TIME conflict

This 75-Year-Old Map Shows Europe ‘Ready for War’

A portrait of a world days away from combustion

The declarations had not yet come, but on Aug. 28, 1939, Europe already knew war was on its way. On that day, 75 years ago, the armies that would fight what became World War II had gathered.

Just how many soldiers that meant differed by nation, as TIME pointed out to its readers with the map below, which ran in the Sept. 4, 1939 issue. The annotated chart also provides evidence that, no matter how many men were under arms, there was no way for the continent to be entirely ready for what was to follow. In Poland, for example, President Ignacy Moscicki was said to have told Roosevelt that he was willing to negotiate with Germany. By the time Sept. 4 came around — the magazine arrived on stands before then— that willingness had already proved pointless.

On desktop, roll over the map to get a closer look. If you’re reading on a mobile device, click to zoom.

TIME

Stay tuned next week for further coverage of the 75th anniversary of the beginning of World War II.

TIME ebola

UN: Ebola Cases Could Eventually Reach 20,000

GENEVA (AP) — The Ebola outbreak in West Africa eventually could exceed 20,000 cases, more than six times as many as doctors know about now, the World Health Organization said Thursday.

A new plan to stop Ebola by the U.N. health agency also assumes that in many hard-hit areas, the actual number of cases may be two to four times higher than is currently reported.

The agency published new figures saying that 1,552 people have died from the killer virus from among the 3,069 cases reported so far in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria. At least 40 percent of the cases have been in just the last three weeks, the U.N. health agency said, adding that “the outbreak continues to accelerate.”

In Geneva, the agency also released a new plan for handling the Ebola crisis that aims to stop Ebola transmission in affected countries within six to nine months and prevent it from spreading internationally.

Dr. Bruce Aylward, WHO’s assistant director-general, told reporters the plan would cost $489 million over the next nine months and require the assistance of 750 international workers and 12,000 national workers.

The 20,000 figure, he added, “is a scale that I think has not ever been anticipated in terms of an Ebola outbreak.”

“That’s not saying we expect 20,000,” he added. “But we have got to have a system in place that we can deal with robust numbers.”

Aylward said the far-higher caseload is believed to come from cities.

“It’s really just some urban areas that have outstripped the reporting capacity,” he said.

Aylward also said the agency is urging airlines to lift most of their restrictions about flying to Ebola-hit nations because a predictable “air link” is needed to help deal with the crisis. Air France on Wednesday cancelled its flights to Sierra Leone. Aylward said the agency hopes airlines will lift most restrictions within two weeks.

Nigerian authorities, meanwhile, said a man who contracted Ebola after coming into contact with a traveler from Liberia had evaded their surveillance efforts and infected a doctor in southern Nigeria who later died.

The announcement of a sixth death in Nigeria marked the first fatality outside the commercial capital of Lagos, where a Liberian-American man Patrick Sawyer arrived in late July and later died of Ebola. On Wednesday, Nigerian authorities had said they not yet eliminated the disease from Africa’s most populous nation but that it was being contained.

The doctor’s wife is also in isolation now after she starting showing symptoms of Ebola, Nigerian Health Minister Onyebuchi Chukwu added. Morticians who embalmed the doctor are part of a group of 70 people now under surveillance in Port Harcourt.

TIME Infectious Disease

Nigeria Confirms First Ebola Death Outside Lagos

Nigeria Ebola
Nigerian health officials wait to screen passengers at the arrival hall of Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos, Nigeria on Aug. 4, 2014. Sunday Alamba/AP

Doctor who died in southeastern city marks Nigeria's sixth Ebola death

Nigeria confirmed Thursday the country’s first Ebola-related death outside Lagos, the country’s main international transit hub.

The victim, an unnamed doctor who died in the southeastern oil city of Port Harcourt, marks Nigeria’s sixth Ebola death in a recent outbreak of the disease primarily affecting West Africa. He is believed to have been infected by a man linked to Nigeria’s first Ebola case, Patrick Sawyer, who died in Lagos shortly after arriving there from Liberia.

The yet-unnamed doctor had died last Friday, but Nigerian Health Minister Onyebuchi Chukwu waited until Thursday to confirm the case, the BBC reports. The doctor’s wife has been put under quarantine, while an additional 70 people suspected to have had contact with him are being monitored in Port Harcourt.

While the death marks a blow to Nigeria’s efforts to contain the disease, Mr. Chukwu noted that while “the problem is not over . . . Nigeria is doing well on containment, all the disease in Nigeria were all traced to Patrick Sawyer.”

The Nigerian government said Wednesday that schools in the country would not reopen until October 13 in order to help prevent the outbreak from spreading.

Recent figures from the World Health Organization suggest Ebola has infected more than 3,000 people and killed over half of its victims, largely in West Africa. More than 240 health workers have been infected with the deadly virus, for which there is no vaccine or cure, though it is treatable and survivable. Ebola is not airborne, and is spread only when humans come into contact with the bodily fluids of those infected with the virus.

West Africa’s health ministers will be meeting later Thursday to discuss measures to address what’s become the largest-ever Ebola epidemic.

[BBC]

TIME Israel

Israelis Skeptical of PM’s Gaza Victory Claim

JERUSALEM (AP) — Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s claim that Israel achieved a “great military and political” victory over Hamas in the latest round of fighting in the Gaza Strip has met with skepticism from many Israelis, according to a poll published Thursday.

The poll, published in the left-leaning Haaretz newspaper, shows that 54 percent of those surveyed believe there was no clear winner in the 50 days of war. The fighting killed 2,143 Palestinians, most of them civilians, according to Palestinian health officials and U.N. officials. On the Israeli side, 64 soldiers, five civilians and a Thai worker were killed.

The poll underscores the unease pervading Israeli society after the third round of fighting between Israel and Gaza-based Islamic militants in the seven years since Hamas took control of the densely populated coastal strip.

Some of Netanyahu’s detractors, including ministers in his own government like veteran security hawk Uzi Landau, believe that the prime minister and Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon did not go far enough in pursuing the war, insisting that they should not have stopped until Hamas was destroyed or pleaded for peace.

Others, particularly residents of hard-hit agricultural communities abutting the Gaza border, fear that without a clear political roadmap for the Palestinian territory’s future, a resumption of the rocket and mortar fire that caused such considerable disruption to their lives for most of the summer is not so much a question of if, but rather of when.

Still, calm has prevailed since the two sides agreed on Tuesday to an open-ended truce, settling for an ambiguous interim agreement in exchange.

Hamas, though badly battered, remains in control of Gaza with part of its military arsenal intact. Israel and Egypt are to continue to control access to the blockaded coastal strip despite Hamas’ long-running demand that the border closures imposed in 2007 be lifted.

A former director of Israel’s Shin Bet security service, Yuval Diskin, said the war’s results “were disappointing and were accompanied by what some have described as a sense of sourness.”

“The cease-fire that was achieved with Hamas has left the Israeli public frustrated,” Diskin wrote in a commentary published in the popular Yedioth Ahronoth newspaper on Thursday.

The Haaretz poll questioned 464 Israelis on Wednesday and had a margin of error of 4.6 percent. While 54 percent said there was no clear-cut winner, some 25 percent of respondents said Israel had won the war, while 16 percent believed Hamas had prevailed. The remaining 5 percent of those surveyed were undecided. The paper did not say how the survey was conducted.

Later that night in a nationally televised speech, Netanyahu said that Israel had dealt Hamas “a heavy blow.”

“With the implementation of the cease-fire, I can say that there is a great military and political achievement here for the State of Israel,” Netanyahu said. “Hamas was hit hard and it received not one of the demands it set forth for a cease-fire, not one.”

Netanyahu also said Israel “will not tolerate” any more of the Hamas rocket fire that started the war on July 8, and would respond “even harder” if attacks resume.

TIME Pakistan

Pakistani Cleric Says Talks With Government Failed

Khan and Qadri are demanding Sharif resign over allegations of vote fraud in last year's elections

ISLAMABAD (AP) — A fiery Pakistani cleric who has been leading a mass rally outside parliament demanding Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s resignation said on Thursday that he has “shut the door” on further talks with the government.

The development was a worrisome sign in the already troubled negotiations between the Pakistani government and the opposition amid a lingering crisis that has raised fears of political instability in this nuclear-armed country of 180 million people with a history of political turmoil and military dictatorships.

The cleric, Tahir-ul-Qadri, and Pakistan’s cricket-star-turned-politician Imran Khan have been leading mass rallies for two weeks in Islamabad.

The demonstrations initially locked down Islamabad and disrupted life and business in much of the city. Lately, the rallies have mostly fizzled out but the crowds, which are camped out near the parliament and administration buildings in the heart of the city, still surge, especially in the evenings.

Khan and Qadri are demanding Sharif resign over allegations of vote fraud in last year’s elections — something the prime minister has repeatedly said he would not do, though he is prepared to negotiate on some of the other demands by the protesters.

Qadri, a dual Pakistani-Canadian citizen with a wide following, emerged from a lengthy late night round with of meetings with government representatives to tell his followers that the talks had made no progress.

“I announce with regret that out talks with the government have failed,” Qadri said early Thursday. “We will now shut the door on any further talks.”

Qadri has also demanded that Sharif and the premier’s younger brother, who is chief minister in the eastern Punjab province, be arrested over an incident in June in the eastern city of Lahore when 14 people were killed during clashes between Qadri’s supporters and police.

Under Pakistani law, the prime minister enjoys immunity and cannot be arrested as long as he is in office.

In a compromise gesture, Railways Minister Saad Rafiq who is leading the talks with the opposition said the government agreed to register the Lahore case with the local authorities — meaning the incident would have to be investigated and could possibly go to trial.

“This case is being registered against all those people who have been named in the complaint” by Qadri, Rafiq said.

However, Rafiq said the government would never accept any unconstitutional demands, such as the disbanding of the parliament or Sharif’s resignation.

“Tahir-ul-Qadri wants the dissolution of assemblies and resignation of the prime minister,” he said. “We will never accept this demand.”

Sharif, whose election last May marked the first democratic transfer of power since Pakistan was carved out of India in 1947, cancelled a planned official visit to Turkey on Thursday to deal with the situation.

Sharif was forced once before from office during a previous stint as premier, when the then-army chief Pervez Musharraf seized power in a coup in 1999.

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