TIME Crime

One of America’s Most Famous Spies Didn’t Do Any Spying

Julius (R, 1918-53) and Ethel Rosenberg (L, 1915-5
AFP/Getty Images Julius (R, 1918-53) and Ethel Rosenberg (L, 1915-53) in a police van in 1953 in New York

March 6, 1951: The espionage trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins in New York

Long after their execution, questions lingered over the extent of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg’s actual spy work.

When the New York couple stood trial, beginning on this day, Mar. 6, in 1951, they faced charges of selling nuclear secrets to the Russians during World War II. When they died by electric chair at Sing Sing two years later, they became the first civilians in U.S. history to be executed for wartime spying.

The judge who sentenced them to death argued that no lesser punishment fit the seriousness of their crime: handing over classified documents and sketches of atomic weapons that helped the Soviets match America’s nuclear advances. The information had come from Ethel’s brother, an Army sergeant who worked on the Manhattan Project. He was sentenced to only 15 years in prison after giving testimony that helped convict Ethel and Julius.

“Plain, deliberate, contemplated murder is dwarfed in magnitude by comparison with the crime you have committed,” the judge told the Rosenbergs, according to TIME’s 1951 report. “… who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason.”

However, many found the judge’s ruling unnecessarily draconian. Picketers staged a 24-hour-a-day vigil outside the White House, according to TIME, and some of the era’s most prominent figures spoke out against the death sentence.

“Do not let this crime against humanity take place,” Pablo Picasso urged American political leaders, per TIME.

“You are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb,” wrote Jean-Paul Sartre.

Pope Pius XII made a formal plea to President Eisenhower, asking him to pardon the pair. Eisenhower was unmoved.

Only years later did the truth emerge that Ethel, at least, had not actively taken part in espionage. The evidence that sealed her fate — her brother’s testimony that she had typed the classified information her husband handed over to the Russians — was false. Her brother, David Greenglass, admitted in a 2001 interview that he had lied to protect himself. Asked whether he was haunted by the betrayal, according to the BBC, he said, “Every time I am haunted by it, my wife says ‘Look, we are still alive.’ ”

Some historians have argued that the value of the classified information itself may have been exaggerated during the trial. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, the author of Secrecy: The American Experience, posits that the Soviets were five years away from matching America’s nuclear capabilities even without the Rosenbergs’ help. With it, they got there in four years. “That was the edge that espionage gave them: a year’s worth, no more,” Moynihan writes.

A federal judge responded to a similar argument in 1967, when it came up in a co-conspirator’s appeal, by countering that leaked information didn’t have to be useful to constitute treason. Spies were spies, the judge argued, whether or not they had “achieved perfection” in wartime espionage.

Read TIME’s 1951 report on the Rosenbergs’ trial, here in the TIME archives: Worse Than Murder

TIME South Korea

Seoul Police Probe U.S. Ambassador Attacker’s Visits to North Korea

U.S. Ambassador Mark Lippert on March 5, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea
Kim Ju-sung—AP U.S. Ambassador Mark Lippert on March 5, 2015, in Seoul

State media in Pyongyang applauded the slashing of Mark Lippert

The knife-wielding nationalist who attacked the U.S. ambassador to South Korea is having his travel history to North Korea reviewed as police weigh charging him with attempted murder.

Kim Ki-jong slashed Ambassador Mark Lippert’s face in a knife attack ahead of a Korean reunification forum Thursday, leaving a 4-in. gash on his face and a wound on his left hand. Kim claims the attack was a protest against this week’s joint military exercises by South Korea and the U.S.

On Friday, Kim’s house was raided by police, who hope to obtain a detention warrant against the prounification zealot. But central to pursuing an attempted murder charge will be evaluating Kim’s presence in North Korea over the past decades.

Kim made seven trips to North Korea from 1999 to 2007, according to Seoul police officials.

“We are investigating whether there is any connection between the suspect’s visits to North Korea and the crime committed against the U.S. ambassador,” said Yoon Myeong-seong, a local police chief.

Meanwhile, state media in Pyongyang applauded Kim’s actions with typical belligerence, describing the incident as “deserved punishment” for U.S.–South Korean military cooperation, and saying the 55-year-old wielded “the knife of justice.”

[Reuters]

TIME Crime

Philadelphia Officer Shot Dead While Trying to Stop Robbery

(PHILADELPHIA) — A Philadelphia police officer was shot in the head and killed after he and his partner exchanged gunfire with two suspects trying to rob a video game store, city officials said Thursday.

The slain officer, Robert Wilson III, fired back even as he was being shot by suspects on either side of him. One was struck and taken to a hospital while the other was in custody, police said.

Police Commissioner Charles Ramsey, red-eyed as he spoke at an evening news conference, said he had met the 30-year-old Wilson and his partner when they took part in a recent pilot program in which officers wore body cameras.

“I knew him, had met him. He was one of the best police officers this city has to offer, period,” Ramsey said, standing beside the mayor, the district attorney and other city officials.

It was not immediately clear if Wilson was wearing a body camera when he was shot at 4:44 p.m. Thursday, but authorities did seize video from store security cameras. He was shot multiple times. He was pronounced dead at 6:25 p.m. at Temple University Hospital.

His survivors include a 9-year-old son and 1-year-old child, Ramsey said.

Wilson and his partner were inside a GameStop, located in a North Philadelphia strip mall, when the two suspects entered and announced a robbery, Ramsey said. The partner also exchanged gunfire with the suspects, but was not shot. Both suspects have prior records, Ramsey said.

“This 9-year-old is going to grow up without a father because of what happened today,” Ramsey said. “This 1-year-old is going to grow up without a dad.”

Wilson was an eight-year veteran of the department.

“Our thoughts are with the officer,” said Joey Mooring, director of public relations at the Texas-based GameStop.

The last city officer killed, 40-year-old Moses Walker Jr., was fatally shot in an attempted robbery as he walked to a bus stop after an overnight shift in August 2012. His assailant was convicted of first-degree murder in December in a nonjury trial that spared a possible death sentence.

Police believe the suspects Thursday were armed with two guns.

“This senseless act is devastating and a stark reminder of the danger faced everyday by our brave men and women in uniform,” Gov. Tom Wolf said in a statement.

TIME Crime

How to Rebuild the Ferguson Police Department

Police are deployed to keep peace along Florissant Avenue in Ferguson, Mo. on Aug. 16, 2014.
Scott Olson—Getty Images Police are deployed to keep peace along Florissant Avenue in Ferguson, Mo. on Aug. 16, 2014.

Other troubled local police forces show the way after a scathing federal report

At the end of the U.S. Department of Justice’s report into widespread police misconduct in Ferguson, Mo., are a series of recommended reforms so extensive that it’s as if the law enforcement agency would be best served by tearing the whole thing down and starting from scratch.

That might just be the point.

The report listed a series of overhauls that would require retraining dozens of police officers while upending the agency’s policing strategies, all in an effort to repair the department’s relationship with communities of color in the aftermath of last summer’s shooting of unarmed black teenager Michael Brown by white police officer Darren Wilson. That shooting led to weeks of often violent protests in the St. Louis suburb. And while Wilson was never charged and the federal report largely corroborated his version of events, it nevertheless faulted the mostly white local police for being systemically and violently prejudiced against the majority black town’s residents.

“Members of the community may not have been responding to a single isolated confrontation but also to a pervasive, coercive and deep lack of trust,” Attorney General Eric Holder said of the protesters on Wednesday. “Some of those protesters were right.” He said federal authorities will make sure the local police force takes “immediate, wholesale and structural corrective action.”

MORE: These Are Some of the Racist Emails Ferguson Police Sent

So what’s next?

Ferguson has examples it can look to as it rebuilds: Over the last decade, several U.S. police departments have been subjected to federal oversight. Cincinnati reformed its department after an unarmed black teenager was shot in 2001. Maricopa County‘s force in Arizona was sued by the Department of Justice in 2012 over charges of racially profiling Latinos. Seattle and New Orleans both came under federal scrutiny for excessive force and misconduct.

But the most relevant example might be found in East Haven, Conn.—a town and police force that is similar in size to Ferguson—where the DOJ found a pattern of illegal searches, traffic stops and use of force against Latinos by local cops. In October 2012, the Justice Department reached a settlement with the town to change the police agency’s treatment of Latino residents. Two years later, compliance expert Kathleen O’Toole, now the Seattle police chief, called the progress of the East Haven Police “remarkable.”

The kind of reforms that will likely take place in Ferguson may be similar to what occurred in East Haven. Police officers there each completed 60-100 hours of training on practices like bias-free policing and use of force. One lieutenant attended an executive education program at Harvard’s Kennedy School.

The training appears to have made a difference. In December 2011, the Justice Department found that traffic stops of Latino drivers by the East Haven police accounted for 19.9% of stops, which was more than the percentage of Latino drivers (15.5%). But during the year the police trained—from December 2012 to June 2013—the federal report found that only 8.9% of traffic stops were of Latinos. It cost roughly $2.5 million over four years to reform the department, according to the New Haven Register,

Kym Craven, the director of the Public Safety Strategies Group, a police consulting firm, says that reforms for agencies like Ferguson need to begin at the recruiting and hiring phase to ensure a department’s officers are reflective of its community. She says departments also need to have explicit policies and procedures in place that lay out what police chiefs expect from officers.

Ferguson may go through scenario-based training like what happened in East Haven to better react to situations where implicit racial biases may affect how an officer handles a situation. Those biases, Craven says, should also be talked about honestly and openly within the department and with the community.

But the biggest changes could likely come with a shift toward community policing, which has been routinely discussed as an alternative to the so-called “broken windows” strategy—which focuses on lower-level crimes on the assumption that it helps keep overall crime rates down.

MORE: U.S. Faults Ferguson Police for Racial Bias

The DOJ report’s first recommendation includes implementing a shift from “policing to raise revenue to policing in partnership with the entire Ferguson community,” while calling for more community partnerships between police and residents.

One city that appears to have found success with community policing is Atlanta. Two incidents eroded trust between the city’s residents and the police department over the years: a 2009 incident in which officers raided a gay bar while reportedly using derogatory slurs that triggered a federal lawsuit, and the death of a 92-year-old black woman by a drug strike force team in 2006.

“We lost the confidence in both our black community and the GLBT community,” says Atlanta Police George Turner, who took over the agency in 2010.

Turner soon shifted the department toward community-based policing that required police to get out of their cars, patrol their neighborhoods and engage with citizens. He outfitted cops with less-lethal weapons like TASERs, but sought the community’s involvement in the decision first. The city today has 4,600 surveillance cameras that feed into police headquarters, but the department asked for community input on where they should be placed. Turner has also set up special liaisons with the Hispanic and gay and lesbian communities.

“I think this is the most effective way,” Turner says. “You have to work every day with community leaders. People will give you an opportunity to investigate when crises happen, but you don’t get that unless you have a relationship with people and relationships are built on trust.”

The department has been widely praised by police experts, but it’s a cautionary tale nonetheless: The Atlanta Citizen Review Board actually saw complaints go up between 2012 and 2013, but numbers have remained stable since, according to statistics compiled by the Christian Science Monitor.

“Community policing was something that was started a long time ago, and it’s morphed into community relations,” Craven says. “But departments need to get back to the root of it, which is joint problem-solving between the police and the community. It’s more than having a BBQ or a picnic.”

The Justice Department also appears more willing to fully back community policing in ways it hasn’t in the past. Bob Stewart, president of Bobcat Training and Consulting, says that in the last two years, consent decrees—which are court-mandated orders that require police departments to follow federal guidelines—have increasingly recommended initiatives that deal with community trust and civilian oversight.

It’s likely that Ferguson will eventually be the subject of a consent decree, forcing the town’s police department to reform. But it’s possible that those reforms, taking place at a police department that drove a national conversation about race and use of force nationwide last summer, could be the focus of a new discussion, one about better ways of policing.

TIME Crime

Jodi Arias Escapes Death Penalty After Jury Deadlocked on Sentencing

Jodi Arias looks toward the gallery during the sentencing phase retrial in Phoenix
reuters Jodi Arias looks toward the gallery during the sentencing phase retrial in Phoenix on March 3, 2015.

Jodi Arias, who was convicted in 2013 of murdering her ex-boyfriend, will avoid the death penalty after the jury in her sentencing could not agree on a verdict.

After more than 20 hours of deliberations, the jury was unable to come to a unanimous consensus Thursday morning about whether Arias should receive the death penalty or life in prison for the brutal murder of her ex-boyfriend in 2008. This means Arias’s sentencing will rest with the judge, who will decide if she receives life in prison or life with the possibility of early release.

Elizabeth Erwin, an ABC reporter in the courtroom, tweeted that multiple jurors cried with the family of the victim when the hung jury announcement was made:

Arias was convicted of murder in 2013 in a trial that became a media sensation for salacious details about her relationship with the victim and the gruesome manner in which he was killed. Arias was found guilty of killing her former boyfriend, Travis Alexander, in 2008 by stabbing him 27 times, slitting his throat and shooting him in the face while he showered. She said she acted in self-defense.

TIME Crime

Nebraska Considers Eliminating the Death Penalty

Miriam Thimm Kelle, left, whose brother James Thimm was tortured and killed on a southeast Nebraska farm in 1985, is hugged by Byron Peterson of Scottsbluff, after she testified in favor of a law proposal to change the death penalty to life imprisonment without parole, during a hearing before the Judiciary Committee in Lincoln, Neb., March 4, 2015.
Nati Harnik—AP Miriam Thimm Kelle, left, whose brother James Thimm was tortured and killed on a southeast Nebraska farm in 1985, is hugged by Byron Peterson of Scottsbluff, after she testified in favor of a law proposal to change the death penalty to life imprisonment without parole, during a hearing before the Judiciary Committee in Lincoln, Neb., March 4, 2015.

With support from Republican lawmakers

Nebraska legislators are considering a bill that would eliminate the state’s death penalty, receiving significant support from Republican lawmakers and family members of murder victims.

MORE: Georgia Postpones 2 Executions Over ‘Cloudy’ Drugs

Dozens of people rallied at the Capitol in Lincoln, Neb., Wednesday night in support of a bill that would do away with death sentences,the Associated Press reports, and replace them with life without the possibility of parole.

More than two dozen relatives of murder victims signed a letter supporting the bill, saying that the time between a conviction and an actual execution can be painful for families who see their loved one’s name appear in the news during appeals and often decades-long delays.

MORE: Ohio Looks to Shield Lethal Injection Drugmakers

Omaha Sen. Ernie Chambers, an Independent, has worked to eliminate the state’s death penalty for years but appears to have more support this time around, especially from Republicans who make up the majority of the state’s nonpartisan legislature. The Journal Star reports that seven GOP senators have signed onto the bill.

While the legislation will likely make it out of committee, the bill may still face a veto if passed from Republican Gov. Pete Ricketts, who has supported the death penalty in the past.

Since 2007, New Jersey, New York, Illinois, Connecticut and Maryland have eliminated the death penalty, and currently 32 states still enforce capital punishment. Last month, Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf put an effective moratorium on executions in the state in part over fears of putting innocent people to death.

Nebraska currently has 11 people on death row.

[AP]

TIME Crime

Watch Live: Michael Brown Family Addresses Ferguson Report

The family of Michael Brown is holding a news conference to respond to the Department of Justice’s decision to not charge a Ferguson, Mo., police officer with civil rights violations in last year’s shooting.

Watch it live above.

TIME Crime

Failures by Three Governments Preceded Homeless Man’s Death

February 2000 photo provided by Ventura County Sheriff's Office shows Charley Saturmin Robinet after his arrest for robbery
Ventura County Sheriff's Office—AP Ventura County Sheriff's Office shows Charley Saturmin Robinet after his arrest for robbery in 2000

The homeless man, a native of Cameroon, was known simply as "Africa"

(LOS ANGELES) — Mistakes and miscommunication by three governments on three continents over nearly 20 years led to a homeless man known as “Africa” being on Los Angeles’ Skid Row, where he was shot by police after authorities say he became combative and appeared to reach for an officer’s weapon.

The problems began in the late 1990s when French officials gave him a passport under what turned out to be a stolen name. He came to the U.S., robbed a bank and then was convicted and imprisoned under the same false name.

U.S. immigration officials wanted to send him back to his native Cameroon but that country never responded to requests to take him. So he was released from a halfway house last May, and U.S. probation officials lost track of him in November.

It took three failed monthly check-ins for a warrant to be issued on a probation violation and it’s unclear whether anyone actually looked for him. He apparently was living the entire time on Skid Row, roughly 50 square blocks of liquor stores, warehouses, charitable missions and a few modest businesses.

Many of the estimated 1,700 people who sleep each night on the sidewalks are mentally ill, like Africa.

Los Angeles police Cmdr. Andrew Smith said the man had no previous arrests in Los Angeles. While officers spoke to him once or twice, he gave them no reason to suspect he was wanted.

“If you’re cool and you’re quiet, and you don’t make a big fuss, you can sit out there quietly and live in your tent pretty much in peace,” said Smith. “If the feds put out a warrant for this guy, shoot, there’s no reason we’d suspect he’s in Skid Row.”

The true name of the man who was long known to authorities as Charley Saturin Robinet remained a mystery Wednesday, three days after a violent death that was captured on a bystander’s video and watched by millions.

Authorities said the man tried to grab a rookie Los Angeles police officer’s gun, prompting three other officers to shoot. Chief Charlie Beck said the officers had arrived to investigate a robbery report and the man refused to obey their commands and became combative.

Peter Nunez, a former U.S. attorney in San Diego who is chairman of the Center for Immigration Studies in Washington, D.C., said the case points to multiple failures by government.

He criticized France for not being more diligent in investigating the man’s background before issuing a passport and U.S. authorities for not realizing he was a “fraud” before the end of his prison term and then not putting more effort into finding him once he disappeared.

“Shame on all of them,” said Nunez, whose group advocates for stricter immigration policies and enforcement.

Axel Cruau, France’s consul general in Los Angeles, said the system for checking backgrounds was vastly different when the man duped French officials.

“Let’s remember 20 years ago we didn’t have the same databases we have today, the same rules, we didn’t have biometric design, it was before 9/11,” he said.

Using the false name, the man was believed to be a French citizen in 2000 when convicted of robbing a Wells Fargo branch in Los Angeles and pistol-whipping an employee in what he told authorities was an effort to pay for acting classes at the Beverly Hills Playhouse.

In 2013, as he was nearing his release from a federal prison in Rochester, Minnesota, French officials found the real Robinet in France, Cruau said. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement then determined the impostor actually was from Cameroon but said the African country ignored repeated requests for travel documents, hampering efforts to deport him.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2001 that immigration authorities cannot detain people indefinitely just because no country will take them. Justice Stephen Breyer wrote that the government would need a special reason to keep someone in custody after six months if deportation seemed unlikely in “the reasonably foreseeable future.”

“ICE makes every possible effort to remove all individuals with final orders of removal within a reasonable period,” spokeswoman Virginia Kice said. “If the actual removal cannot occur within the reasonably foreseeable future, ICE must release the individual.”

A person who said he only has one name, Bindz, and heads the consular section at the Cameroon Embassy in Washington said he couldn’t respond to questions by phone and the ambassador would have to answer in writing.

The man was in immigration custody in September 2013 when a federal judge in California ordered him to a halfway house in Los Angeles. He was released from the halfway house in May, said Ed Ross, a spokesman for the Bureau of Prisons. His sentence included three years of supervision by federal probation officials.

The man had no place to stay and eventually found his way to Skid Row. He was required to provide reports to his probation officer each month and did so for a time, Deputy U.S. Marshal Matthew Cordova said. But he failed to make contact in November, December and January, and a warrant was issued Jan. 9.

Karen Redmond, a spokeswoman for the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, which represents U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services System, declined to comment on what attempts were made to find him, citing an open investigation.

Also Wednesday, police said none of the four officers involved, whose experience ranged from rookie to 11-year department veteran, had fired their weapons while on duty before.

The officers’ names were being withheld until it was determined there was no credible threat to their safety, Smith said.

TIME Courts

Boston Bombing Survivors Tell Court Their Personal Accounts of the Carnage

A courtroom sketch shows Boston Marathon bombing survivor Sydney Corcoran testifying in the trial of accused bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev at the federal courthouse in Boston, Mass., March 4, 2015.
Jane Flavell Collins—Reuters A courtroom sketch shows Boston Marathon bombing survivor Sydney Corcoran testifying in the trial of accused bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev at the federal courthouse in Boston, Mass., March 4, 2015.

“I remember thinking, this is it, I’m going to die. I’m not going to make it"

Survivors of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, allegedly carried out by Chechen-American brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, appeared in a Boston federal court Wednesday to deliver chilling testimony detailing the chaotic scene at the finish line.

When the two bombs detonated on April 15, 2013, shrapnel cut an artery in Sydney Corcoran’s leg, leaving blood gushing, while her mother’s legs were sliced off. On the first day of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s trial she described the moment to the courtroom: “I remember thinking, this is it, I’m going to die. I’m not going to make it.”

Read the rest of the survivor testimonies at the Boston Globe

 

TIME Crime

Pakistani Man Found Guilty in Failed NYC Bomb Plot

Abid Naseer makes opening statements in his trial in Brooklyn
Jane Rosenberg—Reuters Abid Naseer, 28, makes opening statements on the first day of his trial in Brooklyn as seen in a courtroom sketch on Feb. 17, 2015.

Conspiracy included a failed Al-Qaeda plot to attack the New York City subway

A Pakistani man was found guilty Wednesday in a failed al-Qaeda bomb plot after a New York trial that featured spies in disguise, evidence from the raid on Osama bin Laden’s compound and the defendant’s questioning of an admitted co-conspirator.

The jury reached the verdict in federal court in Brooklyn after beginning deliberations Tuesday morning. No date was set for sentencing.

Abid Naseer was first arrested in 2009 in Great Britain on charges he was part of a terror cell plotting to blow up a shopping mall in Manchester, England. The charges were dropped after a British court found there wasn’t enough evidence, but U.S. prosecutors later named him in an indictment that alleged a broader conspiracy that included a failed plot to attack the New York City subway.

After his rearrest and extradition to the United States in 2013, Naseer pleaded not guilty to providing and conspiring to provide material support to al-Qaeda and conspiring to use a destructive device.

He acted as his own lawyer, often referring to himself in the third person as he set about portraying himself as a moderate Muslim who was falsely accused. He was assisted by a court-appointed attorney but largely spoke for himself and demonstrated a calm demeanor in court.

“Abid is innocent,” the 28-year-old Naseer said in closing arguments on Monday. “He is not a terrorist. He is not an al-Qaeda operative.”

In her closing argument, Assistant U.S. Attorney Zainab Ahmed told jurors the arrests of Naseer and other members of his cell averted mass murder. The government alleged Naseer had received bomb-making instruction in Pakistan in 2008.

“If the defendant hadn’t been stopped, hundreds of innocent men, women and children wouldn’t be alive today,” Ahmed said.

Naseer’s self-representation created the spectacle of the defendant cross-examining an admitted terrorist. Five British Mi5 secret agents also testified wearing disguises — one wore a fake beard and thick black glasses — and the trial marked the first time documents recovered in the 2009 Navy SEAL raid against Osama bin Laden’s compound were used as trial evidence.

But most of the case hinged on email exchanges in 2009 between Naseer and a person described by prosecutors as an al-Qaeda handler who was directing plots to attack civilians in Manchester, New York City and Copenhagen. Naseer insisted the emails consisted only of harmless banter about looking for a potential bride after going to England to take computer science classes.

Naseer “wanted to settle down,” he said in his closing. “Is there anything wrong with that?”

But the prosecutor, Ahmed, accused Naseer of lying on the witness stand by claiming the women he wrote about were real. She said the women’s names actually were code for homemade bomb ingredients: Nadia stood for ammonium nitrate and Huma for hydrogen peroxide.

When the defendant wrote to the al-Qaeda handler, “I wish you could be here for the party,” he was talking about the attack, she added.

The prosecutor dismissed Naseer’s explanations as “blather.” ”This man wanted to drive a car bomb into a crowded shopping center and watch people die,” she said.

As their first witness, prosecutors called Najibullah Zazi, who pleaded guilty in the subway plot as part of a cooperation agreement. Zazi testified that after receiving explosives training in Pakistan, he received instructions from the same al-Qaeda contact as Naseer and was told to use “marriage” and “wedding” as code for attacks.

In his cross-examination, Naseer sought to emphasize that he and Zazi had never had any contact, even though they were named as co-conspirators.

“Mr. Zazi, do you know the defendant who is asking these questions?” Naseer asked.

“I don’t remember your face,” Zazi responded.

Another witness was an FBI legal attache who handled evidence found in the raid that left bin Laden dead, including letters written among top al-Qaeda officials.

One letter referred to sending “brothers” to New York and Britain and mentions that some were arrested there — a passage prosecutors suggested was a reference to Naseer.

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