.82

LITHUANIA

Population: 2.7M
Election(s): Presidency, Seimas
Date(s): presidential election on May 12; parliamentary elections on Oct. 13
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.89

BOTSWANA

Population: 2.7M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): expected in October
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.58

NAMIBIA

Population: 2.6M
Election(s): Presidency, National Assembly
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.65

GUINEA BISSAU

Population: 2.2M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.23

NORTH MACEDONIA

Population: 2.1M
Election(s): Presidency, Assembly
Date(s): presidential election on April 24; parliamentary elections on May 8
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.60

MAURITIUS

Population: 1.3M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.57

COMOROS

Population: 0.86M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): Jan. 14
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.07

BHUTAN

Population: 0.79M
Election(s): National Assembly
Date(s): Jan. 9
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.85

SOLOMON ISLANDS

Population: 0.75M
Election(s): National Parliament
Date(s): expected in April
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.63

MALDIVES

Population: 0.52M
Election(s): People’s Majlis
Date(s): expected March - May
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.66

ICELAND

Population: 0.38M
Election(s): Presidency
Date(s): June 1
Freedom and Fairness Score: 0.89

KIRIBATI

Population: 0.14M
Election(s): Presidency, House of Assembly
Date(s): TBD
Freedom and Fairness Score: not available

SAN MARINO

Population: 0.03M
Election(s): Grand and General Council
Date(s): expected in December
Freedom and Fairness Score: NA

PALAU

Population: 0.02M
Election(s): Presidency, Senate, House of Delegates
Date(s): Nov. 12
Freedom and Fairness Score: NA

TUVALU

Population: 0.01M
Election(s): Parliament
Date(s): Jan. 26
Freedom and Fairness Score: NA

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