TIME Parenting

Study: What Kind of Car NOT To Buy a Teen Driver

Marilyn Angel Wynn—Getty Images/Nativestock

Old cars may be cheaper, but they have fewer safety features, says insurance study

Driving around in an old clunker is one of the teenage rites of passage. But in news that will no doubt gladden the hearts of car salesmen everywhere—and terrify parents—a new study suggests that parents might want to think of getting their young drivers a newer automobile for safety reasons.

The study delved deep into parents’ nightmares and analyzed all the teen driving deaths in data from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008 to 2012. In that time 2420 kids between the age of 15 and 17 died at the wheel of a car. The researchers, from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in Arlington, Virginia, ascertained the make, model and safety features of each car.

What they found was that almost half of the teen drivers killed on U.S. roads in that period were driving vehicles that were 11 or more years old, and thus often lacked certain safety features, like Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and airbags.

ESC is a relatively new technology that can detect when a vehicle is skidding and applies the brakes to help “steer” the vehicle where the driver intends to go and is especially useful in cases where the driver loses control–something that is more common among drivers who may have recently passed their driving test, say the researchers. According to the study, it can cut the risk of death in single vehicle crashes by around half and by 20% in crashes involving several vehicles.

Teens were also more likely to die in smaller vehicles. When comparing the teens with fatally injured drivers between the ages of 35 and 50, the researchers found that teens were significantly more likely to have been at the wheel of a small or mini car (29% vs 20%) or a mid-size (23% vs 16%), and less likely to have been driving a large pickup (10% vs 16%).

“Larger, heavier vehicles generally provide much better crash protection than smaller, lighter ones,” says the study.

All of this makes sense, because who wants to give their teen driver an expensive new car? And who wants to let them drive the family SUV or other big car? But the potential downside may be worth the risk to property.

The good news is that since 1996, far fewer teens are killed by road traffic accidents—or as road safety officials like to call them “road traffic collisions,” as part of raising awareness that these things are not really accidental; they have a cause and it’s usually human error. But teenagers still have about three times as many police-reported and fatal crashes as adults, when you take into account the distance they drive.

So when looking into buying your kid’s first car, says the study, it might be worth investing in something less vintage and more protective. That doesn’t mean it has to be expensive.”Parents may benefit from consumer information about vehicle choices that are both safe and economical,” says the study. So do your research. And shop around.

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MONEY Holidays

If You Insist on Regifting, Here’s How to Do It

gift with card that has been amended from "To: Me" to read "To: You"
J.M. Guyon

If the present you're planning to pass along doesn't meet these 5 cardinal rules, put down that wrapping paper right now.

We’ve all been there: stuck with a present we don’t want and feeling the urge to repack that hideous whatever-it-is and pass it off to the next unsuspecting person on our holiday gift list.

Should we give in to temptation?

“Nine times out of ten, regifting will come back to bite you in the butt. It doesn’t have a lot of good spirit to it,” says Lizzie Post, etiquette expert and co-author of the most recent edition of Emily Post’s Etiquette.

She recommends that instead of repacking the item, you cut your losses and simply donate it, or at least be honest with your loved one: “Hey, I got two copies of this book for Christmas, would you like one of them?”

But if you feel that the unwanted present is actually a really good gift—just, you know, not for you—there are certain circumstances where recycling a gift is perfectly fine, says Diane Gottsman, owner of the Protocol School of Texas. “We’ve all gotten gifts that just didn’t work, and we all want to be budget-conscious and not wasteful.”

So if you’re going to regift this year, follow these five rules and nobody gets hurt.

1. Keep It Out of Your Social Circle

“You need to be 99% sure that the person you are giving the gift to and the person who gave it to you won’t ever find out about your regift,” Post says. To avoid getting caught out, don’t pass it along to anyone in your family if it came from another family member. Same goes for swapping within your circle of friends. Instead, take that ceramic pie bird from your mother-in-law and give it to your baker friend who lives in another state.

2. Have a Flawless Presentation

Make sure the item is in the original box and that both are in perfect, store-shelf condition. Anything that you’ve opened, tinkered with, or tested out shouldn’t be going to someone else, says Gottsman. And don’t even think about doing a bait and switch and putting it in a new box or different bag to make it look newer or more expensive than it actually is, she adds.

3. Skip Any Items That Aren’t New

Anything that’s been sitting in your closet for a while will not be to current taste and may look dated. You’ll also want to be sure no original gift tags are still stuck to the package and, if regifting a giftcard, that the amount listed matches what’s actually on the card.

4. Ditto the Unique and Homemade

“Do not regift any family heirlooms, anything homemade, or anything really unique,” says Gottsman. “No matter how much you hate it, you should respect the effort, thought, and meaning behind that gift.”

More generic and less expensive items, particularly perishables like chocolate or wine, lend themselves more easily to being passed along because we think of these hostess-type gifts as less heartfelt or meaningful than other presents anyway.

5. No Regifting the Ugly

Don’t think of your regift as a way of unloading unwanted items. “If you find the item useless, ugly, or in bad taste, why give it to someone else?” asks Gottsman.

Your recipient still needs to feel that thought and effort went into their gift—even if it wasn’t yours. “You need to really think about the person who will be receiving your regift and be sure that it is an item the person would actually want.”

If the present you’re thinking of regifting doesn’t meet all the requirements on this list, put down that giftwrap right now. Return it, donate it, or find a special place for it in your closet so you can easily pull it out next year when your mother-in-law visits.

MONEY psychology of money

The Best Last-Minute Holiday Gifts Don’t Need Wrapping!

Concert goers
Momcilo Grujic—Getty Images

A growing body of research shows that the best way to make your loved ones happy is giving them real-life experiences, not things.

Scrambling frantically to buy meaningful gifts for Christmas or Hanukah? Well, you can relax (a little). Pleasing those near and dear to you this holiday season need not involve any last-minute shopping mall runs or late-night web crawls.

All you need is a reasonable sense of what your intended gift recipients like (or might like) to do with their time. That’s because, according to a growing body of social science research, the best way to increase the enjoyment, satisfaction and general happiness of your loved ones (not to mention office mates) is to give them real-life experiences.

What does that mean, exactly? Well, depending on the gift-receiver in question, it could mean almost any kind of in-person activity, adventure, or escapade, from concert tickets to restaurant meals, from guitar or cooking lessons to museum or amusement park passes, from rafting trips to factory tours to island getaways. “The happiness we get from our experiences give us more enduring pleasure,” says Cornell psychology professor Tom Gilovich, who since 2003 has been exploring the distinction between material and experiential purchases.

Now, in a new paper, “A Wonderful Life: Experiential Consumption and the Pursuit of Happiness,” Gilovich and colleagues Amit Kumar and Lily Jampol review the considerable research into this intriguing subject over the past decade. And because few folks have the leisure to pore over academic studies any time of year—let alone while racing to cross names off holiday gift lists—I’ll summarize Gilovich & Co.’s findings. (Think of it as Money.com’s gift to you!)

Here, then, are just a handful of the many reasons why experiences provide greater satisfaction and happiness than material goods:

1) Experiences are more social. In other words, we are more likely to connect with people when we’re actually doing something, rather than simply owning something. And humans, being highly social creatures, are generally happier when connecting with other humans. To be sure, some material gifts—video game consoles, for example, or sports equipment—can effectively be owned privately and contribute to public engagement at the same time, but for the most part having something is a solitary experience. Doing something is generally not.

2) Experiences remain special for longer. Humans are prone to habituation, which is one reason why people who suffer great tragedies wind up happier than they predict they will be soon after the loss occurs. We get used to things, which is good when it comes to negative events. But the flip side of this tendency is that it applies to positive events as well. That’s especially true with material goods. As we get used to the things we own they provide us with less joy and satisfaction. As Gilovich explains: “When faced with a decision of a new sofa or taking a trip somewhere, people often say to themselves, ‘I better buy the sofa because at least I’ll always have it. But the trip will come and go before I know it.’ The material possession, in other words, seems like a better investment. But when it comes to increasing our happiness and sense of well-being, research suggests just the opposite. We quickly adapt to the new sofa, but the pleasure we get from our experiences live on in the stories we tell and the memories we cherish.”

3) Experiences are unique. The down side of being social is that we routinely compare ourselves to others — the proverbial keeping up with the Joneses. One reason experiences remain special in our memories long after they have occurred—and therefore continue to make us happy—is because they are generally not diminished by the experiences of others. You might own a fancier smartphone than I do, which detracts from the enjoyment I derive from mine; but the trip I took to New Hampshire was unique because that adventure involved me! You may have stayed in a four-star hotel, but you didn’t enjoy the quaintness of my three-star inn.

4) Experiences help us define who we are. “We are what we do, not what we have,” write Gilovich, Kumar and Jampol. And what they mean is this: While it’s true that certain material goods—a parent’s ring, a rare watch—contribute to our sense of identity, most people craft their psychological identity from their exploits and actions, not their possessions. In one study, for example, Gilovich found that people feel more similar to someone who makes the same experiential purchase than they do to someone who makes the same material purchase. In another study, participants listed the five most significant material purchases of their lives and the five most important experiential ones. They were then asked to summarize their “life story,” using one or more of their purchases in the narrative. Result: People were twice as likely to mention experiences than possessions.

This last point is especially interesting to consider when buying gifts for children. You are more likely to affect the future happiness of a child—who she becomes and how she sees herself—with positive experiences than with expensive toys.

Even better, you’ll save time and money this year by not having to wrap so many presents. A gift certificate fits quite nicely in an envelope.


MONEY Shopping

New Moves by 3 Tech Giants Aim to Get a Bigger Piece of Your Wallet

Apple Pay
Bryan Thomas—Getty Images

Google, Amazon, and Apple are all pushing new tools—and often, encroaching on the turf of competitors—with the hopes of snagging a larger cut of everyday consumer purchases.

Several of the world’s tech giants are squaring off, thanks to new strategies and tools that have one common goal: to bring their respective companies a bigger slice of the enormous consumer spending pie.

Google vs. Amazon

This week the Wall Street Journal reported that Google is working on a “Buy” button that would allow online shoppers to make quick one-click purchases—a feature that’s most often associated with Amazon, the world’s largest e-retailer. Google wouldn’t run factories full of merchandise, nor would it sell and ship goods like Amazon does. Instead, in theory (none of this is settled, or even confirmed by Google), consumers would be able to buy goods in a single click directly from partner retailers that show up in Google Shopping search results. Google is reportedly also considering an expedited shipping subscription service along the lines of Amazon Prime or ShopRunner, which would store the customer’s billing info and shipping address.

Google dominates search in general. Yet when people are searching specifically for things to buy, far more start their online shopping expeditions at Amazon. Naturally, Google would love to have more consumers browsing for goods with its search tools. What’s more, it would love to keep them within the Google sphere when actually making purchases. Right now, consumers who start shopping searches at Google are typically sent to other sites—including Amazon—when the time comes to buy. Google would much rather keep a tight hold of the eyeballs and wallets of shoppers.

Amazon vs. Ebay

Amazon recently announced the introduction of a new “Make an Offer” feature that allows customers to bid and negotiate on the price of certain merchandise—options that are in the wheelhouse of eBay, which was born as an auction site and has evolved into more of a general marketplace for sellers big and small.

For now at least, Amazon is essentially just the host site for sellers who are willing to haggle with customers. Only items falling under a few sales categories, including Fine Art and Sport and Entertainment Collectibles, are available on the “Make an Offer” basis, and it’s always a third-party vendor (not Amazon) that does all the negotiating and selling. After a customer views the suggested price of an item and makes an offer, “The seller will receive the customer’s lower price offer through email, at which point the seller can accept, reject or counter the offer,” an Amazon.com press release explained. “The seller and customer can continue to negotiate through email until the negotiation is complete.”

Consumer Reports noted of Amazon’s new tool, “By adding a haggling element to its traditional fixed-price model, Amazon broadens its appeal to a wider audience of consumers motivated not simply by low prices, but by the thrill of the hunt and scoring a deal.” Note that there are no open auctions, and that all haggling takes place privately between the two parties involved—not unlike the negotiations that take place between buyer and seller in a car dealership, or perhaps via a connection made on Craigslist or Priceline. Customers can “Make an Offer” on roughly 150,000 items right now at Amazon, and the e-retail giant plans on expanding the bidding option to hundreds of thousands more items in 2015.

Apple Pay vs. All Other Forms of Payment

When Apple Pay debuted in October, the mobile payment tool—allowing customers to pay for goods with a tap of an iPhone—could be used at Macy’s, McDonald’s, Whole Foods, and several other major chains, but overall less than 3% of U.S. merchants that take credit cards were ready to accept Apple Pay. As the New York Times reported this week, however, dozens more banks, retailers, and at least one NBA Arena (Amway Center in Orlando) have since started accepting Apple Pay, and experts increasingly are of the mind that Apple has the best chances of making smartphone payments commonplace:

“Retailers and payment companies see Apple Pay as the implementation that has the best chance at mass consumer adoption, which has eluded prior attempts,” said Patrick Moorhead, president of Moor Insights & Strategy, a research firm. “They believe it will solve many of the problems they had before with electronic payments.”

Still, there’s a very long way to go before a critical mass of consumers are paying for purchases regularly with iPhones, or any smartphones. Many big-name retailers, including Best Buy, Walmart, and Gap, aren’t accepting Apple Pay because they’re trying to create their own smartphone payment system—which may or may not be easier and more convenient to use than Apple Pay. More importantly, consumers generally still see old-fashioned debit and credit cards as a more convenient and certainly a more comfortable way to pay for stuff. For smartphone payments to be a true success, Apple Pay or other services will have to convince the masses otherwise.


MONEY online shopping

Amazon UK Pricing Glitch Rewards Customers, Burns Businesses

Smartphones, TVs, mattresses all got snapped up for pennies (pence, to be precise), thanks to an automated service gone haywire.

MONEY Shopping

3 Scary Smart Ways Stores Use Your Personal Information

best travel rewards credit card
Robert Hadfield

Shops are saving all your details so they can sell you even more.

Retailers want to get to know you. This should come as no surprise — we’ve all seen how our Internet search history and purchases affect the online ads we see — but it’s just as important for bricks-and-mortar stores to understand their customers.

It’s all about marketing. Whether you like it or not, retailers want you to see sales, deals and new products you’ll be interested in, and the only way they’ll know your preferences is by tracking them.

“In newspapers, we would throw out these blanket ads, and there was so much waste,” said Ritchie Sayner, referencing pre-Internet marking strategies. He has worked for RMSA Retail Solutions, a retail consulting firm, for 35 years and has seen firsthand how direct marketing campaigns have evolved.

Most people know that retailers want their contact information — handing over your name, email address, ZIP code and phone number has become a somewhat standard element of the modern in-store transaction. It’s better than nothing, but a name and email address isn’t much of a customer profile. That’s the bare minimum. If they’re doing it right, a retailer is not only going to know your name and where you live, they’re going to keep track of how much money you spend, your favorite brands, your shoe size and pretty much anything else they can think of. Here’s what they use it for.

1. Clearing Out Inventory

Say you own a shoe store. You’re going through your inventory, and you notice you have three times as many women’s shoes in size seven than in any other size. Where are all the size seven customers? How can you get them to come into your store and solve your superfluous seven problem?

Simple: Send them an email. From boutiques to big-box stores, retailers are doing their best to build robust customer profiles so they can reach a specific group of shoppers when necessary. Sure, you could send an email to all the women on your mailing list, promoting a big weekend shoe sale, but the size nine ladies won’t be too pleased when they show up and all the great shoes are only available in sevens.

“They’re going to keep track of you by ‘She’s a size four, she buys this particular line,’” Sayner said. “If you buy on sale or if you buy at full price — they have more information about you than you’d probably like them to.”

2. Making You Feel Loved

Happy birthday! Enjoy a free cup of coffee. It’s your anniversary? Here’s a coupon for two meals at the price of one! Remember that time you bought something from us last year? It’s that time of year again! Here’s 30% off for nothing in particular — we miss you!

You may not love the idea of a company keeping a ton of information on you, but man, you love getting free stuff on your birthday. It’s like that free birthday cookie makes up for the hundreds of emails that business sends you every other day of the year. Retailers want details on who you are so they can appropriately reward you with freebies and discounts, in exchange for your loyalty.

3. Classifying You

It can be very difficult for a salesperson to get you to share your information — just think of how many times you’ve declined to give the cashier your email address when checking out.

“It’s really hard to do,” said Jason Becker, chief operating officer at RICS Software, a point-of-sale platform. “If you’re going to ask for a customer’s information, you have to give a good reason for why.”

That requires establishing a relationship. The salesperson has to treat you well and earn your trust. At the end, he or she can use your interaction to fill out a customer profile.

It’s funny, because for all the people skills it may require to develop the profile, the way it’s used is quite robotic. You’re no longer Jane who likes running, you’re a 35-year-old female marathoner who spends $300 on athletic gear every three months and replaces her running shoes every February.

“Most softwares also enable the retailer to classify that customer into a cohort, classify that type of runner into what type of runner or athlete that person is,” Becker said, speaking in general about POS systems. “It enables them (retailers) to market more effectively.”

A lot of that information is populated through loyalty programs or entered manually by the sales person, especially if you’re in a smaller store. Larger retailers may generate a customer profile with the information it captures when you swipe a credit card. It happens in many ways, through software of various sophistication levels, but you can confidently assume the stores you frequent have a sort of dossier on you.

For many consumers, that dossier is terrifying because of the slew of retail data breaches that happened in 2014. After having their credit cards compromised, their email addresses stolen and even their passwords cracked, it can be hard to trust a retailer, but it all comes down to what you’re comfortable giving up for a deal.

More from Credit.com

This article originally appeared on Credit.com.

MONEY Shopping

5 Research-Proven Reasons to Ditch Luxury Brands

Luxury brands are using their higher prices tag to trick your wallet and your mind.

Is it better to buy a Rolex than a Timex? What about buying a $50 bottle of wine instead of “two-buck Chuck”? They may be worse for your wallet, but buying these luxury items may actually mean you get more enjoyment from the product. (See also: 10 Little Words That Will Get You the Best Price Every Time)

Consider these five reasons the value of luxury is all in your head.

1. Your Brain Is Successfully Tricking You

For over 60 years marketers have recognized that the value of luxury is all in our heads. A 1949 article noted a study where sales of women’s pantyhose increased drastically when the retailer raised the price from $1.00 to $1.14, all because the higher price “suggested higher value.”

So why is this the case? It turns out that increasing the price of the product actually changes the brain. According to this study, when a product’s price goes up, it increases “blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks.” So by purchasing a more expensive product, your brain physically changes and tells you that the product is better.

2. More Expensive Wine Tastes Better

Researchers did a study about wine and found that more expensive wine tastes better. Subjects in the study tasted five different wines and were told they were being asked to rate the wine. The price of the wine was used to label the wine (instead of using A, B, C, D, E, for example). However, unbeknownst to the subjects, there were only three different wines, and two of them were tasted twice with one identified at a high price and one at a low price. For example, wine #2 was given to the same person, but it was labeled as both $90, its retail price, and as $10. What happened? The tasters rated the wine with the higher price as significantly better than the same wine priced cheaper.

3. A More Expensive Buffet Tastes Better Than a Cheap Buffet

In a recent study researchers examined what happened when about 140 diners ate at an Italian all-you-can-eat restaurant but paid different prices. The diners were charged either $4 or $8 for the lunch buffet of pizza, salad, breadsticks. They were then asked to rate how much they liked their food after they were done. After finishing, the diners rated their experience and people who paid the $8 price rated the buffet as being 11% better than those who paid just $4. And the amount people paid for the buffet didn’t affect how much they ate.

4. We Have a “You Get What You Pay for” Mentality

How many times have you heard the phrase, “you get what you pay for?” You’ve probably even said this to yourself on occasions when you’ve purchased a cheaper option and had it break on you. Perhaps you bought a $1 flashlight instead of the $15 Maglite at the $1 flashlight broke on its first use? Or you went with the $2,000 company to paint your house instead of the $7,000 company and they missed part of the trim or didn’t reinstall the gutters properly.

In these cases you probably told yourself “you got what you paid for.” But you are far less likely to notice when the cheaper option works just as well. What’s the problem with this? By ignoring all of the times when things go right (and the cheaper option works just as expected) and only noticing when things go wrong (that is, when the cheaper option breaks), you are cementing the idea into your brain that luxury priced items are better.

5. Even McDonalds Tastes Better With Different Presentation

Two Dutch pranksters went to a food show, cut up McDonald’s food to make it look fancy, called it “organic,” and what was the result? Instead of realizing the food was McDonald’s (and not something these foodies attending the show normally ate), they rated the the food “fresh,” “rich,” and “delicious.” Their perception that the food was extra high quality was based on looks rather the actual quality of the product.

So what is the takeaway from all of this research? If luxury is all (or mostly) in your head, is that a bad thing or a good thing? If you’re actually getting more enjoyment from something that you pay more for, this seems fair. But, is it wrong to charge more for the same product just so consumers value it more?

Read more articles from Wise Bread:
My One Favorite Frugal Living Tip
10 Little Words That Will Get You the Best Price, Every Time
30 Free Ways to Cheer Yourself Up

MONEY online shopping

Believe it or Not, Amazon Isn’t the King of Cheap Holiday Prices

mouse on top of present
Junos—Getty Images

Amazon is losing its edge as the lowest-cost retailer.

This is shaping up to be the year all the rules of shopping were broken. First came the bombshell revelation from NerdWallet showing that Black Friday goods may not be quite the deals retailers claim, as many were selling year-old items at the same prices as last year’s Black Friday. And if the newest report from ShopSavvy is correct, the decade-long maxim that Amazon.com AMAZON.COM INC. AMZN -0.66% has the lowest prices could be wrong as well.

For those unaware of the company, ShopSavvy’s purpose is to help would-be shoppers find the best deal on products by providing retailer information through its website and its barcode-scanning mobile app on Android and iOS. And if its recent ShopSavvy Showdown (say that three times fast) is correct, both Amazon and Best Buy BEST BUY BBY -2.48% offer higher prices on overlapping items than the undisputed King of Retail: Wal-Mart WAL-MART STORES INC. WMT -0.34% .

The survey says …

This survey is not the first showing that Amazon is losing its edge as the lowest-cost retailer. Earlier this year, a report from Wells Fargo and online price-tracking company 360pi found Amazon had higher prices overall when compared to Wal-Mart and Target in four critical areas: shoes, electronics, housewares, and health products. However, the report found that Amazon typically offered the lowest prices when it came to “like-to-like” items. Essentially, when a specific item was on both sites Amazon still had the lowest price.

However, this newest data finds the exact opposite. The survey, based only on the same products for sale at Walmart, Amazon, and Best Buy, finds that “Wal-Mart has the cheaper option on over 50% more products than Amazon and Best Buy across the categories analyzed.” In addition, the survey notes Wal-Mart’s online price match policy, in which the company specifically agrees to match prices from Amazon and Best Buy.

The survey results were rather shocking when compared with Amazon. In the heavily trafficked categories of electronics and TVs (the survey distinguishes between the two), Wal-Mart was cheaper on 66% and 85% of total products, respectively. The average percentage difference of price was 28% and 23%, again, respectively. Essentially, this survey finds that shopping at Wal-Mart, and not Amazon, for TVs and electronics will save you nearly a quarter of your money.

So I should go to Wal-Mart right now, right?

If these results are correct, you should go directly to Wal-Mart and not worry about shopping around online, right? Well, not so fast. As the survey clearly shows, Wal-Mart didn’t always have the lowest price, although it was a good bet they did. In addition, the survey didn’t go into a lot of detail about the product selection. Without that critical piece of information, it’s hard to know whether these goods are representative of a true head-to-head comparison or whether these items are merely a good selection for Wal-Mart.

In addition, the data presentation concerns me. Although there were three retailers chosen for the survey, the data was only presented as Wal-Mart versus Amazon and Wal-Mart versus Best Buy. Without the third head-to-head comparison, Amazon versus Best Buy, the survey can come across as less of an unbiased comparison and more of a pro-Wal-Mart piece.

Finally, competition between megaretailers is rather intense. In many cases, retailers consider prices of 3%-5% lower as being worthy of running commercials specifically outlining these differences. The closest ShopSavvy comparison between Wal-Mart and the other retailers was in the TV category, with Wal-Mart being “only” 15% cheaper than Best Buy on average. When matched up against Amazon in the Kids category, ShopSavvy reports that Wal-Mart is a massive 45% cheaper on average.

Overall, this doesn’t mean that ShopSavvy’s data is wrong, but this should be considered only one data point in your holiday deal-hunting comparison. One shopping rule that will never be broken is to continue to shop around for the best deal; you’ll be thankful you do.

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