TIME Innovation

25 Quotes That Take You Inside Albert Einstein’s Revolutionary Mind

Apr. 4, 1938
TIME Albert Einstein on the Apr. 4, 1938, cover of TIME. Though better known for his discoveries than for his inventions, Einstein did co-invent a new kind of refrigerator. He also appeared on the cover of TIME five other times.

"Imagination is more important than knowledge"

Over the years, Albert Einstein’s name has become synonymous with genius.

In his lifetime, Einstein changed the world, describing the workings of reality better than anyone since Isaac Newton and revealing the capabilities of the atom bomb. In 1999, Time named him Person of the Century.

Here are 25 of Einstein’s most telling quotes; each will take you inside the mind of the legend.

On authority

“Unthinking respect for authority is the greatest enemy of truth.”

[“The Curious History of Relativity”]

On scope

“Nature shows us only the tail of the lion. But there is no doubt in my mind that the lion belongs with it even if he cannot reveal himself to the eye all at once because of his huge dimension.”

[Smithsonian, February 1979]

On politics

“I am by heritage a Jew, by citizenship a Swiss, and by makeup a human being, and only a human being, without any special attachment to any state or national entity whatsoever.”

[“The Yale Book of Quotations”]

On certainty

“As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”

[Address to Prussian Academy of Science, January 1921]

On humility

“As a human being, one has been endowed with just enough intelligence to be able to see clearly how utterly inadequate that intelligence is when confronted with what exists.”

[Letter to Queen Elisabeth of Belgium, September 1932]

On relativity

“When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour, it seems like a minute. But let him sit on a hot stove for a minute — and it’s longer than any hour. That’s relativity.”

[“The Yale Book of Quotations”]

On his growth

“It is true that my parents were worried because I began to speak fairly late, so that they even consulted a doctor. I can’t say how old I was — but surely not less than three.”

[Letter, 1954]

On common sense

“Common sense is nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down in the mind before you reach eighteen.”

[“The Universe and Dr. Einstein”]

On success

“If A is a success in life, then A equals X plus Y plus Z. Work is X; Y is play, and Z is keeping your mouth shut.”

[“The Yale Book of Quotations”]

On nationalism

“Nationalism is an infantile sickness. It is the measles of the human race.”

[“Albert Einstein, the Human Side”]

On mystery

“The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed.”

[“The World As I See It,” 1930]

On solitude

“My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. I am truly a ‘lone traveler’ and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties, I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude.”

[“The World As I See It,” 1930]

On presentation

“If I were to start taking care of my grooming, I would no longer be my own self.”

[Letter, December 1913]

On imagination

“Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.”

[Smithsonian, February 1979]

On motivation

“The ideals that have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective world, the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed empty to me. The trite objects of human efforts — possessions, outward success, luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible.”

[“The World As I See It,” 1930]

On education

“The aim [of education] must be the training of independently acting and thinking individuals who, however, see in the service to the community their highest life problem.”

[Address, October 1936]

On ambition

“Nothing truly valuable arises from ambition or from a mere sense of duty; it stems rather from love and devotion towards men and towards objective things.”

[Letter, July 1947]

On learning

“Most teachers waste their time by asking questions that are intended to discover what a pupil does not know, whereas the true art of questioning is to discover what the pupil does know or is capable of knowing.”

[“Conversations with Albert Einstein,” 1920]

On thinking

“I very rarely think in words at all. A thought comes, and I may try to express in words afterwards.”

[“Productive Thinking,” 1959]

On life

“A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future.”

[Smithsonian, February 1979]

On curiosity

“The important thing is to not stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.”

[Nova]

On work ethic

“The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind … is akin to that of the religious worshipper or the lover; the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program, but straight from the heart.”

[Speech, 1918]

On childhood

“The ordinary adult never gives a thought to space-time problems … I, on the contrary, developed so slowly that I did not begin to wonder about space and time until I was an adult. I then delved more deeply into the problem than any other adult or child would have done.”

[Letter, 1956]

On the role of science

“One thing I have learned in a long life: That all our science, measured against reality, is primitive and childlike — and yet it is the most precious thing we have.”

[“Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel,” 1972]

On the hustle

“The only way to escape the corruptible effect of praise is to go on working.”

[Smithsonian, February 1979]

This article originally appeared on Business Insider.

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TIME 3-D printing

NASA Just 3-D Printed Part of a Rocket

Cygnus Spacecraft Launches from Pad-0A
NASA—Getty Images A NASA rocket.

It's more efficient than traditionally produced rocket parts

NASA is getting closer to 3-D printing a rocket engine.

The space agency announced Wednesday that it had built a turbopump using a 3-D printer. The device, which is designed to boost the power of an engine, is one of the most complex rocket parts ever designed with a 3-D printer.

According to NASA, the 3-D printed turbopump has 45 percent fewer parts than a turbopump made via traditional methods. The device is able to power a rocket engine capable of generating 35,000 pounds of thrust and is able to survive in an environment where fuel is burned at greater than 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

NASA is also 3-D printing injectors and other engine parts in order to make the production of future spacecraft more efficient.

Here’s a video of the 3-D printed fuel pump in action:

TIME health

How Mark Cuban, Mark Zuckerberg and Other Powerful Tech Execs Stay in Shape

Dallas Mavericks v Houston Rockets - Game Two
Bob Levey—Getty Images Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban at the 2015 NBA Playoffs on April 21, 2015 in Houston, Texas.

From running to surfing

Highly successful people often push themselves both inside and outside the office.

Though it can be difficult to find time to exercise when you’re working around the clock, several tech executives have found techniques, routines, or sports that resonate with them and help them grow.

Here’s a look at what the CEOs of Facebook, Microsoft, and others do to stay in shape.

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg works out three times a week.

Zuckerberg said in a recent Q&A session on Facebook that he made sure he worked out at least three times a week. Sometimes he even takes his adorable puppy Beast along with him on his runs.

Here’s what Zuckerberg said when Arnold Schwarzenegger asked him about his workout habits:

Staying in shape is very important. Doing anything well requires energy, and you just have a lot more energy when you’re fit … I make sure I work out at least three times a week — usually first thing when I wake up. I also try to take my dog running whenever I can, which has the added bonus of being hilarious because that basically like seeing a mop run.

GoPro CEO Nick Woodman loves to surf.

Woodman, the highest-paid CEO in the United States last year, fell in love with surfing when he was just 8 years old. In college he joined a fraternity located on the beach, and he surfed with his friends multiple times per day. Woodman still loves to surf, and that is reflected in the office environment at GoPro, according to CBS News.

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella is an avid cricket player.

Cricket is more than just a sport and a hobby for Nadella, who took over as the CEO of Microsoft in 2014. It taught him valuable lessons that influence how he runs Microsoft.

“Growing up in India, my dream as a boy was to play cricket professionally,” he told Geekwire. “The sport had a very rich heritage at my school and I went on to play school and junior cricket as a bowler (right arm off spin). At a certain point, I realized that I had reached my limit and luckily discovered my next passion in engineering and technology!”

Square CEO and interim Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey goes hiking in his spare time.

Dorsey has an intense schedule. He sticks to a rigid routine that amounts to an 80-hour workweek, as CNN Money reported back in 2011.

But he takes Saturdays off, which is when he finds the time to squeeze in some physical activity. He goes hiking on Saturdays, while Sundays are for “reflection, feedback, and strategy.”

Sebastian Thrun, the former Googler credited with building the company’s “moonshot” factory, is a dedicated cyclist.

Thrun, who now leads his own education company called Udacity, is an avid road cyclist who regularly completes 100-mile bike rides, according to Fast Company. He also snowboards and kite-surfs, and he has run half a dozen marathons.

Google cofounder Sergey Brin is an adrenaline junkie.

Brin, who now serves as the president of Google’s new parent company, Alphabet, is a daredevil at heart. Gymnastics, high-flying trapeze, springboard diving, ultimate Frisbee, and hockey are just a few of Brin’s favorite hobbies. Brin tried out many of these sports when he studied at Stanford, where he met fellow Google cofounder Larry Page. He has been known to bring Googlers to athletic complexes that offer these types of activities for team bonding experiences.

Billionaire tech investor Mark Cuban gets at least an hour of cardio per day.

Cuban, a regular host on the ABC reality show “Shark Tank” who owns the Dallas Mavericks, incorporates cardio workouts into his everyday routine. He told The Dallas Morning News:

I try to do cardio for at least an hour, six or seven days a week, knowing I’ll miss a day or two now and then because of travel. I do elliptical and the stair gauntlet; play basketball; and take kickboxing and Latin fusion aerobic classes at Lifetime Fitness.

Former Cisco CEO John Chambers runs 2 to 4 miles almost every day.

Chambers, who served as the CEO of Cisco for 20 years until last month, described how running helped him unwind when speaking with The Wall Street Journal:

I jog to … stay in shape, but also because I like to eat. For the first part I think of something personal or in business that’s on my mind, and for the last part I just enjoy it.

Apple CEO Tim Cook is in the gym at 5 a.m. every morning.

Cook is a self-described fitness nut, as Adam Lashinsky wrote in his profile of Cook for Fortune earlier this year. He wakes up around 4:30 or 5 a.m. daily to get to the gym several times a week, according to The Wall Street Journal.

Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk exercises about twice a week.

When you work nearly 100 hours each week, finding time to exercise can be really difficult. But Musk says he finds time once or twice a week to squeeze in a cardio workout on the treadmill and lift weights, according to Auto Bild TV.

Alexa von Tobel, CEO of LearnVest, goes to the gym almost every day and brings coworkers with her.

In LearnVest’s early days, von Tobel focused so much on her business that she didn’t go to the gym or visit the doctor regularly. But now she goes to the gym almost every day.

“I’m healthier, I’m happier, I sleep better. And all of that is important,” she told Business Insider in a previous interview. “When my life is better, my company is better.”

Sometimes she brings coworkers along with her for a meeting.

“I do my workouts in the morning, and often I’ll take someone from my team,” she told Fast Company. “The person I’m meeting with can pick the class, whether it’s a spin or barre class, or going for a power walk. It’s hard to run and talk — I haven’t mastered that yet.”

Mint.com founder Aaron Patzer runs and lifts weights.

Aaron Patzer believes physical activity is crucial to being successful.

“You cannot work 14 hour days without getting a good workout in as a break,” he told Men’s Health.

In addition to lifting weights, running, and rock climbing, Patzer also loves climbing trees, which he has been doing since age 3.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider.

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4. Here’s how to suck carbon out of the air and make stuff.

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TIME Innovation

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TIME Innovation

Every Song Has Its Own Color and Emotion

Blue for sad music and yellow for happy songs

Imagine yourself as a graphic designer for New Age musician Enya, tasked with creating her next album cover. Which two or three colors from the grid below do you think would “go best” with her music?

Would they be the same ones you’d pick for an album cover or music video for the heavy metal band Metallica? Probably not.

For years, my collaborators and I have been studying music-to-color associations. From our results, it’s clear that emotion plays a crucial role in how we interpret and respond to any number of external stimuli, including colors and songs.

The colors of songs

In one study, we asked 30 people to listen to four music clips, and simply choose the colors that “went best” with the music they were hearing from a 37-color array.

In fact, you can listen to the clips yourself. Think about which two to three colors from the grid you would choose that “go best” with each selection.

Selection A

Selection B

Selection C

Selection D

The image below shows the participants’ first-choice colors to the four musical selections provided above.

song-music-first-choice-colors
Author Provided

Selection A, from Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto Number 2, caused most people to pick colors that were bright, vivid and dominated by yellows. Selection B, a different section of the very same Bach concerto, caused participants to pick colors that are noticeably darker, grayer and bluer. Selection C was an excerpt from a 1990s rock song, and it caused participants to choose reds, blacks and other dark colors. Meanwhile, selection D, a slow, quiet, “easy listening” piano piece, elicited selections dominated by muted, grayish colors in various shades of blue.

The mediating role of emotion

But why do music and colors match up in this particular way?

We believe that it’s because music and color have common emotional qualities. Certainly, most music conveys emotion. In the four clips you just heard, selection A “sounds” happy and strong, while B sounds sad and weak. C sounds angry and strong, and D sounds sad and calm. (Why this might be the case is something we’ll explore later.)

If colors have similar emotional associations, people should be able to match colors and songs that contain overlapping emotional qualities. They may not know that they’re doing this, but the results corroborate this idea.

We’ve tested our theory by having people rate each musical selection and each color on five emotional dimensions: happy to sad, angry to calm, lively to dreary, active to passive, and strong to weak.

We compared the results and found that they were almost perfectly aligned: the happiest-sounding music elicited the happiest-looking colors (bright, vivid, yellowish ones), while the saddest-sounding music elicited the saddest-looking colors (dark, grayish, bluish ones). Meanwhile, the angriest-sounding music elicited the angriest-looking colors (dark, vivid, reddish ones).

To study possible cultural differences, we repeated the very same experiment in Mexico. To our surprise, the Mexican and U.S. results were virtually identical, which suggests that music-to-color associations might be universal. (We’re currently testing this possibility in cultures, such as Turkey and India, where the traditional music differs more radically from Western music.)

These results support the idea that music-to-color associations in most people are indeed mediated by emotion.

enya-shepherd-moon-metallica-master-puppets-album-covers
WEA/Reprise/ElektraThe album cover designers for Enya’s Shepherd Moons and Metallica’s Master of Puppets may have subconsciously chosen colors that matched the emotional qualities of the respective artists’ music.

People who actually see colors when listening to music

There’s a small minority of people – maybe one in 3,000 – who have even stronger connections between music and colors. They are called chromesthetes, and they spontaneously “see” colors as they listen to music.

For example, a clip from the 2009 film The Soloist shows the complex, internally generated “light show” that the lead character – a chromesthetic street musician – might have experienced while listening to Beethoven’s Third Symphony.

Chromesthesia is just one form of a more general condition called synesthesia, in which certain individuals experience incoming sensory information both in the appropriate sensory dimension and in some other, seemingly inappropriate, sensory dimension.

The most common form of synesthesia is letter-to-color synesthesia, in which the synesthete experiences color when viewing black letters and digits. There are many other forms of synesthesia, including chromesthesia, that affect a surprising number of different sensory domains.

Some theories propose that synesthesia is caused by direct connections between different sensory areas of the brain. Other theories propose that synesthesia is related to brain areas that produce emotional responses.

The former theory implies little or no role for emotion in determining the colors that chromesthetes experience, whereas the latter theory implies a strong role for emotion.

Which theory is correct?

To find out, we repeated the music-color association experiment with 11 chromesthetes and 11 otherwise similar non-chromesthetes. The non-chromesthetes chose the colors that “went best” with the music (as described above), but the chromesthetes chose the colors that were “most similar to the colors they experienced while listening to the music.”

The left side of the image below shows the first choices of the syensethetes and non-synesthetes for fast-paced classical music in a major key (like selection A), which tends to sound happy and strong. The right side shows the color responses for slow-paced classical music in a minor key (like selection B), which tends to sound sad and weak.

song-music-color-responses
Author Provided

The color experiences of chromesthetes (Figure B) turned out to be remarkably like the colors that non-chromesthetes chose as going best with the same music (Figure A).

But we mainly wanted to know how the non-chromesthetes and chromesthetes would compare in terms of emotional effects. The results are depicted in Figure C.

song-music-emotional-effect-graph
Author Provided

Interestingly, the emotional effects for chromesthetes were as strong as those for non-chromesthetes on some dimensions (happy/sad, active/passive and strong/weak), but weaker on others (calm/agitated and angry/not-angry).

The fact that chromesthetes exhibit emotional effects at all suggests that music-to-color synesthesia depends, at least in part, on neural connections that include emotion-related circuits in the brain. That they’re decidedly weaker in chromesthetes than non-chromesthetes for some emotions further suggests that chromesthetic experiences also depend on direct, non-emotional connections between the auditory and visual cortex.

Musical anthropomorphism

The fact that music-to-color associations are so strongly influenced by emotion raises further questions. For example, why is it that fast, loud, high-pitched music “sounds” angry, whereas slow, quiet, low-pitched music “sounds” calm?

We don’t know the answers yet, but one intriguing possibility is what we like to call “musical anthropomorphism” – the idea that sounds are emotionally interpreted as being analogous to the behavior of people.

For example, faster, louder, high-pitched music might be perceived as angry because people tend to move and speak more quickly and raise their voices in pitch and volume when they’re angry, while doing the opposite when they’re calm. Why music in a major key sounds happier than music in a minor key, however, remains a mystery.

Artists and graphic designers can certainly use these results when they’re creating light shows for concerts or album covers for bands – so that “listening” to music can become richer and more vivid by “seeing” and “feeling” it as well.

But on a deeper level, it’s fascinating to see how effective and efficient the brain is at coming up with abstract associations.

To find connections between different perceptual events – such as music and color – our brains try to find commonalities. Emotions emerge dramatically because so much of our inner lives are associated with them. They are central not only to how we interpret incoming information, but also to how we respond to them.

Given the myriad connections from perceptions to emotions and from emotions to actions, it seems quite natural that emotions emerge so strongly – and perhaps unconsciously – in finding the best colors for a song.

This article originally appeared on The ConversationThe Conversation

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

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TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

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