TIME ebola

Nigeria Is Ebola-Free: Here’s What They Did Right

A school official takes a pupil's temperature using an infrared digital laser thermometer in front of the school premises, at the resumption of private schools, in Lagos
A school official takes a pupil's temperature using an infrared digital laser thermometer in front of the school premises, at the resumption of private schools, in Lagos, Sept. 22, 2014. Akintunde Akinleye—Reuters

It's been 42 days since the last new case

The World Health Organization declared Nigeria free of Ebola on Monday, a containment victory in an outbreak that has stymied other countries’ response efforts.

The milestone came at about 11 a.m. local time, or 6 a.m., E.T. The outbreak has killed more than 4,500 in West Africa is remains unchecked in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, so Nigeria is by no means immune to another outbreak.

“It’s possible to control Ebola. It’s possible to defeat Ebola. We’ve seen it here in Nigeria,” Nigerian Minister of Health Onyebuchi Chukwu told TIME. “If any cases emerge in the future, it will be considered—by international standards—a separate outbreak. If that happens, Nigeria will be ready and able to confront it exactly as we have done with this outbreak.”

For the WHO to declare Nigeria as Ebola-free, the country had to make it 42 days with no new cases (double the incubation period), verify that it actively sought out all possible contacts, and show negative test results for any suspected cases.

Nigeria had 20 cases of Ebola after a Liberian-American man named Patrick Sawyer flew into Lagos and collapsed at the airport. Health care workers treating Sawyer were infected, and as it spread it ultimately killed eight people, a low number next to the thousands of cases and deaths in other countries. Nigeria’s health system is considered more robust, but there was significant concern from experts that a case would pop up in one of the country’s dense-populated slums and catch fire.

So what did Nigeria do right? Chukwu and Dr. Faisal Shuaib of the country’s Ebola Emergency Operation Center, broke it down for TIME.

Preparing early. Nigeria knew it was possible a case of Ebola would make it into the country, so officials got to work early by training health care workers on how to manage the disease, and disseminating information so the country knew what to expect.

Declaring an emergency—right away. When Nigeria had its first confirmed case of Ebola, the government declared a national public health emergency immediately. This allowed the Ministry of Health to form its Ebola Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The EOC is an assembly of public health experts within Nigeria as well as the WHO, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and groups like Doctors Without Borders. “[We] used a war-room approach to coordinate the outbreak response,” Shuaib said. “So you have a situation whereby government and staff of international development agencies are co-located in a designated facility where they are able to agree on strategies, develop one plan and implement this plan together.”

The EOC was in charge of contact tracing (the process of identifying and monitoring people who may have had direct or indirect contact with Ebola patients), implementing strict procedures for handling and treating patients, screening all individuals arriving or departing the country by land, air and sea, and communicating with the community. Some workers went door-to-door to offer Ebola-related education, and others involved religious and professional leaders. Social media was a central part of the education response.

Training local doctors. Nigerian doctors were trained by Doctors Without Borders and WHO, and treated patients in shifts with their oversight.

Managing fear. “Expectedly, people were scared of contracting the disease,” Shuaib said. “In the beginning, there was also some misinformation about available cures, so fear and inaccurate rumors had to be actively managed.” Nigeria used social media to to ramp up awareness efforts, and publicized patients who were successfully treated and discharged. “People began to realize that contracting Ebola was not necessarily a death sentence,” Shuai said. “Emphasizing that reporting early to the hospital boosts survival gave comfort that [a person] has some level of control over the disease prognosis.”

Keeping borders open. Nigeria has not closed its borders to travelers from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, saying the move would be counterproductive. “Closing borders tends to reinforce panic and the notion of helplessness,” Shuaib said. “When you close the legal points of entry, then you potentially drive people to use illegal passages, thus compounding the problem.” Shuaib said that if public health strategies are implemented, outbreaks can be controlled, and that closing borders would only stifle commercial activities in the countries whose economies are already struggling due to Ebola.

Remaining prepared for more patients. Even though this outbreak was contained, Nigeria is not slowing down its training and preparations for the possibility of more cases. “Outbreak response preparedness is a continuous process that requires constant review of the level of the response mechanisms in place to ensure that the health system is ready to jump into action at all levels,” Shuaib said. “There is no alternative to preparedness.”

Advocating for more international response. “The global community needs to consistently come together, act as one in any public health emergency, whether it is Ebola or a natural disaster.” Shuaib said. “While a lot has been done, it still falls short of what is necessary to get ahead of the curve. We must act now, not tomorrow, not next week.”

Read next: Dozens Who Had Contact With the First U.S. Ebola Patient Are in the Clear

TIME vaccines

Very Good and Very Bad News in the Vaccine Wars

Just say yes.—but too many Americans say no to vaccines
Just say yes.—but too many Americans say no to vaccines Steve Debenport; Getty Images

Like any trench war, the fight to protect America's kids against disease is proceeding only inch by inch. A new report shows why there's reason for hope—and reason for worry

It’s just as well that no one knows the names of the 17,253 sets of parents in California who have opted not to have their children vaccinated, citing “philosophic” reasons for declining the shots. The same is true of the anonymous 3,097 in Colorado who have made the same choice—giving their far smaller state the dubious distinction of being dead last among the 50 states and the District of Columbia in the simple business of protecting their children against disease.

On the other hand, kudos to you, Mississippi, for finishing number one—with an overall kindergartener vaccination rate in the past school year of 99.7%—and to you, Louisiana, Texas and Utah, for finishing not far behind. Your children, by this measure at least, are the safest and healthiest in the country.

These and other findings were part of the alternately reassuring and deeply disturbing survey from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), looking at vaccination coverage for more than 4.25 million kindergarteners and the opt-out rates for more than 3.9 million in the 2013-2014 school year

The report’s top line number seems encouraging. The national compliance rate for the three major vaccines covered in the survey ranged from 93.3% (for chicken pox) to 94.7% (measles, mumps, rubella, or MMR) to 95% (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis).

But even those numbers don’t mean America has aced the test. Vaccination rates need to reach or exceed 95%, depending on the disease, to maintain herd immunity—the protection afforded by vaccinated people to those few who can’t be vaccinated, by giving the virus too few ways to body-surf its way across a population until it finds someone who’s vulnerable. So while a 90% vaccination rate might look like an A, it in fact may be no better than a middling C.

And in some parts of the country, the numbers are much, much worse. As I reported in TIME’s Oct. 6 issue, vaccination refusal tends to be a phenomenon of the wealthier, better educated, politically bluer parts of the country—the northeast, the Pacific coast and pockets around major universities. Those are communities in which folks know just enough to convince themselves that they know it all—which means they know better than the doctors, scientists and other members of medical community at large, who have overwhelmingly shown that vaccines are safe and effective.

That’s part of the reason New York City’s elite private schools have vaccination rates far lower than the city’s public schools, and why, according to a shocking story by the Hollywood Reporter, some schools in the wealthier neighborhoods of Los Angeles have a lower vaccination rate than in South Sudan.

Digging deeper into the MMWR report, there are other, broader causes for worry. There are the 26 states plus the District of Columbia that don’t meet the Department of Health and Human Services’ guidelines of 95% coverage for the MMR vaccine. There are the 37 states that don’t even meet the CDC’s standards for properly gathering data on vaccination rates in the first place. And there are the 11 states with opt-out rates of 4% or higher.

The anti-vaccine crowd frames the refusers as part of a brave vanguard of parents who won’t be hectored into getting their children protections that they, the parents, have decided are useless or dangerous. But it’s worth remembering what the world looked like in the era before vaccines. And you don’t have to work too hard to do that, because you know what it looked like? It looked like West Africa today, where people are being infected with the Ebola virus at a rate of 1,000 new cases per week—on target to be 10,000 by December—where entire families and indeed entire villages are dying agonizing deaths, and where whole populations would line up by the millions for the protection a vaccine would offer.

Vaccine refusal is increasingly the indulgence of the privileged. And it is, as the Ebola crisis shows, the indulgence of the foolish, too.

TIME ebola

Ebola Lessons We Need To Learn From Dallas

Amesh Adalja, a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, is a quadruple-board certified physician. His personal infectious disease blog site is www.trackingzebra.com.

"The virus, unlike many other pathogens, is unforgiving of lapses"

Of the more than 8,000 individuals who have been infected with Ebola, the infection of Nina Pham represents a milestone in what has been an unprecedented Ebola outbreak thus far. Nina Pham, a heroic critical care nurse who cared for America’s most gravely ill Ebola patient to date, wore the appropriate gown, gloves, mask and eye protection that so many of us—myself included—have mentioned time and again are the surefire ways to keep Ebola at bay. Yet she still became infected, not in some austere setting but in a modern tertiary care hospital in one of our nation’s major metropolitan areas.

To try to unravel the circumstances regarding Ms. Pham’s infection requires something we don’t have a lot of at this time: facts. We’ve heard references to a “breach in protocol” and “inconsistencies,” but as of this writing, we don’t know how she became infected.

(PHOTOS: See How A Photographer Is Covering Ebola’s Deadly Spread)

However, we can set the context for her infection to try to understand the factors that may have played pivotal roles in this unfortunate occurrence. First, think of the patient Thomas Eric Duncan. Mr. Duncan was ill and placed in strict isolation in the ICU. Strict isolation meant that individuals attending to him were donning the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). However, Mr. Duncan was not just ill. He was critically ill, requiring multiple interventions to support his myriad failing organ systems, including his respiratory system, cardiovascular system and kidneys. Nothing short of heroic measures were employed in the failed attempt to save his life.

These measures, while possibly prolonging Mr. Duncan’s life, are invasive, so they involve much more exposure to blood and bodily fluid—the sole means of acquiring Ebola. Dialysis requires large-sized intravenous catheters to be placed in major veins, while placing someone on a ventilator requires a plastic tube to placed (or intubated) through the vocal cords into the trachea. Both procedures can involve bleeding, and intubation involves exposure to respiratory secretions during the procedure as well as during routine care of the patient, which may make safe removal of PPE a more daunting task.

(PHOTOS: Inside the Ebola Crisis: The Images That Moved Them Most)

Also, according to CDC guidance based on decades of experience treating Ebola patients, what is required to care for Ebola patients safely is to practice what is known as contact/droplet isolation—not airborne isolation. With airborne precautions, a special type of mask or a special larger device known as a PAPR (powered air purifying respirator) is worn. The hospital in Dallas used PAPRs, a step that goes above and beyond required PPE. Such enhancement adds another layer of complexity not only to the preparation process, but also to the removal process, providing another possible route of exposure.

Though PPE is essential, it does have limitations that not only stem from being employed appropriately, but also from being removed. Studies with other important pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and acinetobacter show that healthcare workers contaminate their hands when removing simple latex gloves up to 11% of the time. Such percentages likely creep higher as more intricate types of PPE are donned. Self-contamination reportedly lies behind the infection of the Spanish assistant nurse, Teresa Romero, the only other case of Ebola acquired outside Africa, who contracted Ebola after touching her face with a contaminated gloved hand. Meticulous removal, or doffing, of PPE is as important as its meticulous donning. This fact is reflected in MSF’s almost ironclad methods, which include a dedicated person tasked solely with observing removal of PPE in order to prevent the occurrence of any inadvertent contamination.

What does all this mean? What is the road ahead?

Ebola hasn’t changed. It is following the familiar pattern that we’ve seen in all of its 25 outbreaks in 38 years. It is coursing through the blood and body fluids of its victims, awaiting opportunities to expand its reach into even more victims. We can’t do it any favors. Ensuring that meticulous infection control is taught, practiced and implemented is mandatory in our response to this outbreak. For the virus, unlike many other pathogens, is unforgiving of lapses.

Does this mean that some hospitals may find themselves unable to meet such rigorous standards? Unfortunately, I think the answer may be yes—despite what many others and I hoped and believed. This is why finding the root cause of Ms. Pham’s exposure coupled with education is a must. Every emergency department must be prepared to handle the initial management of an Ebola patient, beginning with their identification through travel history and their isolation. Beyond this initial stage, some hospitals may feel that the resources required for an Ebola patient outstrip their abilities, and they may elect to transfer to a more advanced treatment at a biocontainment facility such as those that exist at Emory, Nebraska and the NIH.

But it does mean we should seriously consider designating certain medical centers as our primary response centers for any further cases that are treated in the US. Such is the model employed for many diseases including trauma, burns and strokes. In fact, such a regionalization model organically arose during the H1N1 influenza pandemic, when smaller hospitals worked in a hub-and-spoke model to transfer their sickest patients to major medical centers—a phenomenon I studied. Such tiering of levels of care is being implemented now in the UK, which has treated one airlifted Ebola case successfully.

The lesson I draw from the events in Dallas is that in the fluid situation that characterizes this outbreak, it is necessary to continually integrate new information from the frontlines into response plans, public messaging and clinical care. If we do that, and have a little luck, we will eventually pull ahead of this virus on the long road ahead. We need to manage this outbreak with active minds, because—to borrow the eloquent words of Louis Pasteur, one of the grandest members of the pantheon of infectious disease—“chance favors the prepared mind.”

Amesh Adalja, a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, is a quadruple-board certified physician. His personal infectious disease blog site is www.trackingzebra.com.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: October 13

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

1. Women can’t thrive in a society where anything other than “no” means “maybe.” Consent laws are an important step, but we need a change in culture.

By Amanda Taub in Vox

2. Jokes aside, the palace intrigue behind Kim Jong Un’s mysterious absence could contain valuable intelligence.

By Gordon G. Chang in the Daily Beast

3. As we fight the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, global donor organizations should build a recovery plan for the aftermath.

By the editorial board of the Christian Science Monitor

4. That self-parking feature on your new car might help military vehicles avoid enemy fire.

By Jack Stewart at the BBC

5. The next wave of satellite imaging will redefine public space.

By the editors of New Scientist

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME ebola

Halting Flights to Ebola Regions Could Threaten Relief Efforts, Experts Warn

Cuban doctors and health workers unload boxes of medicines and medical material from a plane upon their arrival at Freetown's airport to help the fight against Ebola in Sierra Leone, on Oct. 2, 2014.
Cuban doctors and health workers unload boxes of medicines and medical material from a plane upon their arrival at Freetown's airport to help the fight against Ebola in Sierra Leone, on Oct. 2, 2014. Florian Plaucheur—AFP/Getty Images

Officials and aid agencies say the fight against Ebola is being hampered by the shortage of transportation to the epicenter of the disease in West Africa

You can book to travel on British Airways (BA) from London Heathrow to Roberts International airport in Monrovia, but the direct flight will take nine hours—and at least 25 weeks—to arrive in the Liberian capital.

In August BA suspended flights to Liberia and Sierra Leone, citing public health concerns amid the spread of ebola in the region. Now, the U.K. carrier has announced its decision to maintain that suspension through the end of March 2015. BA isn’t alone; there are now so few airlines flying into the area that key workers are being forced onto wait lists and lengthy journeys with multiple stopovers. Right now, European travelers hoping to get to Monrovia or Sierra Leone’s capital Freetown must squeeze on to services operated by Brussels Airlines and Royal Air Maroc, or thumb a ride on a military jet.

Nobody would dispute the wisdom of taking the threat of Ebola very, very seriously, but aid agencies warn that a shortage of transportation to and from west Africa, far from containing Ebola, instead risks undermining efforts to quell the epidemic.

At an Oct. 8 Washington press conference with U.K. Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called for the international community to “step up” efforts against Ebola and stressed the importance of keeping air routes open. It is a point Justin Forsyth, CEO of the U.K.-based charity Save the Children, also emphasizes.

“The main way to defeat the spread of Ebola not just in the region but globally is to get it under control in Sierra Leone and Liberia and Guinea and the best way of getting it under control is to make sure that we can get health workers into the region because they’re not going to have enough capability in these countries themselves,” says Forsyth, whose charity is working with the British military to establish a treatment center in Sierra Leone, as well as setting up care centers in Liberia and training thousands of health workers. “They’re going to need a lot of people coming in, and not all of it by military [flights].”

There have been fresh calls to isolate the disease by further isolating west Africa, after Liberian Thomas Eric Duncan died on Oct. 8 in Dallas, and Spain awaits news of Teresa Romero Ramos, the first person to contract Ebola outside west Africa in this outbreak. Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal had already advocated banning all flights from the region. “We need to protect our people,” he said last week.

On the surface it makes sense. Ebola may not be airborne, but authorities’ assurances that sitting on a plane with an infected person shouldn’t pose a big risk ring increasingly hollow, as Spanish health authorities try to figure out how Ramos caught the disease. She wore protective clothing and followed hospital protocols, though she has said she may have touched her face with a contaminated glove.

Yet in the view of many experts, following the impulse to isolationism is already making countries beyond Africa more vulnerable, not less. Christopher Stokes, director of Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) in Brussels, told the Guardian “Airlines have shut down many flights and the unintended consequence has been to slow and hamper the relief effort, paradoxically increasing the risk of this epidemic spreading across countries in west Africa first, then potentially elsewhere. We have to stop Ebola at source and this means we have to be able to go there.”

Save the Children’s Forsyth agrees. He recognizes the concerns of airline staff, though, and says “It’s a big decision by anybody to go to work in one of these countries at the moment. We’ve got lots of people stepping forward to do it but it’s not an easy decision.”

The only option, Forsyth believes, is for governments to take the lead. “We need the airline industry to come together. This is where governments have a big role to play, to bring airlines together,” he says. “The other way to do it is to set up an air bridge paid for by governments or the military.”

TIME ebola

Ebola Vaccines Are Being Expedited

Professor Adrian Hill, Director of the Jenner Institute, and Chief Investigator of the trials, holds a phial containing the Ebola vaccine at the Oxford Vaccine Group Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM) in Oxford, southern England on Sept. 17, 2014.
Professor Adrian Hill, director of the Jenner Institute and chief investigator of the trials, holds a vial containing the Ebola vaccine at the Oxford Vaccine Group Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine in Oxford, southern England, on Sept. 17, 2014 Steve Parsons—Reuters

"Nothing can be allowed to delay this work"

International experts want a fully tested and licensed Ebola vaccine scaled up for mass use in the near future, according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO) meeting.

WHO organized a panel of more than 70 experts, from scientists to medical ethicists, to reach consensus over the status of Ebola vaccines currently being tested. WHO released news from the meeting on Wednesday, the day after the U.S. confirmed its first patient with Ebola. According to the WHO statement, the mission is to “accomplish, within a matter of months, work that normally takes from two to four years, without compromising international standards for safety and efficacy.”

Two vaccines have great potential and are ready for safety testing. The first vaccine is developed by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and GlaxoSmithKline. That vaccine is currently undergoing a human-safety trial at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Md., as well as at the University of Oxford. The second vaccine is under development by the Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnepeg. That vaccine will start a human-safety trial in early October. Canada has already donated 800 vials of their vaccine to WHO, the organization says. Once more data is available on what dosing should be used, WHO says these vials could translate to around 1,500 to 2,000 doses of the vaccine.

The goal of the safety trials is to confirm that the vaccines are safe enough to move on to a larger human trial. Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of NIAID and the lead on the NIH vaccine, tells TIME the safety trial is so far “uneventful,” which is a good thing. “There really [are] no red flags so it seems to be going along quite well,” he says. The vaccine had already been tested in monkeys and showed very promising results.

WHO and other organizations have been expediting the testing and approval processes for these drugs since early summer, but the NIH’s vaccine has been under development since 2003. At the time, it did not have the pharmaceutical funding to move forward. “[In 2003] there was very little interest for the obvious reasons that there was no disease around,” says Fauci. “Recently, we now have a much more vigorous interest from pharmaceutical companies.”

WHO hopes that in October and November, the vaccines will make it through their safety trials and into next-stage human testing. Between January and February 2015, the goal is to have next-phase human trials approved and initiated in countries affected with Ebola. People at a higher risk for the disease, like health care workers, are a priority.

The meeting did not highlight ZMapp, the drug given to two American patients who were evacuated from Liberia to Emory University in Atlanta. Mapp Biopharmaceutical, the company that produces ZMapp, is a small team that says its resources are now exhausted. Their drug is grown in tobacco plants and requires waiting for a crop in order to produce more of it.

One of the ways trials could be quickened is if the researchers take a “wedge” approach, which means that a wedge or slice of the study population is selected for a first step in the trial, and what is learned in that step is then used on the next slice of the participants. While trials are ongoing, there are still significant technical obstacles that need to be addressed once a vaccine is ready for mass use: how vaccines will be distributed, for instance, and how low-resource health systems can ensure that vaccines are stored below –100 degrees.

In the WHO meeting, the phrase “Nothing can be allowed to delay this work” was repeated multiple times, and since Ebola has now infected more than 7,000 people and even made it to the U.S., the race to develop an effective vaccine is becoming all the more frantic.

TIME Infectious Disease

How to Get to Monrovia and Back

A Brussels Airlines plane bound for Monrovia at Brussels Airport in Brussels on Aug. 28, 2014.
A Brussels Airlines plane bound for Monrovia at Brussels Airport in Brussels on Aug. 28, 2014. Dominique Faget—AFP/Getty Images

People, and viruses like Ebola, can go anywhere these days

None of the passengers who flew with Ebola Patient Zero from Monrovia, Liberia to Dallas, Texas will have to worry about catching the deadly virus. The patient wasn’t contagious in-flight. Airlines may be called carriers, but airplanes themselves are not particularly good at spreading viral diseases such as Ebola.

What they are good at is transporting people infected with viral diseases from a seemingly far off and remote city such as Monrovia to a big American town such as Dallas. But the global economy has brought cities a lot closer together, and changed disease vectors accordingly.

Need to get to Monrovia? Easy. We can book a trip for you immediately if your passport is handy and you have the visa. There’s a flight leaving JFK in New York City at 5:55 p.m. on Thursday that gets you into Monrovia 21 hours and 25 minutes later. (Relax, Delta passengers; the airline serves Monrovia through Accra from New York, but suspended that connecting service on August 30.) The current itinerary is JFK to BRU to DKR to ROB, airline code for New York to Brussels, where you’ll change planes, then a stop at Dakar, Senegal, before heading to Monrovia’s Roberts International Airport. All that travel takes place aboard Brussels Airlines on wide body Airbus 330s. Indeed, the worst part of the trip may be flying to New York on a commuter jet from Dallas.

You have other options, too: the airline-listing site Kayak offers 1,673 combinations that will get you to Monrovia from New York. Or you can make 574 connections through Chicago. And Open Skies agreements that freed global airlines to fly point-to-point across continents have, as the State Department puts it, “vastly expanded international passenger and cargo flights to and from the United States.”

You can hop an A380 on Emirates Airlines from Dallas to Dubai, change there for a Qatar Air flight to Casablanca and then find a Royal Maroc 737-800 to Monrovia via Freetown. Or fly non-stop to London and then connect via Casablanca or Brussels to Monrovia.

The point is, you can get anywhere from here. And so can the germs.

TIME ebola

Ebola Death Toll Tops 3,000

More than 6,500 cases have been confirmed

At least 3,080 people have died of Ebola in West Africa, the World Health Organization said Friday, bringing the death toll from the worst Ebola ever above 3,000 for the first time. More than 6,500 total cases have been confirmed.

The newly-released figure, which includes deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, comes after a week of worsening news about the deadly disease. Estimates released Tuesday suggest that as many as 1.4 million people may be infected by the end of January under worst-case-scenario circumstances.

Under the best of circumstances, the disease will still have wrecked havoc on a region that has been wholly unprepared for the public health disaster. Currently, countries from around the world are contributing millions of dollars to build facilities to treat patients. WHO officials noted in a statement Friday that current heath facilities are overwhelmed and struggling to handle routine ailments.

“The current situation is so dire that, in several areas that include capital cities, many of these common diseases and health conditions are barely being managed at all,” the WHO said.

TIME ebola

Ebola ‘Pretty Much Contained’ in Senegal and Nigeria

Christopher Dye, Director of Strategy of the World Health Organization speaks to the media about Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa, during a press conference, at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Geneva on Sept. 22, 2-14.
Christopher Dye, Director of Strategy of the World Health Organization speaks to the media about Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa, during a press conference, at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Geneva on Sept. 22, 2-14. Salvatore Di Nolfi—EPA

Good news for containment of an outbreak that has killed more than 2,800 people

The outbreaks of Ebola in Senegal and Nigeria have been “pretty much contained,” the World Health Organization said Monday.

There have been no new confirmed cases of Ebola in Senegal since the first case was reported Aug. 29, and the last case of Ebola reported in Nigeria was Sept. 8, the WHO’s regional office for Africa said in a statement. The news comes on the same day the WHO released details from the second meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee on Ebola. One of the top conclusions from the group was that travel and trade should continue in West Africa:

“Flight cancellations and other travel restrictions continue to isolate affected countries resulting in detrimental economic consequences, and hinder relief and response efforts risking further international spread,” the committee said.

The Committee reiterated WHO stances on making sure health care workers are protected from possible infections and ensuring people who are quarantined still have access to food and water.

There are currently 5,833 cases of Ebola in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (though the DRC outbreak is thought to be unrelated to the others). Among those cases, 2,833 people have died.

 

TIME ebola

U.N. Chief: ‘Ebola Has Gone Beyond Health Issues’

The virus threatens political stability in West Africa, Ban Ki-moon warns

The Secretary-General of the U.N., Ban Ki-moon, said Tuesday that the Ebola epidemic in West Africa has “gone beyond health issues” and could even affect the political stability of the region.

“It has gone to the areas of affecting social and economic situations, it may even affect political stability if this is not properly contained and properly treated,” he said during a press briefing.

The Ebola virus has killed more than 2,400 people and there have been nearly 5,000 reported cases of the disease.

Ban said the U.N. is “taking the lead” in global efforts to fight Ebola, the Associated Press reports.

He will attend an emergency meeting Thursday between the U.S. and the World Health Organization to discuss a global “action plan” to contain the outbreak.

On Wednesday, President Barack Obama confirmed increased U.S. efforts to contain the spread of Ebola.

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