TIME Macedonia

Migrants Rush Macedonian Border as Chaos Separates Families

Migrants trying to get from Greece to Macedonia clashed with police

Migrants who were trying to cross from Greece into Macedonia clashed with police at the border on Wednesday, protesting the chaos that left families separated on either side of a divider.

Photographer Valdrin Xhemaj described a frenzied scene to TIME, saying police had permitted groups of 50 people at a time to cross the border into Macedonia, inadvertently splitting up some families. Amid the confusion, migrants rushed the border, trying to reconnect with relatives and friends who had already been allowed across. The blistering Mediterranean sun did little to aid the situation, Xhemaj said.

“It’s hard to attack anybody,” he said of police treatment of migrants. “They were trying to do their best.”

In one particularly heart-wrenching moment (which Xhemaj captured in slide 4 above), a young boy looked up at his father in the midst of panic. His father tried to convey a sense of confidence in the midst of the turmoil, Xhemaj said.

Wednesday’s confrontation followed earlier clashes at the Greece-Macedonia border and came as several prominent incidents involving migrants traveling to Europe has drawn attention to the brutal, and at times deadly, treatment they face.

The migrants’ trip through Greece, a member of the European Union, and into Macedonia is one of many legs en route to the promise of work in western Europe.

READ NEXT: Stranded Migrants Turn Budapest Into Choke Point Of Refugee Crisis

TIME photography

What I Did on My Summer Vacation, 1947

LIFE photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt produced an illustrated version of the classic school assignment

Few schoolchildren make it through a dozen years of schooling without being assigned some variation of the “What I Did on My Summer Vacation” essay. During the summer of 1947, the editors of LIFE Magazine decided to help two boys prepare to write their essays by dispatching Alfred Eisenstaedt to Louisiana, Mo., to illustrate their summer pastimes with his camera.

Pres and Mac, as the 12-year-old childhood friends were nicknamed, lived 75 miles up the Mississippi River from St. Louis, and they spent much of their time in swimming holes and haylofts. Aside from Pres’ paper route and the boys’ chores, each day was rife with possibility, with ample resources from which to make their own fun: the hay bales on Mac’s father’s farm, the grapevines strong enough to climb, the catfish ripe for catching.

With researchers today warning of the summer learning loss and some education experts advocating for year-round schooling, many parents who can afford to are enrolling their kids in brain-stimulating summer programs rather than allowing them to roam free like Pres and Mac did. What is lost in limiting unstructured play is up for debate—but, as some psycholigists argue, what’s at stake may be more than just material for that back-to-school essay.

Liz Ronk, who edited this gallery, is the Photo Editor for LIFE.com. Follow her on Twitter @lizabethronk.

TIME On Our Radar

Meet the Artists Who Play With the Rules of Documentary Photography

“The decisive moment is a great concept, but we don’t experience the world that way."

Perched on a vantage point that offers him a sweeping view of the playground, photographer James Mollison waits for the school bell. As soon as the kids come rushing out, he snaps photographs after photographs, capturing the ebb and flow of their games. Doing so, he thinks back to his own childhood and how recess helped shape his character. “No single frame could convey the complexity of the emotions and experiences one has in the school yard,” he reckons. “Because I wanted to create seductive and layered images, I was compelled to combine parts lifted from the pictures taken over the course of the break, choosing which incidents or expressions to include.”

He calls the resulting tableaux “still time-lapses”. “It might not be pure documentary photography, but it is truthful. All these interactions happened, except not all at once. It’s time pushed into one frame,” adds the British image-maker.

At a time when the photojournalism field is reeling from the controversies surrounding manipulation before, during and after shoots, photographers such as Mollison, who turn to composites to speak about the world around them, further challenge notions of veracity and subjectivity.

“The decisive moment is a great concept, but we don’t experience the world that way,” says photographer Sean J. Sprague. “Life is a montage of occurrences that comes together overtime. By spending several hours shooting a scene and merging elements from each into a single frame, I create, in some way, a truer depiction of that space because I’m not capturing an outlier moment.” After a first trip documenting the inner-workings of a factory farm in 2010 that left him dissatisfied with the outcome, the 33 year-old returned to spend several days taking thousands of close-up shots. Months of editing and careful consideration of where each person – and pig – should be positioned resulted in striking and extremely detailed prints that effectively conveyed the feel of such large operations.

“There are different ways to tell the truth and sometimes it has to do with the cumulative,” echoes Julie Blackmon, whose work focusses on her children. The American artist comes from a family of nine and she now raises three. She says she favors compositing because it gives her the ability and freedom to visually translate her reflections on what family life means in the new millennium. “I don’t want to be restricted to the rule that stipulate that the image should be found to tell the stories that matter to me,” she says. One can wait for the prototypical moment – when a mover pushes a red chair down a loading ramp in front of six inquisitive children while another one plays with bubble wrap – to happen or compose it.

“Once you are aware of the possibilities, it is hard to go back,” says photographer Scott McFarland. “I did not feel I was very good at straight photography. When I looked at my contact sheets I thought: ‘Jeez, I wish the person to the left looking in the distance was on the same frame as the one where the person to the right looks at him, or I wish the light had been that of morning.’”

Since, he’s been using composite techniques to depict various element of Canadian contemporary living, from time spent outdoors to the repatriation of soldiers who fell in Afghanistan. For the latter, a series he produced in 2010, he followed a more strict set of guidelines, which he relates to those that govern reportage work. He did not interfere with the scene as it unfolded, nor interact with those present. “I captured what I witnessed, as I witnessed it. Though the final frames could seldom be used in the court of law, they are representative of what happened on each of those days. The only difference with a photojournalistic approach is that I then went back to my studio and spend countless hours conflating the different frames into one,” he remarks.

Though they put much effort into making sure that their images look more natural than constructed, none of these photographers seek to mislead the public about their process. “No matter what we do, people can tell that they are composites,” claims Mollison. “There’s simply too many decisive moments within one frame for it to be real.”

Laurence Butet-Roch is a freelance writer, photo editor and photographer based in Toronto, Canada. She is a member of the Boreal Collective.

TIME Google

See How Google’s Logo Has Evolved Over the Years

The company made another big change Tuesday

TIME photography

See Photos of Telephone Operators Through the Decades

On this day in 1878, the first female telephone operator started work at a dispatch company in Boston

On Sept. 1, 1878, Emma Nutt showed up for work at the Edwin Holmes Telephone Dispatch Company in Boston. It was her first day of work after leaving her old job at a telegraph company, and, whether she knew it or not, it was a milestone for women in the workplace: Nutt was the first-ever female telephone operator.

Although the industry hadn’t been around for that long—the first commercial telephone exchange began in January of that year—it had not employed women to dispatch calls. Teenaged boys had filled that role, but managers were beginning to question their fitness for the job. Many of the boys operated below the desired level of decorum, making prank phone calls and failing to have patience with customers.

Nutt was brought in as an antidote to her predecessors’ behavior, and she was quickly praised for her soothing voice and polite manner with customers. Her sister Stella, who began work on the same day, followed suit, and by 1920, more than 177,000 women were employed as telephone operators in the U.S. Over time, women replaced teenaged boys as the majority of that workforce.

Here, in honor of Nutt and the women who followed her, are LIFE’s best photos of women working switchboards through the decades.

Liz Ronk, who edited this gallery, is the Photo Editor for LIFE.com. Follow her on Twitter @lizabethronk.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

5 Foods That Taste Better in September Than They Will All Year

Here's what should be on your grocery list this month

Never know what’s growing now? Let’s take it one month at a time, with TIME‘s Foods That Taste Better Now Than They Will All Year.

As summer draws to a close, you might think your best days of produce are behind you. But there are plenty of fruits and vegetables to fall for in September. We asked Joan Casanova, spokesperson for Bonnie Plants, what early-fall items are worth watching.

Swiss chard: This deep green veggie with colorful stems means it’s both beautiful and nutritious, says Casanova. Swiss chard is one vegetable that tolerates both cool temperatures and the heat, so you will see tasty varieties in September.

Rutabaga: A fall favorite, this root vegetable can be chunked or mashed, similar to potatoes. “It ripens best in cool autumn weather, taking on its characteristic mild, rich flavor after fall frosts descend on the garden,” says Casanova.

Lettuce: While lettuce is known for growing fast in full sun, Casanova says it is one of few vegetables that also does well in the shade. Home gardeners can grow lettuce in a small space, too.

Turnip leaves: These greens are extremely easy to grow in the fall, when nights become longer and cooler turnip greens get crisper and sweeter, says Casanova.

Leeks: Leeks are sweet, mild and gentle on the digestive system, Casanova says. They don’t produce bulbs like onions do, but they “stash their flavor in thick, juicy stems that look like huge scallions.”

TIME photography

See Photos of the Wreck of the Titanic When It Was First Discovered

The long-lost shipwreck was found 30 years ago

When the Titanic sank in 1912, the famous ship wasn’t exactly sailing in obscurity. Yet it took decades before the wreckage was discovered. It wasn’t until Sept. 1, 1985—30 years ago Tuesday—that scientists, after years and years of searching, found what they were looking for.

As shown by these photos, taken that year and shortly after, the ship was in surprisingly good condition considering the time that had passed. Robert Ballard, the leader of the discovery expedition, told TIME that month that the ocean had shielded the grand liner and kept it a “museum piece.”

But the find was exciting for more than the Titanic’s history. As TIME explained, the discovery proved that the rest of the ocean’s mysteries were now fair game:

In a sense, it was a dream fulfilled for all seafaring scientists. To locate one of the most technologically advanced vessels of its day, the researchers employed the most advanced technology of today. A team of 13 Woods Hole investigators sailing on the U.S. Navy research vessel Knorr joined forces with a contingent of French scientists aboard the Suroit, operated by the Paris-based Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER). The two ships bristled with several million dollars’ worth of sophisticated equipment. It included a high-resolution sonar device that can trace precisely the contours of the ocean floor, and a compact submersible vessel towed like a sled on a cable, which relayed photographs and videotape confirming the Titanic find. For some of the investigators, the biggest thrill was that their experimental equipment worked. ”This allows us to open up deep-sea exploration on a much, much larger scale than before,” says Woods Hole Director John Steele. ”We couldn’t ask for more.”

Read more from 1985, here in the TIME Vault: After 73 Years, a Titanic Find

 

TIME Photojournalism Links

The 10 Best Photo Essays of the Month

A compilation of the 10 most interesting photo essays published online in August, as curated by Mikko Takkunen

This month’s Photojournalism Links collection highlights 10 excellent photo essays from across the world, including Tomas Munita‘s photographs from Gaza and Israel, made on assignment for the New York Times. The work, coinciding with the first anniversary of last year’s 50 day war between Israel and Palestinian militant groups, consists of eight innovative stop-motion-sequences which take us to the streets, hospitals, and homes on both sides of the conflict, and provide an immersive glimpse of how the two groups of communities are coping, one year after.

Tomas Munita: Walking in War’s Path (The New York Times)

Brent Stirton: Tracking Ivory: Terror in Africa | Ivory’s Human Toll (National Geographic) Two strong sets of images for National Geographic magazine’s latest cover story.

Lynsey Addario: Inside the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Diamond Mines (TIME LightBox) Terrific set of images looking at Congo’s diamond mining communities.

Andres Kudacki: Spain’s Housing Crisis (TIME LightBox) Powerful three-year project on the country’s home evictions, now on show at Visa pour l’Image photojournalism festival.

Mary Ellen Mark: New Orleans (CNN Money) The legendary photographer’s final assignment, done ahead of Hurricane Katrina’s 10th anniversary.

Daniel Etter: Hands Across Water (Al Jazeera America) Moving series on a small Sea-Watch ship, with a rotating crew of just eight volunteers, trying to save refugees and migrants in the Mediterranean.

Sergey Ponomarev: On Island of Lesbos, a Microcosm of Greece’s Other Crisis: Migrants (The New York Times) Dramatic photographs of refugees and migrants arriving to the Greek island.

Allison Joyce: Child Marriage Bangladesh (International Business Times) Heartbreaking pictures of a 15-year-old Bangladeshi girl’s wedding | See also Joyce’s other Bangladeshi child marriage series at Mashable.

Andrea Bruce: Romania’s Disappearing Girls (Al Jazeera America) The Noor photographer’s work shows how poverty and desperation drive Romanian girls into the arms of sex traffickers.

Matt Black: Geography of Poverty: Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 (MSNBC) Second and third chapters of the Magnum photographer’s ambitious project mapping poverty around the U.S.

Mikko Takkunen is an Associate Photo Editor at TIME. Follow him on Twitter @photojournalism.

TIME Interview

These Photographers Launched Their Own Foundations to Create Change

"I have a moral obligation to do everything I can to help others"

When photographer Nick Brandt returned to Amboseli National Park in Kenya in 2010, he was devastated by what he saw. The elephants he had approached without difficulty two years earlier were unexpectedly skittish. Some of them, like 49 year-old Igor and the herd’s matriarch, Marianna, were nowhere to be found, having been killed for their tusks. Over the following weeks, the death list grew: Winston, Goliath, Sheik Zahad, Keyhole and Magna all fell at the hands of poachers.

Brandt tried to turn to the authorities, the Kenya Wildlife Service, but their lack of resources prevented them from intervening. Similar reasons made the efforts of the few NGOs in the region look futile. “I was angry. And, since it’s no use to be angry and passive, I had to act,” he says.

Putting his repute at the service of the cause he held so dear, he partnered up with experienced Kenyan conservationist Richard Bonham and together with the help of local communities mapped out the duties of a new foundation, called Big Life. To raise the capital needed, he reached out to the collectors who had purchased some of his prints. One couple pledge a million dollars over two years and many others came through. “Had I not been a photographer, or even, had I been an anonymous photographer, Big Life wouldn’t have gone off the ground,“ he acknowledges. Five years later, the initiative employs nearly 300 rangers that are equipped to look out for the wildlife dispersed over 2 million acres of land in East Africa. They have made 1862 arrests since 2011.

“Photography is a powerful tool because it is how we see the world and therefore how we interact with it,” says photographer Robin Hammond from New Zealand. “However, as a community, we are very timid when it comes to harnessing the strength of our images. There’s this consensus that we should act as journalists, not activists.”

Accordingly, while producing Condemned, an in-depth look at how the mentally ill people are treated in several African nations, Hammond believed that the mere act of making their condition visible would suffice to inspire his readers to enact change. After the fundamental shifts he had hoped for failed to materialize, he was left with three options: “I could infer that photography is powerless and thus abandon it, accept the fact that I was only a storyteller and yield the power photography holds to someone else or recognize that I have a moral obligation to do everything I can to help others. I concluded that if the transformations I desired didn’t come about, it was because I didn’t try hard enough,” he says.

Hence, upon the release of his following project Where Love is Illegal, which shares the stories of persecuted LGBTI individuals across the world, he made sure there was a way to capitalize on the otherwise fleeting emotional engagement. “Up until then, I had just been showing readers that some things were wrong and leaving them to deal with that knowledge on their own. More often then not, they lose interest,” he says. With the help of a Getty Grant for Good, he launched an awareness campaign coupled with an organization, Witness Change, where viewers can act in three ways: spread the word, donate or volunteer their skills.

Since its start in June, the initiative has gained steadily in popularity, garnering over 85.000 followers on Instagram. Turning the likes, and the countless emails of encouragement, into more impactful deeds remains the main challenge. “I’m in unchartered territory so I have no idea how it will pan out,” admits the New Zealander. The first test: a campaign to raise the money needed to get four young Nigerian men charged with the “crime” of sodomy out of jail. Less than 24 hours after the appeal was posted on social media, he had collected enough to get them out on bail, hire a lawyer, and rent out a a place for them to stay until the trial, as well as relocate them once and if the case is dropped.

Having mounted a successful online presence and touring exhibition campaign, Stephanie Sinclair, who is behind the long-term project Too Young to Wed, is grateful for the attention child marriage has been getting, especially from policy makers. For over a decade, she’s been photographing young brides, and sometimes grooms, forced to enter into wedlock across the world. In 2009, her images from Afghanistan were featured in the State Department’s Trafficking in Persons report. Meetings she had with American politicians prompted them to include child marriage as a foreign policy concern. And, last year, an exhibition of her work at the United Nations in Geneva, helped inspire the U.N. General Assembly to adopt its first resolution on child, early and forced marriage. “Nevertheless, it takes some time for these promises to translate into measures that reach the victims living in isolated and rural areas,” she says.

That gap prompted her to register Too Young to Wed as a charity able to collect donations under a 501(c)3 status. The funds are then redistributed to small local organizations, who otherwise would not be able to tap into that wealth. “For the first part of my career, I was a news photographer and I still place large value on that line of work,” she says. “But, this project became a lot more personal. I’ve built deep relationship with these girls over the course of several years. So what happens to them matters to me. I couldn’t just walk away from it.” Case in point: she keeps pictures of them in her wallet as well as her walls. “I live with them, and they live with me.” And, on September 10, she hopes to persuade her followers to do the same. 8×10-inch prints will be up for sale for 100$. The money raised will support the work of regional associations providing education and safe haven to girls fleeing their homes.

“Starting a nonprofit is a life choice, and it’s not for everyone. It requires a lot of energy, and takes up many hours,” she says. “My goal is to end child marriage and protect girls’ rights using every skill I have – from telling these girls’ stories to providing for them on the ground when needed”.

Laurence Butet-Roch is a freelance writer, photo editor and photographer based in Toronto, Canada. She is also a member of the Boreal Collective.

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