TIME People

How Apple CEO Tim Cook Succeeded When Everyone Told Him He’d Fail

Tim Cook Steve Jobs Leader
Bloomberg via Getty Images In this combination photo, former Apple CEO Steve Jobs, left, unveils the iCloud storage system at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference 2011 in San Francisco, Calif., on June 6, 2011, while Apple CEO Tim Cook, right, speaks during an event at the company's headquarters in Cupertino, Calif., on Oct. 4, 2011.

"You pick up certain skills when the truck is running across your back"

Apple CEO Tim Cook says his journey to success hasn’t been an easy one.

In an exclusive interview with Fortune, Cook recounts how he dealt with the negative comments after he succeeded the legendary Steve Jobs in 2011. Though Cook eventually proved skeptics wrong — just check out iPhone 6 sales and Apple’s record-breaking $700 billion valuation last month — it wasn’t a smooth ride, including a public meltdown of the buggy Apple Maps app in 2012.

But as Tim Cook told Fortune, there’s no solution other than to ignore the haters — and then get your act together:

I thought I was reasonable at [blocking out negative comments] before, but I’ve had to become great at it. You pick up certain skills when the truck is running across your back. Maybe this will be something great that I’ll use in other aspects of my life over time.

Cook also described just how intimidating it was at first to be Jobs’ successor:

I have thick skin, but it got thicker. What I learned after Steve passed away, what I had known only at a theoretical level, an academic level maybe, was that he was an incredible heat shield for us, his executive team … He really took any kind of spears that were thrown. He took the praise as well. But to be honest, the intensity was more than I would ever have expected.

Cook was named No. 1 on Fortune‘s “World’s Greatest Leaders” Thursday. Read the rest of Fortune’s profile of Tim Cook here.

 

TIME Style

When Elvis Got Drafted, So Did His Hair

Take It All Off
Hulton Archive / Getty Images Elvis Presley receiving a haircut from a US Army barber at Fort Chaffee, Ark., in 1958

At ease, sideburns

When Elvis Presley reported to be inducted into the Army on this day, March 24, in 1958, his legions of fans weren’t exactly taken by surprise. It had been early 1957 when TIME reported that he was likely to go:

Tooling up to a Memphis induction center in his li’l ol’ unpretentious cream-colored Cadillac, Dreamboat Groaner Elvis Presley, a hulking 21, went bravely inside, peeled off his inconspicuous scarlet and black jacket and other trappings, permitted medicos to examine him. The doctors’ verdict: a fine broth of a lad, pelvis and all, eligible for drafting—probably to serve in some special services division, tote some such gone weapon as a guitar. Before rolling off in his Caddie, Elvis allowed that the intelligence test he had taken was a breeze. Groaned the bobby-soxers’ golden calf: “Di’nt seem hard a’tall. Ah’m sure Ah passed!” (He did.)

But the big question wasn’t whether he would pass the test. The big question was what the Army would do about his hair.

About a month after Presley was declared draft-eligible, lawmakers like New Jersey Senator Clifford Case were investigating, on their constituents’ behalves, whether the singer could get an exemption to buzz-cut regulations that would allow him to keep his sideburns and pompadour. Though the Army did not make an official statement on the matter, officials did declare that he would not receive any special treatment.

The singer was originally ordered to report for a draft-board physical on Jan. 20, 1958, but he ended up getting a “hardship deferment” in order to finish making a movie. (The hardship was the studio’s, which had already invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in the picture, not his own.) He finally reported to the Army in March — but, by then, the hair question had already been at least partially resolved.

As TIME reported late that February, he “jumped the clippers by getting a ‘normal’ haircut that shortened his sideburns a good inch, left him still looking much too dreamy for the Army.”

And that was that. When Sergeant Presley’s two years of service ended, he announced that, though he would return to rock ‘n’ roll, his sideburns were gone for good.

TIME People

New Google Doodle Honors Revolutionary Mathematician Emmy Noether

Google

Noether's work in algebra revolutionized the fields of mathematics and physics

Emmy Noether may not be a household name, but her compatriot Albert Einstein — someone who definitely is — once called her “the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began.”

Noether, born in a small town in Germany in 1882, would have been 133 on Monday, and Google is celebrating her life with a doodle. She is credited with revolutionizing the fields of mathematics and physics with her theory of noncommutative algebras, where answers are determined by the order in which numbers are multiplied.

After finishing her dissertation in 1907, Noether worked without pay at the university in her hometown of Erlangen for seven years, since women were not allowed to hold academic positions at the time. Her next post at the University of Göttingen was also denied official recognition for four years until 1919, because of objections from the institution’s staff. She moved to Pennsylvania’s Bryn Mawr College in 1933 after Nazi Germany dismissed Jews from university positions, and died there two years later.

“I thought it would be best to highlight the mathematician’s numerous accomplishments and shine a light on the influence Noether had on the world,” wrote Sophie Diao, the doodle’s artist.

Read next: Google Doodle Celebrates the Top Searches of 2014

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TIME People

Body of Missing WSJ Reporter Found in a River

This undated photo provided by the Long Hill Township N.J., Police Department, shows David Bird.
Uncredited — AP This undated photo provided by the Long Hill Township N.J., Police Department, shows David Bird.

David Bird had been missing for more than a year

The body of a missing Wall Street Journal reporter has been found in the Passaic River, more than a year after his disappearance.

David Bird left his home in January 2014 wearing a red jacket, the New York Times reports. He told his wife he was going for a walk in the woods near their home in Long Hill Township, N.J. He never came home, and had been considered a missing person ever since.

Two canoers in the Passaic River saw a red jacket caught up in some branches on Wednesday evening and called the police. Authorities were able to identify Bird by his dental records.

An investigation into the cause of death is underway.

[NYT]

Read next: First Day of Spring to Bring Snow to Millions in Northeast

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TIME People

Dick Cheney: Obama Is ‘Playing the Race Card’

Dick Cheney Slams Obama in Playboy
Brendan Hoffman—Getty Images Former Vice President Dick Cheney is interviewed by SiriusXM Patriot host David Webb at SiriusXM studios on Oct. 25, 2011 in Washington, DC.

The former VP discussed everything from Ferguson to Obama's "damage" in a new Playboy interview

Former Vice President Dick Cheney has never been one to mince his words about current U.S. President Barack Obama.

Obama and Attorney General Eric Holder are “playing the race card” when they suggest that their critics may be partially driven by race, Cheney told Playboy in an interview for its April issue, which was published online Tuesday.

Cheney also reaffirmed his view that the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo., while tragic, has been overblown by the Obama administration.

“It seems to me it’s a clear-cut case that the officer did what he had to do to defend himself,” Cheney said. “I don’t think it is about race. I think it is about an individual who conducted himself in a manner that was almost guaranteed to provoke an officer trying to do his duty.”

Read the full interview at Playboy.

TIME People

How and Why the Dalai Lama Left Tibet

Dalai Lama Cover
Cover Credit: BORIS CHALIAPIN The Apr. 2, 1959, cover of TIME

March 17, 1959: The Dalai Lama flees Tibet for asylum in India

The invitation seemed innocuous: A Chinese general asked if the 14th Dalai Lama would like to see a performance by a Chinese dance troupe. But when he was told to come to the Chinese military headquarters without soldiers or armed bodyguards, according to his official biography, the Tibetans sensed a trap.

After years of guerrilla war between Tibetan rebels and the Chinese soldiers in a land that China considered to be its territory, the friendly overture seemed suspicious enough that, on the day of the performance, thousands of protesters surrounded the Dalai Lama’s palace in Lhasa to keep him from being abducted, arrested or killed. Over the following few days, the protests expanded into declarations of Tibetan independence and the mobilizing of rebel troops to fight the Chinese forces. The State Oracle, the Dalai Lama’s advisor, urged him to flee.

On this day, March 17, in 1959, Tibet’s spiritual and political leader, then 23, disguised himself as a soldier and slipped through the crowds outside the palace he’d never see again. He embarked on a dangerous journey to asylum, crossing the Himalayas on foot with a retinue of soldiers and cabinet members. They traveled only at night, to avoid detection by Chinese sentries. Rumors later circulated among Tibetans that the Dalai Lama “had been screened from Red planes by mist and low clouds conjured up by the prayers of Buddhist holy men,” according to TIME’s 1959 cover story about the escape. But until he appeared in India, two weeks after taking flight, people around the world feared that he had been killed, according to the BBC.

Back in Tibet, thousands died fighting the Chinese forces. Per the BBC, “All fighting-age men who had survived the revolt were deported, and those fleeing the scene reported that Chinese troops burned corpses in [Lhasa] for 12 hours.”

It was the latest flare-up of the longstanding discord between Tibet and China, as TIME summarized:

Over the centuries, the mountain-locked nation of Tibet has often been overrun by invaders — Mongols, Manchus and Gurkhas, but most often Chinese. Whenever China was strong, it would send a garrison to occupy Lhasa. Whenever China was weak Tibetans would drive the garrison out.

That discord endures today. Tibetans can still be arrested if caught with the writings or a picture of the Buddhist leader and recipient of the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize. And Chinese leaders were outraged last month when President Obama made his first public appearance with the Dalai Lama, whom he called a “good friend.” And as the New York Times reported last week, they were also incensed by the 79-year-old Dalai Lama’s recent speculation that he might not reincarnate this time around, foiling Chinese plans to hand-pick a 15th Dalai Lama who would follow the Communist party line. Per the Times, “[Chinese] officials repeatedly warned that he must reincarnate, and on their terms.”

China’s official version of the Dalai Lama’s 1959 escape sees him as forced to flee due to a failed attempt on his part “to maintain the serfdom in the region, under which the majority of Tibetans were slaves leading a life of unimaginable misery,” per TIME.

Tibetans tend to disagree with this retelling. According to TIME’s coverage of the Dalai Lama’s recent trip to the United States, “So profound is the despair among some Tibetans that more than 130 people have committed suicide since 2009 by setting themselves on fire, according to exile organizations. As they burn, self-immolators reserve their final breaths to praise the Dalai Lama and denounce Chinese rule.”

Read TIME’s 1959 cover story about the Dalai Lama: The Dalai Lama Escapes from the Chinese

TIME Crime

One of America’s Most Famous Spies Didn’t Do Any Spying

Julius (R, 1918-53) and Ethel Rosenberg (L, 1915-5
AFP/Getty Images Julius (R, 1918-53) and Ethel Rosenberg (L, 1915-53) in a police van in 1953 in New York

March 6, 1951: The espionage trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins in New York

Long after their execution, questions lingered over the extent of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg’s actual spy work.

When the New York couple stood trial, beginning on this day, Mar. 6, in 1951, they faced charges of selling nuclear secrets to the Russians during World War II. When they died by electric chair at Sing Sing two years later, they became the first civilians in U.S. history to be executed for wartime spying.

The judge who sentenced them to death argued that no lesser punishment fit the seriousness of their crime: handing over classified documents and sketches of atomic weapons that helped the Soviets match America’s nuclear advances. The information had come from Ethel’s brother, an Army sergeant who worked on the Manhattan Project. He was sentenced to only 15 years in prison after giving testimony that helped convict Ethel and Julius.

“Plain, deliberate, contemplated murder is dwarfed in magnitude by comparison with the crime you have committed,” the judge told the Rosenbergs, according to TIME’s 1951 report. “… who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason.”

However, many found the judge’s ruling unnecessarily draconian. Picketers staged a 24-hour-a-day vigil outside the White House, according to TIME, and some of the era’s most prominent figures spoke out against the death sentence.

“Do not let this crime against humanity take place,” Pablo Picasso urged American political leaders, per TIME.

“You are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb,” wrote Jean-Paul Sartre.

Pope Pius XII made a formal plea to President Eisenhower, asking him to pardon the pair. Eisenhower was unmoved.

Only years later did the truth emerge that Ethel, at least, had not actively taken part in espionage. The evidence that sealed her fate — her brother’s testimony that she had typed the classified information her husband handed over to the Russians — was false. Her brother, David Greenglass, admitted in a 2001 interview that he had lied to protect himself. Asked whether he was haunted by the betrayal, according to the BBC, he said, “Every time I am haunted by it, my wife says ‘Look, we are still alive.’ ”

Some historians have argued that the value of the classified information itself may have been exaggerated during the trial. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the author of Secrecy: The American Experience, posits that the Soviets were five years away from matching America’s nuclear capabilities even without the Rosenbergs’ help. With it, they got there in four years. “That was the edge that espionage gave them: a year’s worth, no more,” Moynihan writes.

A federal judge responded to a similar argument in 1967, when it came up in a co-conspirator’s appeal, by countering that leaked information didn’t have to be useful to constitute treason. Spies were spies, the judge argued, whether or not they had “achieved perfection” in wartime espionage.

Read TIME’s 1951 report on the Rosenbergs’ trial, here in the TIME archives: Worse Than Murder

TIME language

Winston Churchill Did Not Coin the Phrase ‘Iron Curtain’

Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' Speech
George Skadding—The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivers a speech at Westminster College that addressed the Communist threat, and in which he uttered the now-famous phrase 'Iron Curtain,' Fulton, Mo., Mar. 5, 1946.

On the anniversary of his famous speech, TIME takes a look at why people misattribute quotes and just plum make them up

Exactly 69 years ago, on Mar. 5, 1946, Winston Churchill stood in a college gymnasium in Fulton, Mo., at the beginning of the Cold War, while President Harry S. Truman sat behind him in a gown and mortarboard. Speaking to students gathered at Westminster College, he accepted an honorary degree and famously condemned the Soviet Union’s ways: “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”

The actual title of Churchill’s speech was “Sinews of Peace,” though most people know it as the “Iron Curtain speech.” Over the years there has been another twist of the record. Churchill often gets credit for coining that metallic metaphor—on that stage—for the figurative barrier drawn across Europe between the capitalist West and the communist East. But he did not. In fact, there’s evidence of the phrase being used to mean exactly that a good 26 years earlier when an E. Snowden (seriously) published a travelogue about her adventures in Bolshevik Russia.

So why do quotes get false histories? Lots of reasons.

Misattribution can be convenient. It’s easy not to question a coinage that it seems plausible—especially when it just so happens to give us good gravitas by association.

“You reach for a famous name to give authority,” says Elizabeth Knowles, editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. “You want to say Churchill said it. Because you have associated what you’re saying with that particular person, it gives the saying a bit more oomph.” Iron curtain just feels like something a dulcet, witty orator like Churchill would come up with, right? And it’s a much clearer signal that you’re educated and that your words have heft if you attribute a quote to Winston Churchill than to Snowden, an unremembered member of a trade-union delegation.

Many times people invoke quotations that were never said at all.

“Play it again, Sam.” Neither Bogart nor Bergman said these words.

“Elementary, my dear Watson.” Doyle wrote no such thing.

“Beam me up, Scotty.” Sorry, nope.

These get passed on because we wish people had uttered them. “A misquotation of that kind can be, almost, what you feel somebody ought to have said,” says Knowles. “It summarizes for somebody something very important about a particular film, a particular relationship, a particular event.” Even if it’s made up and especially if it’s close to things people really did say, we embrace it as gospel. After all, Bergman did utter, “Play it, Sam,” in Casablanca. And Bogart did say, “If she can stand it, I can! Play it!”

Sometimes misquotations get handed down because they convey the right idea and sound better to us than what the person actually said.

In 1858, Abraham Lincoln gave a speech in which he said, “To give victory to the right, not bloody bullets, but peaceful ballots only, are necessary.” Over time, that sentiment been recrafted as, “The ballot is stronger than the bullet.” The latter version is snazzier. Even when sources know this precise phrasing was probably never really used by Lincoln, they continue to pass it on. Take Dictionary.com’s quotes site, where the well-sourced quote from 1858 is in the fine print. Also in fine print is the admission that the quote in giant font across the top of the page was “reconstructed” 40 years after Lincoln was supposed to have said it. Which, as far as editors at Oxford are concerned, he did not.

Screen shot taken from Dictionary.com

“It’s a very natural thing, that we edit as we remember,” Knowles says. “So when we quote something we very often have in mind the gist of what’s being said. So we may alter it slightly and we may just make it slightly pithier or simpler for someone else to remember. And that’s the form that gets passed on.”

While it may be easier to remember that Churchill invented the iron curtain, here’s the real history:

In its earliest use, circa 1794, an “iron curtain” was a literal iron screen that would lowered in a theater to protect the audience and auditorium from any fire occurring backstage. From there, it became a general metaphor for an impenetrable barrier. In 1819, the Earl of Muster described the Indian river Betwah as an iron curtain that protected his group of travelers from an “avenging angel” of death that had been on their heels in that foreign land. Then, in 1920, Ethel Snowden made it specifically about the East and West in Throughout Bolshevik Russia (1920):

At last we were to enter the country where the Red Flag had become a national emblem, and was flying over every public building in the cities of Russia. The thought thrilled like new wine … We were behind the ‘iron curtain’ at last!

Read TIME’s original coverage of the Mar. 5, 1946, speech, here in the TIME Vault: This Sad & Breathless Moment

Read next: You Can Now Own a Vial of Winston Churchill’s Blood

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TIME People

See Jeb Bush’s Life in Photos

The second son of one of America's most prominent political families, Jeb Bush has been in the public eye most of his life, albeit in his brother's shadow. Jeb is now taking the forefront with his putative bid for Republican presidential nominee in 2016

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