TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: December 17

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

1. Independent and third party candidates could break D.C. gridlock — if they can get to Washington.

By Tom Squitieri in the Hill

2. A new software project has surgeons keeping score as a way to improve performance and save lives.

By James Somers in Medium

3. The New American Workforce: In Miami, local business are helping legal immigrants take the final steps to citizenship.

By Wendy Kallergis in Miami Herald

4. Policies exist to avoid the worst results of head injuries in sports. We must follow them to save athletes’ lives.

By Christine Baugh in the Chronicle of Higher Education

5. Sal Khan: Use portfolios instead of transcripts to reflect student achievement.

By Gregory Ferenstein at VentureBeat

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME Education

More Than 60 Colleges Attend Dartmouth’s Sexual Assault Summit

Administrators face pressure to end the mishandling of assault investigations and put effective prevention measures in place

Dartmouth College President Philip Hanlon wants parents of women on his campus to know that the school is working to address the issue of sexual assault. During a hour-long conversation on New Hampshire Public Radio Tuesday, Hanlon said the school is “open” and “upfront.” “You should not be worried if a campus is talking about [sexual assault],” Hanlon said. “You should be worried if a campus is not talking about it.”

And Dartmouth is certainly talking about it. The school is hosting nearly 300 representatives from over 60 colleges, national experts, and government officials for a four day summit on preventing campus sexual assault, just days after a Congressional survey found that 41% of colleges polled have not investigated a sexual assault on their campuses in the past five years.

The Department of Education also launched investigations into 55 schools across the country this year, including Dartmouth, for allegedly mishandling of incidents involving an assault. This week’s summit is an opportunity for school and government officials to discuss best practices for addressing the issue, with representatives from Duke University, Rice University, Pomona College and Georgetown University on hand to discuss interactions between students and school administrators.

Hanlon said Tuesday that Dartmouth intends to position itself as a national leader in the effort to combat sexual assault on campus. He’s been in office for one year and named the issue one of his top priorities. In June, the college implemented a new policy for handling reports of sexual assault that requires outside investigators to look into complaints The policy also requires mandatory expulsion for some perpetrators of assault.

“As a nation we will reach a tipping point where nonconsensual sexual encounters on our college campuses are a thing of the past,” U.S. Representative Ann McLane Kuster (D-NH) said Sunday at an opening session of the summit. Research has shown that one in five college women will become a victim of an attempted or actual sexual assault while on campus. A TIME cover story from May detailed the crisis, which has been called an epidemic, and also examined the efforts to curb the trend.

On Monday, representatives from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice addressed the summit attendees affirming the federal government’s commitment to keeping student’s safe. “Every student needs to be safe,” said Catherine Lhamon of the Department of Education’s office of Civil Rights. Attendees have also been actively engaged on Twitter where conversations around the absence of males, student voices, and the need for more collaboration proliferated.

https://twitter.com/DartmouthChange/status/488760727008989184 https://twitter.com/DancingGrapes/status/488716002776322049

TIME Sexual Assault

The Debate: How Should College Campuses Handle Sexual Assault?

From survivors to politicians, activists and lawyers for the accused, TIME has gathered opinions from across party lines to weigh in on how to keep students safe. Here's what they had to say.

Recent research revealed that one in five women report being assaulted on college campuses. That shocking number has students, parents and politicians questioning the way schools protect students and adjudicate the cases of sexual assault. Read more in this week’s cover story about the sexual assault crisis on American college campuses.

VIDEO: My Rapist Is Still on Campus

Step Up. It’s Time by Joe Biden, Vice President of the United States

Rape Culture Is a Panic Where Paranoia, Censorship, and False Accusations Flourish by Christina Hoff Sommers, scholar

We Will Not Allow These Crimes to Be Swept Under the Rug Any Longer by Kirsten Gillibrand, U.S. Senator

Society Continues to Misplace Blame on Survivors by Mariska Hargitay, founder of Joyful Heart Foundation and star of Law & Order: SVU

Sexual Assault Prevention and Bystander Intervention by Philip J. Hanlon, President of Dartmouth College

The Battle Over Sexual Assault Is the Civil Rights Movement of Our Time by Gloria Allred, attorney and activist

He Was Turned On by My Distress by Emma Sulkowicz, student survivor

Some Rules About Consent Are Unfair to Male Students by Matthew Kaiser, attorney

We Need Transparency On the Issue of Fraternity Rape by Caitlin Flanagan, journalist

Violating Student Victims’ Rights Is Expensive by Nancy Chi Cantalupo, law professor

Overbroad Definitions of Sexual Assault are Deeply Counter-Productive by Jed Rubenfeld, law professor

Consent Must Be Created, Not Given by Jonathan Kalin, student activist

Universities and Fraternities Must Tell the Whole Truth by Douglas E. Fierberg, attorney

We Must Look at How We Teach Our Boys What It Means to Be a Man by Neil Irvin, executive director of Men Can Stop Rape

‘I’m Proud’ to See My Alma Mater Investigated For Mishandling Rape by Jaclyn Friedman, activist and author

 

TIME Education

The Most Popular Law Schools of Supreme Court Justices

Not all law schools are created equal, and only a precious few have been turning out Supreme Court Justices in recent years

With its rigorous postgraduate education, grueling exams and highly competitive job market, law is one of the hardest professions to enter.

But the process wasn’t always so complex. In fact, the early lawyers and judges of the United States of America didn’t go to law school, and 57%—64 out of all 112—Supreme Court Justices of the United States never got their Juris Doctorate degree.

How is that possible?

In lieu of going to law school—which was uncommon in the U.S. until the late 1800’s—20 justices simply studied law under a current judge or lawyer. Forty-four others attended law school, but never graduated, pursuing a scholarly education outside of their universities instead.

The first justice to attend, but not graduate from law school, was John Blair Jr. in 1756, and the last was Robert Houghwout Jackson in 1912.

It wasn’t until 1832, when Benjamin Robbins graduated from Harvard University, that the first justice-to-be obtained a Juris Doctorate degree.

But even then, justices continued to enter the Supreme Court without a J.D. until 1941, when the last two men without the degree—James Frances Byrnes (never attended law school) and Robert Houghwout Jackson (attended Albany Law School, but never graduated)—entered the court.

In all, 48 Supreme Court Justices of the United States successfully graduated from law school. The ones that produced the most justices are Harvard (15), Yale (6), and Columbia (2).

Every member of today’s Supreme Court got their J.D. from one of the top three most common schools.

Five went to Harvard (John G. Roberts Jr., Atonin Scalia, Athony M. Kennedy, Stephen G. Breyer, and Elena Kagan), three went to Yale (Clarence Thomas, Samuel A. Alito Jr., and Sonia M. Sotomayor), and one went to Columbia (Ruth Bader Ginsburg).

This article was written for TIME by Kiran Dhillon of FindTheBest.

TIME White House

White House Releases Plan to Curb Campus Sexual Assault

President Barack Obama
President Barack Obama Ricardo B. Brazziell—American-Statesman/Getty Images

A task force convened by President Obama announced a proposal on Tuesday that includes recommendations for identifying the scope of the problem and helping respond to schools’ concerns about how best to comply with federal law under Title IX

The White House put pressure on the nation’s colleges and universities on Tuesday to improve their handling of campus sexual assaults, announcing new federal education efforts for students and administrators, new national guidelines of best practices for handling claims and a call for voluntary campus surveys to better understand the scope of the problem.

“Colleges and universities need to face the facts about sexual assault. No more turning a blind eye or pretending it doesn’t exist,” Vice President Joe Biden said in a statement. “We need to give victims the support they need—like a confidential place to go—and we need to bring the perpetrators to justice.”

Over the past three months, a White House task force on campus assaults has held 27 listening sessions in person and online with more than 2,000 people, including survivors, parents’ groups, administrators and alumni associations to find ways to improve the hodgepodge of policies and practices at schools around the nation. The task force met in person with representatives from at least 50 schools ranging in size from fewer than 100 students to over 40,000 students, senior Administration officials said on a conference call to preview the recommendations with reporters Monday evening.

The task-force recommendations, which are purely advisory, are designed to help schools learn best practices for addressing sexual assault so they can comply with federal law. The task force, which laid out a series of deadlines in the report, will continue to hold listening sessions and help implement the recommendations.

The White House proposal has four parts. First, it provides a tool kit of recommendations for how schools can best conduct a climate survey that measures the number of victims, student attitudes and campus knowledge about how and when to report sexual violence. The task force is calling on schools to conduct surveys voluntarily next year. The Justice Department, with the help of Rutgers University’s Center on Violence Against Women and Children, will use the trial period to further refine the survey and the administration hopes to make the survey mandatory by 2016. Climate surveys are considered necessary because only around 12 percent of sexual assault victims in college report the crime to law enforcement.

Second, the recommendations include prevention strategies, evaluated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Among the most promising, the CDC found, were bystander-awareness and intervention programs that encourage students to step in and stop sexual assault before it happens. The majority of campus men are not perpetrators, and according to the report, getting more men involved in prevention was a “constant refrain” in the task force’s conversation with stakeholders. To that end, the White House has also put out a public service announcement calling for men to intervene against violence and featuring sports stars like Jeremy Lin and David Beckham.

Third, the recommendations seek help schools respond when assault happens. For example, many schools have mandatory reporting requirements for faculty and staff, and the task force recommends providing confidential services to survivors through an entity like a sexual-assault resource center. The administration has provided a model confidentiality protocol for schools to follow and is providing schools with a sample agreement they can use to partner with local rape crisis centers if they are not equipped to offer 24-hour-a-day services.

Finally, the Administration moved to make its enforcement efforts more transparent. To start, the Administration has launched a new website, NotAlone.gov, that allows students to search enforcement data (like whether or not their school is involved in a resolution agreement with the federal government) and to find out how to file a Title IX complaint with the Departments of Education or Justice. By next year, the DOE will disseminate a list of Title XI coordinators–employees at schools designated to oversee Title XI compliance. To strengthen its enforcement efforts, the Department of Education is putting a 90-day limit on negotiations for their settlements with schools found in violation of Title IX and making it clear that schools should provide interim relief for victims, like changing class schedules.

The task-force recommendations are designed to help respond to schools’ concerns about how best to comply with federal law under Title IX. In April 2011 the Obama Administration sent a letter to colleges and universities reminding them of their obligations to adequately address sexual assault in order to comply with Title IX, a 1972 federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal funding. The letter prompted students at schools across the country, including private schools like Swarthmore and Yale and public universities like UNC Chapel Hill, to file Title IX complaints to the Department of Education, triggering investigations at a number of schools. In light of the cascade of complaints, the task-force report is meant to help schools figure out how to comply better with the law.

The task force’s goal of eventually making climate surveys mandatory is likely to create some controversy among schools. Colleges and universities subject to Title IX vary widely in their size and resources. W. Scott Lewis, a lawyer at the National Center for Higher Education, a firm focused on higher-education risk management, has cautioned that a “standardized climate survey could be a disaster,” because community colleges, private colleges and state schools are so different.

Administration officials, however, say they are sensitive to this problem and will use the next few months in the lead up to the potential requirement, to find out how best to create a survey that could be tailored to different schools. “We’ll get schools used to doing it, and then we’ll refine and evaluate,” said one senior Administration official on the call.

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