TIME Careers

Science Says Working Long Hours Is Seriously Bad for Your Health

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altrendo images—Getty Images/Altrendo

It's linked to stroke and coronary heart disease

Seriously: stop working so much, for your health’s sake.

A new study of 600,000 individuals in Australia, the United States, and Europe published in the Lancet, a United Kingdom-based medical journal, found that people who more more than 55 hours per week or more have a 33% greater risk of stroke and a 13% greater risk of coronary heart disease.

The study concludes that “more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours.”

The study is the largest so far to examine the relationship between working hours and cardiovascular health and is especially noteworthy because it points to stroke as a risk of working long hours. Earlier studies have linked heart attacks to excessive work.

There are critics of the study, though. Stephen Kopecky, a professor of medicine in the division of cardiology at the Mayo Clinic, told The New York Times, that the analysis did not fully account for the effects of cholesterol, family history, and blood pressure in all cases, so it is possible that long hours are not the only cause of the increased health risks.

TIME Careers

Tech Workers: Well-paid, But Less Happy Than Most

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Thomas Barwick—Getty Images

Good pay and perks aren't turning that frown upside-down

Sure, tech workers are paid well—with some enjoying six-figure starting salaries—and they’re on the receiving end of plush perks.

But according to a new survey, they’re incredibly unhappy.

Start-up Tiny Pulse, which monitors employee attitudes through weekly surveys, asked 5,000 workers in the tech space—software engineers, developers, and anyone else involved in the technology infrastructure of their workplace—about their job experience, and compared those answers to responses from workers outside the tech sector.

The results showed that tech workers are less happy that most.

Only 19% of tech worker respondents gave a strongly positive answer when asked how happy they are on the job.tinypulse tech worker happinessTheir answers to other similar questions were just as dour.

When asked how valued they feel at work, 17% of tech workers gave a nine or 10 on the 10-point scale (among non-tech workers, 22% did). Half of workers outside the tech space said their promotion and career path is clear to them. But for tech employees, that number is 36%. Forty-seven percent of tech workers say they have strong relationships with their coworkers, compared to 56% among workers overall.

These figures point to a disconnect between tech workers and their company, and they seem to support the hypothesis that the grueling workplace described in The New York Times‘ story about Amazon is widespread. But as Fortune reported on Tuesday, unhappiness or dissatisfaction at work doesn’t necessarily prevent workers from being productive.

MONEY Careers

The Career Trick That Could Make You Richer

It could make you richer.

Negotiation before starting a job is key. “Once you get inside your workplace,” says author Kerry Hannon, “getting those raises gets harder and harder.” Raises tend to be incremental, around 3% this year, but if you change companies, you could negotiate your salary much higher than that. A higher starting salary has repercussions down the line, like saving more for retirement. Do some reconnaissance about the company’s salary ranges if you can. And remember: “Any time someone hires you, it’s not about you; it’s about them,” says Hannon. “It’s what you can do for them.”

More: The 10 Commandments of Salary Negotiation

MONEY Finding a job

Need a Job? These 5 Fields Are Hiring Like Crazy

Companies are desperate for qualified candidates.

The unemployment rate in America keeps inching downward, measuring 5.3% in July, compared with 5.7% in January 2015 and roughly half the level it was during the worst of the Great Recession circa 2009.

The fact that life has gotten better (or at least more stable) for employees in a wide range of careers means that businesses have a harder time finding eager, aspiring job candidates—especially the kind of experienced, well-qualified ones that are most in demand. Here are a handful of fields facing big worker shortages right now.

Read next: How Do You Actually Land Your Dream Job?

  • Teachers

    High school precalculus teacher
    RJ Sangosti—Denver Post via Getty Images

    According to Education Week, there are now 100,000 fewer public school teachers than there were in 2008, before the Great Recession caused budget cutbacks and broad layoffs. State budgets have since rallied, and school districts all over the country have gotten the green light to hire many of those teachers back. But because the number of students training to be teachers declined significantly during the recession years, it’s been very difficult to find qualified candidates for the large number of openings.

    The New York Times is reporting that cities like Charlotte, Louisville, Nashville, and Oklahoma City—as well as pretty much everywhere in California—need new teachers so badly that they are “hiring novices still studying for their teaching credentials, with little, if any, classroom experience.” Aspiring teachers who are bilingual, and/or who are capable of handling math, science, and special education are particularly desirable candidates.

     

  • Chefs

    Chef in kitchen
    Cyrus McCrimmon—Denver Post via Getty Images

    Not long ago, restaurant owners had it pretty easy when they needed to hire a new chef. There was an abundance of qualified candidates for almost any opening, and restaurants could give a few aspiring employees a test-run in the kitchen before hiring anyone. Lately, however, the tables have turned. According to one restaurant owner who recently spoke to Fortune, it’s more typical nowadays for a dozen different restaurants to be fighting over the same single qualified chef to hire.

    The reasons for a shortage of quality chefs mostly boil down to two factors: 1) there have been a flood of new restaurant openings (perhaps 50 in a city like Denver, whereas 10 openings per year is more typical); and 2) the impatience of younger, debt-ridden culinary employees, who aren’t as game as those in the past to learn the craft as low-wage kitchen staff and work their way up the rungs.

  • Construction

    A carpenter carries lumber inside a house under construction.
    Daniel Acker—Bloomberg via Getty Images

    The housing bust took a huge toll on construction workers, to the tune of two million lost jobs, according to the Wall Street Journal. Now that the construction business has picked up again substantially, large building companies are struggling to find all of the experienced, qualified carpenters, plumbers, and electricians they need to keep up with the pace of the work.

  • Skilled Manufacturing

    Automation machinist
    Michael Ciaglo—AP

    The shortage of skilled manufacturing workers has been growing for years. The number of American manufacturing jobs that remained vacant was reportedly 600,000 a couple of years ago, and a 2015 report estimates that a skills gap will result in two million jobs going unfilled over the next decade.

    Average manufacturing wages have crept up to just over $25 per hour, compared with $24 in 2013. But at least some of the reason manufacturing firms have a hard time finding good workers is that the majority of Americans rank manufacturing low as a career choice. It seems that many think of assembly line and production workers, who tend to make wages of sub-$20 per hour, when they imagine a career in manufacturing. Relatively few think of engineers and machinists—the higher-paid kinds of skilled workers manufacturing companies need so badly.

  • Health Care

    Circulating nurse
    Dina Rudick—Boston Globe/Getty Images Circulating nurse

    In Michigan, hospitals have created paid apprenticeships to help attract and train medical assistants. Montana recently hosted a series of summer camps to expose high school students to careers in health care and medicine. Colleges in Florida, Wyoming, Nebraska, and beyond are ramping up outreach and educational programs to entice workers to enter a career in health care. These are among the many strategies being employed to address the looming shortage of doctors, aides, nurses, and other health care workers—who are in demand more than ever as more Baby Boomers retire and more Americans get access to treatment via Obamacare.

TIME Careers

17 Self-Made Billionaires Who Came from the Most Humble of Beginnings

29th Santa Barbara International Film Festival -  Montecito Award to Oprah Winfrey
Mark Davis—Getty Images Oprah Winfrey attends the 29th Santa Barbara International Film Festival Montecito at the Arlington Theatre on Feb 5, 2014 in Santa Barbara, Calif.

From Larry Ellison to Oprah

These 17 rags-to-riches stories remind us that through determination, grit, and a little bit of luck anyone can overcome their circumstances and achieve extraordinary success.

  1. Russian business tycoon and Chelsea Football Club owner Roman Abramovich was born into poverty and orphaned at age two. Net worth: $8.2 billion

    Abramovich was born in southern Russia, into poverty. After being orphaned at age two, he was raised by an uncle and his family in a subarctic region of northern Russia.

    While a student at the Moscow Auto Transport Institute in 1987, he started a small company producing plastic toys, which helped him eventually found an oil business and make a name for himself within the oil industry. Later, as sole leader of the Sibneft company, he completed a merger that made it the fourth biggest oil company in the world. The company was sold to state-run gas titan Gazprom in 2005 for for $13 billion.

    He acquired the Chelsea Football Club in 2003 and owns the world’s largest yacht, which cost him almost $400 million in 2010.

  2. Montpellier rugby club president and Entrepreneur of the Year Mohed Altrad survived on one meal a day when he moved to France. Net worth: $1 billionBorn into a nomadic tribe in the Syrian dessert to a poor mother who was raped by his father and died when he was young, Altrad was raised by his grandmother, who banned him from attending school, in Raqqa, the city that is now capital of ISIS.Altrad attended school anyway, and when he moved to France to attend university, he knew no French and lived off of one meal a day. Still, he earned a PhD in computer science, worked for some leading French companies, and eventually bought a failing scaffolding company, which he transformed into one of the world’s leading manufacturers of scaffolding and cement mixers, Altrad Group.He has previously been named French Entrepreneur of the Year and World Entrepreneur of the Year.
  3. Kenny Troutt, the founder of Excel Communications, paid his way through college by selling life insurance. Net worth: $1.5 billionTroutt grew up with a bartender dad and paid for his own tuition at Southern Illinois University by selling life insurance. He made most of his money from phone company Excel Communications, which he founded in 1988 and took public in 1996. Two years later, Troutt merged his company with Teleglobe in a $3.5 billion deal.He’s now retired and invests heavily in racehorses.
  4. Starbucks’ Howard Schultz grew up in a housing complex for the poor. Net worth: $2.9 billionIn an interview with British tabloid Mirror, Schultz says: “Growing up I always felt like I was living on the other side of the tracks. I knew the people on the other side had more resources, more money, happier families. And for some reason, I don’t know why or how, I wanted to climb over that fence and achieve something beyond what people were saying was possible. I may have a suit and tie on now but I know where I’m from and I know what it’s like.”Schultz ended up winning a football scholarship to the University of Northern Michigan and went to work for Xerox after graduation. Shortly after, he took over a coffee shop called Starbucks, which at the time had only 60 shops. Schultz became the company’s CEO in 1987 and grew the coffee chain to more than 16,000 outlets worldwide.
  5. Investor Ken Langone’s parents worked as a plumber and cafeteria worker. Net worth: $2.8 billionTo help pay for Langone’s school at Bucknell University, he worked odd jobs and his parents mortgaged their home.In 1968, Langone worked with Ross Perot to take Electronic Data Systems public. (It was later acquired by HP.) Just two years later, he partnered with Bernard Marcus to start Home Depot, which also went public in 1981.
  6. Born into poverty, Oprah Winfrey became the first African American TV correspondent in Nashville. Net worth: $3 billionWinfrey was born into a poor family in Mississippi, but this didn’t stop her from winning a scholarship to Tennessee State University and becoming the first African American TV correspondent in the state at the age of 19.In 1983, Winfrey moved to Chicago to work for an AM talk show which would later be called “The Oprah Winfrey Show.”
  7. John Paul DeJoria, the man behind a hair-care empire and Patron Tequila, once lived in a foster home and his car. Net worth: $2.9 billionBefore the age of 10, DeJoria, a first generation American, sold Christmas cards and newspapers to help support his family. He was eventually sent to live in a foster home and even spent some time in a gang before joining the military.With a $700 dollar loan, DeJoria created John Paul Mitchell Systems and sold the shampoo door-to-door while living in his car. He later started Patron Tequila, and now invests in other industries.
  8. At one time, businessman Shahid Khan washed dishes for $1.20 an hour. Net worth: $4.4 billionHe’s now one of the richest people in the world, but when Khan came to the US from Pakistan, he worked as a dishwasher while attending the University of Illinois. Khan now owns Flex-N-Gate, one of the largest private companies in the US, the NFL’s Jacksonville Jaguars, and Premier League soccer club Fulham.
  9. Forever 21 founder Do Won Chang worked as a janitor, gas station attendant, and in a coffee shop when he first moved to America. Net worth: $6.5 billionThe husband-and-wife team — Do Won Chang and Jin Sook — behind Forever 21 didn’t always have it so easy. After moving to America from Korea in 1981, Do Won had to work three jobs at the same time to make ends meet. They opened their first clothing store in 1984.Forever 21 is now an international, 480-store empire that rakes in around $3 billion in sales a year.
  10. Ralph Lauren was once a clerk at Brooks Brothers dreaming of men’s ties. Net worth: $6.8 billionLauren graduated high school in the Bronx, New York, but later dropped out of college to join the Army. It was while working as a clerk at Brooks Brothers that Lauren questioned whether men were ready for wider and brighter designs in ties. The year he decided to make his dream a reality, 1967, Lauren sold $500,000 worth of ties. He started Polo the next year.
  11. Steel tycoon Lakshmi Mittal came from modest beginnings in India. Net worth: $12.3 billionA 2009 BBC article says the ArcelorMittal CEO and chairman, who was born in 1950 to a poor family in the Indian state of Rajasthan, “established the foundations of his fortune over two decades by doing much of his business in the steel industry equivalent of a discount warehouse.”Today Mittal runs the world’s largest steel making company and is a multibillionaire.
  12. Luxury goods mogul Francois Pinault quit high school in 1974 after being bullied for being poor. Net worth: $14.2 billionPinault is now the face of fashion conglomerate Kering (formerly PPR), but at one time, he had to quit high school because he was teased so harshly for being poor. As a businessman, Pinault is known for his “predator” tactic, which includes buying smaller firms for a fraction of the cost when the market crashes. He eventually started PPR, which owns high-end fashion houses including Gucci, Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen, and Yves Saint Laurent.
  13. Leonardo Del Vecchio grew up in an orphanage and later worked in a factory where he lost part of his finger. Net worth: $24.1 billionDel Vecchio was one of five children who was eventually sent to an orphanage because his widowed mother couldn’t care for him. He would later work in a factory making molds of auto parts and eyeglass frames.At the age of 23, Del Vecchio opened his own molding shop, which expanded to become the world’s largest maker of sunglasses and prescription eyewear with brands like Ray-Ban and Oakley.
  14. Legendary trader George Soros survived the Nazi occupation of Hungary and arrived in London as an impoverished college student. Net worth: $24.2 billionIn his early teens, Soros posed as the godson of an employee of the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture in order to stay safe from the Nazi occupation of Hungary. In 1947, Soros escaped the country to live with his relatives in London. He put himself through the London School of Economics working as a waiter and railway porter.After graduating, Soros worked at a souvenir shop before getting a job as a banker in New York City. In 1992, his famous bet against the British pound made him a billion dollars.
  15. After his father died, business magnate Li Ka-shing had to quit school to help support his family. Net worth: $27.1 billion Ka-shing fled mainland China for Hong Kong in the 1940s, but his father died when he was 15, leaving Ka-shing responsible for supporting his family. In 1950, he started his own company, Cheung Kong Industries, which manufactured plastics at first but would later expand into real estate.
  16. College dropout Sheldon Adelson grew up sleeping on the floor of a Boston tenement house. Net worth: $29.5 billionAdelson, the son of a cab driver, grew up in Dorchester, Massachusetts, and began selling newspapers at the age of 12, reports Bloomberg Businessweek.A Forbes profile of the billionaire says years later, after dropping out of the City College of New York, Adelson “built a fortune running vending machines, selling newspaper ads, helping small businesses go public, developing condos and hosting trade shows.”Adelson lost almost all of his money in the Great Recession, but he earned much of it back in the following years. He now runs Las Vegas Sands, the largest casino company in the world, and is considered the most high-profile political donor in America, says Forbes.
  17. Oracle cofounder Larry Ellison dropped out of college after his adoptive mother died, and he held odd jobs for eight years.
    Net worth: $49.8 billion Born in Brooklyn, New York, to a single mother, Ellison was raised by his aunt and uncle in Chicago. After his aunt died, Ellison dropped out of college and moved to California to work odd jobs for the next eight years. He founded software development company Oracle in 1977, which is now one of the largest technology companies in the world.Last September he announced his plans to step down as Oracle’s CEO to become CTO and executive chairman.

This article originally appeared on Business Insider

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MONEY women

Getting Mad at Work Can Cost Women $15,000 in Annual Pay

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ONOKY - Eric Audras—Getty Images/Brand X

Angry men lose only half that amount in perceived worth.

Being overly aggressive or negative at work is never a good idea. But a new study finds that certain displays of assertiveness are perceived as especially unacceptable for women.

If a woman comes across as angry or critical, she is rated as 35% less competent and worthy of $15,088 less in pay than a woman who doesn’t rock the boat. Similar behavior by men costs them only about half as much in perceived fair compensation.

Corporate training company VitalSmarts surveyed more than 11,000 people in June to reach its results, which included this silver lining: Sometimes acknowledging sexism can reduce its effects.

When a woman prefaces a harsh comment with a “framing” phrase, like “I know it’s a risk for a woman to speak this assertively, but I’m going to express my opinion very directly,” backlash can be reduced by as much as 27%.

While discussing gender bias so openly might not feel comfortable in every workplace, more neutral statements also help reduce the negative effects on perception. One example: “I see this as a matter of honesty and integrity, so it’s important for me to be clear about where I stand.”

The study involved participants watching male and female actors reading the same scripts, pretending to be managers delivering criticism and suggesting there might be consequences for poor performance. After watching the actors, participants rated the “managers” in terms of competency and deserved pay.

Read More: 7 Myths About Women Leaders Debunked

MONEY Workplace

How to Stand Out in an Office Meeting

Meetings at work are a necessary evil. These rules will help you make the most of them.

Just because everyone complains about meetings doesn’t mean you can’t shine in one. Here are some tips to make sure you stand out (but not too much) in a meeting at work.

Try not to interrupt. Interrupting may make you come across as a blowhard.

Don’t be a wallflower either. You were invited to the meeting for a reason; make sure you contribute to the conversation.

Do some prep work. Have some talking points prepared.

Lean in. You’ll look more confident and more involved that way.

Try to sit across from the most important people in the room. When they look up from their notes, you’re the person they see.

Don’t undermine yourself. Phrases like “this is just my opinion but…” are not your friends. Speak confidently.

Be one of the first people to speak. This will help calm your nerves, and you won’t have to worry about someone else taking your ideas.

Read the body language. Are people checking their phones or drawing on their notepads? Maybe it’s time to sit down and shut up.

TIME Careers

Netflix Announced a Game-Changing Parental Leave Policy

This is huge for new parents

Netflix announced Tuesday that it’s allowing employees to take unlimited maternity or paternity leave during the first year after their child’s birth or adoption.

During that first year, Netflix employees will be able to take off however long they feel they need to. They can return on a full- or part-time basis, and even take subsequent time off later in the year if needed. Netflix will “keep paying them normally,” eliminating the hassle of having to switch to disability leave, the company says.

Netflix’s policy deserves high marks for extending leave to fathers, as well as understanding that the entire first year after childbirth can be challenging for new parents. But it should be noted that unlimited time off policies can have their pitfalls. Many tech companies, including Netflix, offer unlimited paid vacation time. That can be great for employees taking long trips, but it also means employees have to work with their managers and teams ahead of time to make sure their absence won’t jeopardize a project or deadline. Extended absences can also strain workplace relations.

MONEY job hunting

How Do You Actually Land Your Dream Job?

What is it that makes you excited about getting up in the morning?

What do you really love doing? Here’s how to figure out and land your dream job.

Talk to your network. Ask your friends. They know you well; ask what skills they see you with. You’ll likely hear things you take for granted about yourself.

Don’t do anything rash. Go slowly. Do your homework.

Research. Find out what’s out there right now you could be good at. Then, find out if you need some kind of professional licensing. If you do, go get it.

Try it out. Go and do the job pro-bono and find out how you like it. Get a sense of how well you fit in.

In order to make a huge industry switch, it’s good to allow three to five years to lay the groundwork and ensure you’re ready to launch.

Read next: How to Ace Any Interview and Land the Job of Your Dreams

TIME Social Media

The Lion-Killing Dentist Is Getting Totally Savaged Online

The backlash after killing of a beloved animal has been fierce

Minnesota dentist Walter James Palmer may regret his encounter with Cecil the lion. Reviews are coming in fast and furious on Yelp a month after the killing and since the hunter’s identity was revealed. As Fortune reported July 28, negative reviews were being posted to River Bluff Dental’s practice in droves. Today, the reviews number nearly 7,000.

Palmer, who traveled to Zimbabwe and killed the beloved beast for a reported $50,000 fee. The lion had been part of a 13-year Oxford University study and was popular among animal lovers visiting Zimbabwe’s Hwange National Park. Palmer, along with a group of hunters, killed Cecil with a bow and arrow.

As Fortune noted:

Until Tuesday, Palmer’s dentistry, River Bluff Dental, seems to have had few reviews. At one point late Tuesday afternoon, though, the dentistry had 25 pages of comments–totaling hundreds of posts–even as Yelp commenters noted that Yelp was deleting comments that weren’t entirely related to Palmer’s dental prowess.

Many of the reviews aren’t for the faint of heart. Here’s a round-up of some of the most damning as of July 29:

– “Here’s what I look for in a healthcare professional: a disgusting and thorough lack of compassion, sociopathic tendencies, a vile propensity for torture of the innocent, a bombastic self-importance, a demented and narcissistic sense of fun, a self-serving and egocentric disposition, a knack for betraying others’ trust, a history of lying to officials, a criminal record, and most of all a smug mug. I found all that in Dr. Walter Palmer at River Bluff Dental!”

– “Went in for a clean up. Left without a head,” wrote another, referring to the animal’s reported beheading.

“This dentist enjoys killing innocent, protected and endangered wildlife as a hobby. By continuing to visit this dentist you [are] endorsing horrific behavior!!! I am angry, disgusted and sad. I hope this man is hunted at the same capacity as he has hunted these innocent animals!!!!” wrote a third.

Palmer has defined himself despite the torrent of comment online. “I hired several professional guides, and they secured all proper permits,” Palmer said in a recent interview. “To my knowledge, everything about this trip was legal and properly handled. I had no idea that the lion I took was a known, local favorite, was collared and part of a study until the end of the hunt,” he added. “I relied on the expertise of my local professional guides to ensure a legal hunt.”

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