TIME legal

Man Convicted of Running Notorious Online Black Market ‘Silk Road’

In this courtroom drawing, defendant Ross William Ulbricht listens to proceedings from the defense table during opening arguments in his criminal trial in New York on Jan. 13, 2015.
Elizabeth Williams—AP In this courtroom drawing, defendant Ross William Ulbricht listens to proceedings from the defense table during opening arguments in his criminal trial in New York on Jan. 13, 2015.

The man who went by the name 'Dread Pirate Roberts' faces life in prison

Ross Ulbricht, the website developer who controlled an online bazaar that offered drugs and illicit goods in return for Bitcoin, was found guilty on all charges by a jury in New York on Wednesday. He faces life in prison.

In 2011, Ulbricht founded the $1.2-billion empire dubbed “Silk Road,” and ran it until his capture by the FBI in October 2013. The website allowed people to anonymously purchase goods ranging from heroin to false identification, much of which was sent thousands of miles through regular mail. Ulbricht went by the nickname “Dread Pirate Roberts” while running the site.

MORE: How the Feds Nabbed ‘Silk Road’ Drug Kingpin ‘Dread Pirate Roberts’

Ulbricht’s defense claimed the 30-year-old Eagle Scout and physics student was framed by the real czar of the illicit website.

A jury took about three hours to find him guilty on all seven counts, Bloomberg reports, including trafficking drugs on the Internet, narcotics-trafficking conspiracy and running a continuing criminal enterprise.

MORE: The Secret Web Where Drugs, Porn and Murder Live Online

TIME legal

My Drone Landed in Someone’s Yard—Is it Theirs Now?

Inspire 1 Drone Officially Debut In Shenzhen
ChinaFotoPress/Getty Images The 'Inspire 1' drone is presented outdoors on November 26, 2014 in Shenzhen, Guangdong province of China.

Navigating unmanned aircraft law can be as tricky as maneuvering in the sky

We’ve all been there before. It’s late at night, you’ve had a couple cocktails, and you want to pull out the ol’ drone for a spin. You know, night piloting. Then, before you know it, a tree jumps right into your quadcopter’s path, and it has crashed onto a nearby lawn in the dark.

So, is your drone a goner? Well, that’s a complicated answer.

First, there’s the booze issue. “We prohibit our members from drinking and flying any type of model aircraft,” says Dave Mathewson, executive director of the Academy of Model Aeronautics. Founded in 1936, the 175,000-member organization makes sure pilots like Drunky McDarkwing take to the skies in a responsible way. In fact, just last month the group teamed up with several other organizations, including the Federal Aviation Administration, to launch a “Know Before You Fly” campaign aimed at educating new recreational pilots. “We truly believe that most of these new enthusiasts who are purchasing this technology intend to fly safely and responsibly, they just lack the guidance that helps them understand how to do that,” he says.

For instance, the campaign urges operators who are flying for fun to keep their unmanned aircraft below 400 feet, stay at least five miles away from any airport, and remain within the pilot’s line of site. “This allows the operator to have situational awareness of the airspace around him and gives the ability of sense-and-avoid that is so prominent — and the number one priority — for all operators in the national airspace,” says Mathewson.

But these guidelines are aimed at recreational users, and aren’t necessarily intended for people who want use a drone to check their gutters for leaves. In fact, according to Mathewson, those uses aren’t even authorized. “It’s an incredibly gray area,” he says. “The FAA will tell you that there are no guidelines under which you can do that, although we also know that there are probably thousands of operators out there right now that are using the technology for various things including checking out your roof. We know that there’s search and rescue activity taking place.”

According to Mathewson, the FAA is working on special drone regulations, but they that have been delayed several times since 2009. he says. “Once these regulations are put in place, this will define how other uses of the technology can operate in a national airspace.” Wait, what? National Airspace? Yes, technically, the air above your roof falls within the National Airspace, which is why you need to keep your drone below 400 feet.

All these guidelines say nothing about using a drone to make a buck. That is another tangle of law and regulations that the FAA has only recently begun to sort out. In general, the FAA requires civil operators to apply for a Special Airworthiness Certificate, something akin to a pilots license, and commercial users have to apply for an exemption to fly for profit. As of early January, the FAA had granted just 12 exemptions in response to the 214 requests it has received — a logjam no doubt made more complicated by drones’ rising popularity. “In fairness to the FAA, this is a challenging endeavor for them,” says Mathewson. “The technology is evolving so quickly that it’s been difficult for the FAA to keep up.”

If this answer to the crashed drone question seems to have veered off course, it hasn’t. The FAA has to consider not just everywhere drones can go, but who can pilot them, and what these devices can do. For instance, though it would seem like common sense anyway, the government agency even had to issue a flight restriction over the Super Bowl. It has also been pulling together resources for law enforcement agencies tasked with investigating unauthorized drone activity.

And when it comes to retrieving your drone, it may come down to boring, old property law, which is largely jurisdictional. Common law states that whoever owns the property where your drone crashes can keep it, until or unless you come to retrieve it. In some places, statutes require that people turn lost personal property over to a government official, and if it has not been claimed after a period of time, the original owner’s rights expire. Now, if your neighbor just so happens to live at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, you’re in luck. The authorities were nearby, and snapped up your drone right quickly. Also: Don’t ever do that again.

TIME Security

Bitcoins Are Easier To Track Than You Think

Bitcoin
Ramón Espelt Photography—Getty Images/Flickr RF Bitcoin logo

The Silk Road trial shows how they can be tracked

Bitcoin is sometimes thought of as the prime anonymous cash of the Internet, believed to be as untraceable as an under-the-table payment to a babysitter or a drug dealer. But the dramatic trial of Ross Ulbricht, a 30-year-old man accused of running the contraband Silk Road marketplace, is finally putting those misconceptions to rest.

Federal agents said they were able to trace 3,760 bitcoin transactions over the course of a year to servers seized in the Silk Road investigation, Wired reports. A former FBI agent named Ilhwan Yum testified in court that he followed more than 700,000 bitcoins from the Silk Road marketplace to Ulbricht’s personal wallets.

How did Yum do it?

When federal agents arrested Ulbricht in San Francisco in Oct. 2013, they also seized his laptop before he could encrypt it. That machine gave Yum access to Ulbricht’s bitcoin address, which he then compared against what’s called the blockchain, a master list of bitcoin transactions kept to prevent counterfeiting. Comparing the two let Yum track bitcoin transfers from Silk Road servers near Philadelphia and Reykjavik, Iceland to Ulbricht’s bitcoin wallet.

In Ulbricht’s case, the transactions show Ulbricht was trading bitcoins during the same period that his defense attorney said he wasn’t involved with the website. But more generally, it shows that bitcoin isn’t always as anonymous as it’s made out to be.

[Wired]

TIME Web

Alleged Owner of ‘Revenge Porn’ Site Banned From Posting Nude Images

TIME.com stock photos Computer Keyboard Typing Hack
Elizabeth Renstrom for TIME

Craig Brittain allegedly posted pictures of naked women and charged them to have the photos removed

A man who allegedly ran a “revenge porn” website that hosted naked pictures of women posted without their permission is getting his operation shut down.

Craig Brittain acquired a horde of intimate photos and posted them on his website, according to the Federal Trade Commission. The FTC says women who wanted their photos removed had to pay between $200 and $500 to purported third-party services which were actually operated by Brittain.

Now the consumer protection agency is banning Brittain from publicly sharing more nude photographs or videos of women without their consent. It’s also requiring him to destroy the images and personal contact information he collected while running the site.

Brittain acquired the photos mostly by soliciting disgruntled men who provided photographs along with the subject’s first and last name, date of birth, town and state, and a link to the subject’s Facebook profile and phone number, the FTC says. He also allegedly instituted a “bounty system” that awarded $100 or more for photos of specific people.

“This behavior is not only illegal but reprehensible,” said Jessica Rich, director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “I am pleased that as a result of this settlement, the illegally collected images and information will be deleted, and this individual can never return to the so-called ‘revenge porn’ business.”

TIME legal

Why Keeping Drones Out of No-Fly Zones Is Harder Than You Think

Preview Of The 2014 Consumer Electronics Show
Bloomberg—Bloomberg via Getty Images A DJI Innovations Phantom remote-controlled drone hovers above attendees during the CES Unveiled press event prior to the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., on Sunday, Jan. 5, 2014.

One drone maker is taking new steps after a White House incursion

Two days after a small drone crash-landed on the White House lawn Monday, its manufacturer, DJI, vowed to erect an electronic fence around downtown Washington, D.C. Any DJI drone that gets a new software update, the company says, won’t be able to enter this new no-fly zone.

But DJI’s so-called “geofencing” technology isn’t new. The company began developing the feature as early as 2012, when drone fever flared out from hardcore hobbyists to a growing number of more casual users. Market research firm CEA Research estimates shoppers will purchase 400,000 small drones this year. That means there are lots of new flyers out there unfamiliar with the rules of the sky.

“It’s moving from a more niche space to a consumer product where you have a lot of people who may not necessarily know what the rules are,” says DJI spokesman Michael Perry.

So rather than send drone hobbyists a packet of federal aviation regulations, DJI set off to build a few basic rules into its software. Airports, for instance, have a 5-mile Federal Aviation Administration flight restriction, so DJI nabbed a list of more than 10,000 of them and began building digital fences around their coordinates. When DJI erects its fence around Washington, D.C. in the coming days, it will roll out similar barriers around those airports, too.

For DJI, the move might help prevent one of its drones from being involved in something unsafe or outright catastrophic. “We are pushing this out a bit earlier to lead in encouraging responsible flight,” Perry said.

But that still leaves a raft of aviation regulations out of the picture. Flights over military bases, national parks, international borders and crowded stadiums are all verboten. Then there’s the FAA’s constantly-changing list of temporary no-fly zones around stuff like passing presidential motorcades. Drone flyers in Corpus Christi, Texas, for instance, may not have gotten Wednesday’s memo about a flight-restricted swath of their city. And even outside of these FAA rules, there are tort laws governing privacy and personal injury issues. A flight by a camera-equipped drone outside a neighbor’s bedroom window could be legally murky airspace, for instance. This list of moving and abstract targets makes it nearly impossible for drone makers to hard-wire a fool-proof flight path for their customers.

“There really is not a good comprehensive source of places where the FAA is saying not to fly,” says Brendan M. Schulman, a special counsel who specializes in drone casework for law firm Kramer Levin Naftalis & Frankel.

That’s problematic for drone pilots, too. Getting acquainted with all the dos and don’ts of flying, Schulman says, “is really asking a lot of people who are really just flying toys in their backyard.”

Even an obvious rule, such as steering clear of airports, may not be so apparent to amateur flyers. “You can just go on YouTube and see that they’re flying into areas where there’d be a restriction,” says Colin Snow, CEO of trade blog Drone Analyst. One enthusiast flying a drone through downtown San Jose, Snow says, clearly didn’t realize the San Jose airport was less than a 3-mile cruise away.

In other words, there’s no quick, technological fix for wayward drones, short of education and common sense. Schulman is quick to point out that for the most part, the recreational drone community seems to be a responsible lot, a few headline grabbing cases notwithstanding. He says among hundreds of thousands of flyers, he’s aware of only a handful of pending cases by the FAA.

Aviation enthusiast groups, such as the Academy of Model Aeronautics, are also working to teach their swelling ranks how to fly their new drones safely. Richard Hanson, the AMA’s government and regulatory affairs director, praises geofencing, but he also worries too many flyers might think they’re just fine sticking to autopilot: “[Geofencing] sets a mindset within the user that says, ‘I don’t have to worry about that because the manufacturer has taken care of that.”

TIME White House

Man Who Crashed Drone at White House Had Reportedly Been Drinking

US-WHITE HOUSE-SECURITY-DRONE
Brendan Smialowski—AFP/Getty Images The south side of the White House is seen January 26, 2015 in Washington, D.C.

Turned himself in after seeing news reports about the crash

The pilot of a small unmanned drone that crashed on the White House lawn early Monday had been drinking before the incident took place, law enforcement officials told the New York Times.

The still-unidentified government employee turned himself in to authorities after seeing news reports about the crash, which triggered a lockdown at the White House and nearby government buildings.

The Times reported the man had a feeling the drone might have touched down on the White House grounds, but he went home to sleep regardless.

While this particular remote-controlled aircraft posed little risk to the President or others, the event caused concern that similar drones could represent a national security threat.

President Obama himself used the incident to call for a new regulatory framework around small unmanned aircraft. Some Federal Aviation Administration rules apply to small, hobbyist-piloted drones, but the agency lacks an effective enforcement mechanism to punish offenders, largely leaving local law enforcement to sanction pilots who put the public’s safety at risk.

Judging by a Secret Service photo released Monday, the drone was a DJI Phantom, which are about two pounds and just over a foot across and retail for $479 and up:

United States Secret Service

Many Phantom models are capable of carrying a video camera, but it wasn’t clear from the image if the unit in question was equipped with one.

[NYT]

 

TIME legal

How the Feds Nabbed Alleged Silk Road Drug Kingpin ‘Dread Pirate Roberts’

<> on January 13, 2015 in New York City.
Spencer Platt—Getty Images Supporters of Ross Ulbricht, the alleged creator and operator of the Silk Road underground market, stand in front of a Manhattan federal court house on the first day of jury selection for his trial on January 13, 2015 in New York City.

The government says 30-year-old Ross Ulbricht is an Internet narcotics dealer who ordered six murders. Ulbricht's defense says he's being framed.

On the third day of his trial, Ross Ulbricht looked calm for a man who could soon be sentenced to life in prison. The gangly 30-year-old’s parents, Lyn and Kirk, sat behind him in a wood-paneled courtroom fifteen stories above lower Manhattan last Thursday. During breaks in testimony, Ulbricht turned in his chair and smiled broadly at them from beneath a poof of brown hair. “Did you have a good lunch?” Lyn asked her son after a pause on the third day of proceedings. Ross grinned and shook his head. “I’ll tell you about it later.” Lunch in prison doesn’t usually come with an unadulterated endorsement.

Ulbricht, an Eagle Scout with a master’s degree in materials science and engineering who friends say is well-liked and sensitive, is facing grave charges. Fifteen months ago, he was arrested and accused of drug trafficking, computer hacking and running a criminal enterprise, among other charges. His case has become a flash point for Internet activists, who worry a conviction could deal a blow to free speech on the Internet.

Ulbricht’s arrest was the culmination of a two-year investigation into the seedy online bazaar Silk Road, where the narcotics-hungry could find drugs for sale in exchange for Bitcoin, a difficult-to-trace digital currency. Silk Road was controlled by a shadowy website administrator with the moniker Dread Pirate Roberts, who prosecutors say took home millions in commissions on more than $1 billion worth of drug deals and other transactions. Roberts also allegedly used the site to order the murders of six people.

The central question in this trial is whether Ulbricht is indeed the Dread Pirate Roberts. Government prosecutors say that’s the case; they want to send Ulbricht to prison for 20 years to life for his alleged crimes. But there’s more at stake here than charges against a single man: Open Internet activists, some of whom have donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to Ulbricht’s defense, say his case is a matter of online freedom.

(Read more: What Was Silk Road? Refresh Your Memory as Ross Ulbricht Goes to Trial)

A closely-watched case

Traditionally, website operators have not been held liable for illegal activity carried out on their platforms. An appellate court decision gave the social network MySpace legal immunity in 2008, for instance, after an underage teenage girl was sexually assaulted by someone she met through the website. Activists, however, see Ulbricht’s trial as a landmark case, worrying that a conviction could stifle free speech on the Internet.

Last July, the judge on the case ruled that if Ulbricht created Silk Road as a drug trafficking haven as the government alleges, then he’s vulnerable to the narcotics conspiracy charges against him. But the defense argues Ulbricht only founded the site as an “economic experiment,” not as a narcotics ring—even if that’s what Silk Road became. If that argument holds up but Ulbricht is still found guilty of some charge or all charges, it could have a chilling effect on digital free speech.

“At what point are you liable for what happens on a site that you start?” says Hanni Fakhoury, an attorney for the non-profit Electronic Frontier Foundation who’s been watching the case as a neutral observer. “If the government indicted every time someone posted a prostitution ad on Craigslist, [Craigslist founder] Craig Newmark would be in prison all day.” While Fakhoury believes the case could have broader implications for how the government prosecutes website operators for their users’ behavior, he admits Silk Road is at “the far end of the spectrum” of normal Internet activity.

Then there’s the question of how federal agents investigated Silk Road. The defense, led by Joshua Dratel, an expert but somewhat rumpled attorney who has represented high-profile terror suspects and Guantanamo Bay detainees, says the government seized data from the site’s servers without a warrant.

The judge threw out the defense’s motion on those grounds, but the claim opened up the door to several important questions: How exactly did the feds find Silk Road’s servers? Were Ulbricht’s constitutional rights violated in the process? Less than a week and just one witness into the trial, it’s hard to tell how these questions will play out. But the testimony has so far been revelatory, unveiling a federal sting operation worthy of a blockbuster script.

(In the magazine: The Secret Web: Where Drugs, Porn and Murder Live Online)

How Ulbricht was busted

The government’s first witness was Department of Homeland Security investigator Jared Der-Yeghiayan. Der-Yeghiayan says he began looking into Silk Road in early 2012 after federal investigators noticed vendors were using the website to sell drugs. Der-Yeghiayan testified that he made more than 50 drug buys and logged thousands of hours on the website until it was shut down in October 2013.

By August 2013, Der-Yeghiayan managed to seize the account of a lead website administrator named Cirrus. He then used the account to communicate with Dread Pirate Roberts several times a week, with Roberts unaware “Cirrus” was now a government agent.

After Der-Yeghiayan took over Cirrus’ account in August 2013, he began reporting directly to Dread. Dread paid Der-Yeghiayan about $1,000 per week to manage Silk Road’s forums and user questions. The pair were cordial, often asking each other how they were doing. “Thank you for looking after the forums,” Dread told Der-Yeghiayan in one chat.

In another post, Dread addressed users’ criticism that he was taking a commission on each drug trade. Some users were calling it a “tax.” Dread objected to Silk Road being compared to the government, and instead called it a broker’s fee. Like any successful private enterprise, Dread said, Silk Road needed to support itself. “Do you think this site built itself? Do you have any idea of the risks?,” he said.

The Sting

In September 2013, an investigator on the case named Gary Alford told Der-Yeghiayan that a 29-year-old former University of Texas physics student named Ross Ulbricht appeared to be a “pretty good match” to Dread Pirate Roberts’ profile. The FBI got a warrant for Ulbricht’s arrest. By the end of that month, a team of agents set out for San Francisco, where Ulbricht lived under the name “Josh Terrey.”

According to Der-Yeghiayan’s testimony, plainclothes federal agents fanned out across San Francisco’s Glen Park neighborhood on the afternoon of Oct. 1, 2013, monitoring public places with free Wi-Fi access. The plan was to catch Ulbricht signed into Dred Pirate Roberts’ Silk Road account. That way, the government said, it could link Ulbricht the man with Dread the moniker.

At around 2:40 p.m., Der-Yeghiayan settled into Bello, a coffee shop near Ulbricht’s apartment, and logged into the Silk Road administrators’ chat. Dread Pirate Roberts was online briefly until 2:47 p.m. Just minutes after Dread signed off, federal agents saw Ulbricht leave his apartment and walk down the street in the direction of Bello, right where Der-Yeghiayan was still sitting. Der-Yeghiayan ducked out of Bello while the team watched as Ulbricht waited at a crosswalk 50 feet away before entering the shop.

Ulbricht left Bello almost immediately, apparently because it was too crowded. Ulbricht walked thirty feet down the street and disappeared into the Glen Park Branch Library. A few moments later, Dread Pirate Roberts signed on to Silk Road’s chat.

“hi,” [sic] typed Der-Yeghiayan into a chat with Dread, posing undercover as Cirrus. “are you there?” The goal, Der-Yeghiayan says, was to get Ulbricht to log on to Silk Road as Dread, proving the man and the moniker were one in the same.

“hey,” Dread responded.

“how are you doing?” said Der-Yeghiayan.

“i’m ok, you?” said Dread.

“good,” said Der-Yeghiayan. “can you check one of the flagged messages for me?”

“sure,” said Dread. “let me log in.”

It was a trap. Dread Pirate Roberts was now signed in to both the chat and the Silk Road website. FBI agents entered the library, snatched Ulbricht’s laptop and handcuffed him. Der-Yeghiayan walked up the stairs and inspected the computer. Ulbricht was signed in to Silk Road. It was Dread Pirate Roberts’ account.

Even a skilled defense attorney like Dratel would have trouble accounting for Ulbricht being caught red-handed. But Dratel has an explanation: Ulbricht was framed.

Yes, Ulbricht founded Silk Road 2011, Dratel said, but he quickly distanced himself from the online bazaar. Ulbricht never profited from the heroin, cocaine and ecstasy deals trafficked on its pages, Dratel said, and he certainly didn’t order the murders of six people. According to Dratel, Ulbricht was lured back to the website shortly before he was arrested in late 2013 by its then-administrator: Mark Karpeles, chief executive of the Japan-based Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox, which allowed anyone to convert cash into Bitcoin.

“Our position is that [Karpeles] set up Mr. Ulbricht,” Dratel said in court.

Here’s the twist: Federal agents were ready to indict Karpeles for running Silk Road right up until September 2013, one month before they arrested Ulbricht. Even Der-Yeghiayan himself, after months of undercover drug buys, believed Karpeles was using Silk Road as leverage to drive up Bitcoin’s value.

Under questioning on Thursday, Der-Yeghiayan says he was ready to move on Karpeles. What happened? Dratel insinuated that Karpeles’ lawyer met with the feds and offered to give up the name of the real masterminds behind the Silk Road website. The court adjourned before his questioning ended. It’s not hard to see the defense’s argument here: Karpeles was about to get busted, so he trapped Ulbricht. Karpeles adamantly denies he was ever involved in Silk Road.

For now, the truth seems as elusive as it was to Der-Yeghiayan in June 2013, when in an email to federal agents about the identities of Silk Road users, he confessed he was clueless. “Sheesh, who’s on first?” Der-Yeghiayan said, according to testimony. It’s a sentiment the rest of the courtroom shares.

TIME Drugs

Colorado Begins $5.7 Million ‘Good to Know’ Campaign for Marijuana Awareness

DENVER, CO. - DECEMBER 06: A tour members purchases marijuana at La Conte's Clone Bar & Dispensary during a marijuana tour hosted by My 420 Tours in Denver, CO on December 06, 2014. During the day tourists visited La Conte's grow facility, La Conte's Clone Bar & Dispensary, Native Roots dispensary  and Illuzions Glass Gallery.  (Photo By Craig F. Walker / The Denver Post)
Craig F. Walker—The Denver Post/MediaNews Group/Getty Images A tour member purchases marijuana at La Conte's Clone Bar & Dispensary during a marijuana tour in Denver on Dec. 6, 2014

The campaign is aimed at educating the state's citizens without alienating them

The state of Colorado is spending $5.7 million to educate its citizens about the responsible use of marijuana in a major public campaign beginning this month.

The “Good to Know” initiative will utilize radio broadcasts, newspapers and the Internet, USA Today reports. The campaign apparently has a folksy and relatable tone to it, with one of the radio spots featuring a rhyming cowboy and banjo music. Colorado’s chief medical officer Dr. Larry Wolk says its goal is to educate without alienating.

Colorado and Washington became the first U.S. states to legalize recreational marijuana last year, although Alaska and Oregon have also since voted in favor of doing so. But according to a survey of the drug’s use and perceptions done along with the campaign, only 27% of Coloradans realize it’s illegal to smoke marijuana in public, and only 23% know that one must be 21 to purchase it.

[USA Today]

TIME

Bitcoin Trader Sentenced for Silk Road Money Laundering Scheme

Tribeca Talks: After The Movie: The Rise and Rise Of Bitcoin - 2014 Tribeca Film Festival
Astrid Stawiarz—Getty Images Charlie Shrem attends Tribeca Talks: After The Movie: The Rise and Rise Of Bitcoin during the 2014 Tribeca Film Festival at the SVA Theater on April 23, 2014 in New York City.

Charlie Shrem stood accused of supplying upwards of $1 million in Bitcoins to money laundering ring

A prominent Bitcoin trader was sentenced to two years in prison on Monday for facilitating an illicit exchange of bitcoins for cash through the online marketplace, Silk Road.

Charlie Shrem, a former vice chairman of the Bitcoin Foundation, stood accused of securing roughly $1 million in bitcoins for Robert Failla, a Silk Road user who allegedly helped drug trafficking rings swap the digital currency for cash, the BBC reports.

Shrum’s defense team argued that he was only a Bitcoin enthusiast unwittingly caught up in an illicit trade, but the presiding judge ruled that Shrum was not, “some kid making a one-time mistake,” and the evidence suggested that Shrum “excitedly” supplied a steady stream of Bitcoins to Silk Road’s users. Shrum was also ordered to forfeit $950,000 to U.S. authorities, BBC reports.

Law enforcement officials shut down Silk Road following a 2013 sting operation against its users.

TIME legal

We Won’t See That Last Steve Jobs Video After All

Steve Jobs Introduces iCloud Storage System At Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference
Justin Sullivan—Getty Images Apple CEO Steve Jobs delivers the keynote address at the 2011 Apple World Wide Developers Conference at the Moscone Center on June 6, 2011 in San Francisco, California.

Judge denies media's request to copy and air the footage

The judge presiding over an antitrust lawsuit against Apple has denied media outlets’ request to release a deposition from Steve Jobs recorded six months before the Apple founder succumbed to cancer in 2011. The video is among the last times Jobs appeared on film before his death.

District Court Judge Yvonne Gonzalez Rogers ruled that the public already had sufficient access to the footage, which was played in the courtroom and transcribed for the public record. Enabling media outlets to copy and distribute the tape could infringe on the privacy rights of the defendant, Rogers ruled, adding that misuses of the tape could have a chilling effect on future depositions.

“If releases of video depositions routinely occurred,” she wrote, “witnesses might be reticent to submit voluntarily to video depositions in the future, knowing they might one day be publicly broadcast.”

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