TIME Research

You Can Now Inhale Caffeine Instead of Drink It

Eagle Energy Vapor
Matt Lang—Eagle Energy Eagle Energy Vapor

A new e-cigarette-like inhaler gives users a boost of caffeine. But how safe is it?

Forget coffee and energy drinks—now you can inhale your caffeine.

Perhaps taking a cue from increasingly popular e-cigarettes, marketers have now created a way for people to vape their energy. The New York Times reported on Wednesday that products like Eagle Energy Vapor allow people to forgo their morning cup o’ joe and puff their caffeine instead. Each inhaler boasts a pretty small amount of caffeine, which the company says comes from natural sources like guarana, taurine, and ginseng (stimulants that are also common among energy drinks). As the Times describes it: “Think of it as a Red Bull for the lungs.”

No surprise, some experts in the medical community find this trend problematic. America is, evidently, a nation in need of a pick-me-up, at least if you consider the boom of products that contain caffeine, like energy drinks, caffeinated water and snacks and powdered caffeine. As I recently reported in TIME, the U.S. energy drink business is estimated to grow more than 11% by 2019 to an estimated $26.6 billion in yearly revenue.

So what’s the big deal?

From a health perspective, caffeine is tricky business. Many experts are concerned about some caffeinated products—particularly energy drinks. One of the primary arguments is that unlike coffee or soda, many energy drinks (and the new caffeine inhalers) contain multiple stimulants aside from synthetic caffeine. How these ingredients interact in combination is largely unknown. In addition, many doctors and health watchdogs are dissatisfied with the way these products are regulated. Manufacturers can choose to market their products as dietary supplements or as beverages, neither of which require pre-market safety approval by the FDA or any other public-health agency. According to the Times, the FDA has not reviewed the new caffeine inhalers for safety, either.

The effects of inhaling caffeine are also a gray area. “The way our bodies handle caffeine that is inhaled can be very different from when caffeine is in our food or drink,” says Mary M. Sweeney, a postdoctoral research fellow at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Even if an inhaled product delivers the same dose of caffeine as a cup of coffee, it may have different subjective effects for people because the time-course might be different.”

In 2013, the FDA announced that amid a growing trend of manufacturers adding caffeine to food products (like gum, for example), the agency was launching a safety investigation into the matter. It’s now 2015, and that information is still not available to consumers. The FDA says it is continuing to look into it.

The Eagle Energy Vapor inhaler’s aesthetic similarities to e-cigarettes are undeniable. And while the jury is still out in regards to the overall danger of e-cigarettes, recent federal data has shown use tripled among middle and high school students in just one year. Could caffeine inhalers attract young people in a similar way? Are they as dangerous as medical experts believe other caffeinated products are? We don’t know. But what Americans should know is that just because a new caffeinated product is on the market doesn’t mean that it’s undergone a rigorous safety testing or approval process, or that doctors think it’s safe.

“What troubles me most about this particular product is that the flavor composition appears to be similar to candy; thus, it could be attractive to children and adolescents,” says Steven Meredith, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. “The long-term effects of caffeine on the developing brains of children and adolescents are still relatively unknown. But, caffeine consumption interferes with sleep, and sleep is necessary for learning. Thus, long-term cognitive effects of excessive caffeine consumption at a young age is certainly plausible.”

While the FDA says it’s continuing to investigate caffeinated products, it may be in your best interest to stick to stimulants that most medical experts can get behind: coffee.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

This Is the Caffeine Capital of America

Here are the places in the U.S. with the most coffee lovers

Everyone knows that America doesn’t run on patriotism and hard work—it runs on caffeine. When Starbucks baristas spell your name wrong, it’s a harbinger of bad luck for the rest of your day; if your hands and mouth don’t suffer from spilled-coffee burns on a weekly basis, you’re not doing it right.

It seems like wherever you go around the country, one thing is for certain: you’ll undoubtedly be able to get your fix and be on your way. In fact, according to the National Coffee Association’s 2013 online survey, 83% of U.S. adults drink coffee, averaging three cups a day per person.

But, of course, some cities are much more wired than others. Out of many buzzing contenders, FindTheHome collaborated with FindTheCompany, to identify the cities in California with the most coffee shops per capita. The competition was intense, but only one city was crowned the beating heart that keeps the American dream…awake.

28. Boulder, CO

Cafés per 10K people: 10.86
Population: 100,363

27. Pasadena, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 10.87
Population: 138,004

26. Bend, OR

Cafés per 10K people: 10.88
Population: 78,128

25. West Palm Beach, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 10.91
Population: 100,778

24. San Rafael, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 11
Population: 58,162

23. Jupiter, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 11.03
Population: 56,219

22. Redmond, WA

Cafés per 10K people: 11.17
Population: 55,505

21. Palo Alto, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 11.19
Population: 65,234

20. Hoboken, NJ

Cafés per 10K people: 11.19
Population: 50,929

19. Fort Lauderdale, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 11.21
Population: 168,603

18. Miami, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 11.61
Population: 407,526

17. Berkeley, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 11.75
Population: 114,037

16. Portland, OR

Cafés per 10K people: 11.80
Population: 594,687

15. Asheville, NC

Cafés per 10K people: 11.89
Population: 84,883

14. Brookline, MA

Cafés per 10K people: 11.92
Population: 58,738

13. Hialeah, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 12.45
Population: 228,943

12. Portland, ME

Cafés per 10K people: 12.53
Population: 66,227

11. Cambridge, MA

Cafés per 10K people: 12.58
Population: 105,737

10. Kendall, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 13.37
Population: 77,018

9. Santa Fe, NM

Cafés per 10K people: 13.95
Population: 68,800

8. Newport Beach, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 14.07
Population: 86,001

7. Delray Beach, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 14.22
Population: 61,875

6. San Francisco, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 14.69
Population: 817,501

5. Sarasota, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 14.83
Population: 52,588

4. Seattle, WA

Cafés per 10K people: 15.01
Population: 624,681

3. Santa Monica, CA

Cafés per 10K people: 15.87
Population: 90,752

2. Boca Raton, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 16.15
Population: 86,671

1. Miami Beach, FL

Cafés per 10K people: 21.70
Population: 89,412

This article originally appeared on FindTheBest

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TIME Diet/Nutrition

5 Weird Coffee Trends You Should Know About

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When you're not in a hurry, try pour over

Americans are certifiably obsessed with coffee. Nearly 60% of Americans age 18 and up report they drink coffee on any given day, according to the National Coffee Association’s 2015 trends report, with this year’s Zagat coffee survey finding that the number of people with a daily habit is more like 80%.

As you’ve probably heard, the potential health benefits of coffee are many: it’s been linked with helping weight loss, and possibly even slashing your risk for diseases like diabetes and cancer. It may also boost your calorie-burn during a workout, making it the perfect pre-gym drink. While this definitely doesn’t mean you should drink coffee non-stop, you can feel great about your daily fix.

These days it’s not just your regular mug of hot and (deliciously) bitter goodness: Over a third of Americans are now choosing gourmet coffee beverages. And there are a number of trendy new ways to prepare the beverage.

Here are five buzzing ways to enjoy java, along with what you should know about each.

Pour over

The first time I saw this method I thought, hmmm, so this is just a low-tech way of making a brew? (e.g. no machine plugged into an outlet). But nope, there’s more to it than that. In a nutshell pour over involves placing freshly ground beans into a rinsed filter, within a filter holder or cone, which is placed over a vessel. Connoisseurs say that wetting the grounds, then continuously pouring water (heated to a precise temperature, usually 200 degrees) from a kettle methodically and slowly (we’re talking four minutes or so) over the grounds, rather than “flooding” them, extracts more flavor. When using this meticulous method some baristas also utilize scales and timers. Pour over has been referred to as “theater” because it’s quite entertaining to watch. I have to admit, I really enjoy the “show” myself when I’m not in a hurry for my cup, that is.

Cold brew

With cold brewing, time replaces heat: instead of five or 10 minutes of brewing with hot water, you steep coffee grounds in cold or room temp water for 12 hours or more before filtering them out. Because the coffee never comes into contact with hot water, certain oils and fatty acids, which can only be extracted by heat, are left behind in the grounds. Cold brewing fans say this results in coffee that’s smoother and less bitter.

Cold brew also tends to have less caffeine. For example, 16 ounces of Starbucks unsweetened cold brew contains around 165 mg of caffeine, compared to 330 mg in the same sized cup of dark roast. So if you’re looking for less intensityboth in buzz and in bitternessthis may be your brew. Just don’t confuse cold brew with regular iced coffee, which is typically made from hot coffee that’s been chilled or poured over ice.

Single-origin

Coffee makers often blend beans to create more complexity. For example, they might mix a bean with great flavor with another that has a fantastic aroma, or combine beans with varying flavor profiles. “Single-origin” means coffee made from beans grown in one geographical region, or even a specific farm, instead.

The benefit for the coffee-connoisseur? You get to experience the unique qualities imparted from just one source of beans, which are affected by things like climate, soil, elevation, biodiversity, and growing techniques. Beans from one farm in Ethiopia will have very different characteristics from those grown in Brazil, or Guatemala, and serious coffee lovers appreciate the nuances.

Two other key reasons single-origin coffee has become more popular involve sustainability and traceability. As coffee buyers develop relationships with specific coffee growers, farmers are often able to receive higher prices for their crops, use more environmentally-friendly farming techniques, and keep their land healthier, all of which help to improve the well-being of communities, and foster sustainability. Food enthusiasts are also much more interested in knowing exactly where their food comes from now, and choosing single origin can allow coffee drinkers to learn about the specific farm or farmers that produced their coffee, even if they are many miles away.

Edible coffee

Several years ago munching on a few dark chocolate covered espresso beans inspired me to whip some coffee grounds into a cherry almond smoothie (which was Ah-mazing), and I’ve been experimenting with baking and cooking with coffee ever since. It’s become a pretty hot culinary trend, and there are countless way to get creative in the kitchen. Try brewed coffee as the liquid in dishes ranging from oatmeal to a marinade. You can also use coffee grounds as a rub for meat, add it to pudding, yogurt, brownies or cookies, or in a myriad of savory dishes, like chili, and black bean soup.

Bulletproof

Bulletproof Coffee is a concoction created by a tech entrepreneur named Dave Asprey. The controversial formula involves a combination of proprietary coffee, grass fed butter, and a Bulletproof branded “Brain Octane Oil” made with coconut and/or palm kernel, which are rich in a type of fat shown in some research to boost satiety and your ability to burn calories. While grass-fed butter is certainly better for you than its conventional counterpart, proponents of this coffee drink (and the diet) recommend sipping it as a breakfast substitute.

Personally I do not advise trading a healthy breakfast like an organic veggie and avocado omelet, or oats with fruit and nuts, which provide a much broader spectrum of nutrients, for coffee alone, with about 400 calories from butter and oil. While drinking the coffee by itself is supposed to be connected to its weight loss benefits (coming from the zero carb and high fat content), I have seen people shed 25, 50, even 100 pounds eating healthy, balanced meals that include reasonable portions of “good” carbs. So in short, my biggest concern about the coffee isn’t so much its ingredients, but what you’re giving up for them.

Now that you’ve got the skinny on these trends, it’s up to you what you brew next.

Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, is Health’s contributing nutrition editor, and privately counsels clients in New York, Los Angeles, and long distance. Cynthia is currently the sports nutrition consultant to the New York Rangers NHL team and the Tampa Bay Rays MLB team, and is board certified as a specialist in sports dietetics.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

More from Health.com:

TIME Coffee

Early Morning is Actually the Worst Time to Drink Coffee

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Is coffee no longer giving you an energy boost in the morning? Here's why

Every so often, science disproves the thinking behind a deeply embedded habit we have. The latest: drinking coffee in the morning.

It turns out, the morning is actually one of the worst times of the day to drink coffee, according to YouTube science channel ASAP Science. The reason? The high levels of cortisol in our bodies early in the morning.

You see, consuming caffeine when cortisol levels are high creates two problems. One is that caffeine interferes with the body’s production of cortisol, a hormone that’s released in response to stress and low blood glucose. The body ends up producing less cortisol, and relying more on caffeine to compensate.

The other effect of drinking coffee in the morning is well-known to habitual morning drinkers: It increases the person’s tolerance to caffeine because it replaces the natural cortisol-induced boost instead of adding to it.

Bear in mind that cortisol levels are high at three times of the day, not just early in the morning, according to a 2009 study. So the best times to drink coffee — or caffeine in general — is between 10 a.m. and noon, and between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.

Early morning coffee drinkers should consider adjusting their schedule to better optimize their caffeine intake. As pleasant as a cup o’ joe may be first thing in the morning, turns out it’s quite ineffective.

Read next: 5 Things You Need to Know About Coffee the Wonder-Beverage

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TIME Food & Beverage

Drinking 4 Coffees a Day Is Bad for You, Study Says

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Getty Images

Less than 400 mg of caffeine per day is safe

A lot of caffeine is bad for your health, according to a new study, and many people are consuming too much of it.

A new report by the European Food Safety Authority says that more than 400 mg of caffeine a day, or about four cups of coffee, is linked to heart problems, insomnia and panic attacks. This safe amount of caffeine is halved for pregnant women.

Many countries recommend about this amount of caffeine intake, but the problem, according to BBC, is that people still have too much. An EFSA spokesperson gave an example to BBC: “If you have a bar of dark chocolate at 11:00 and espresso with lunch, a tea at 16:00 and vodka-Red Bull in the evening – that’s a lot of caffeine over the day.”

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Drinking Coffee May Fight Against Erectile Dysfunction

Researchers have found a link between higher caffeine consumption and lower ED

Good news for coffee drinkers: a few cups a day could help curb men’s risk for erectile dysfunction.

A new study from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston found that men who drink more caffeine (the equivalent of about two or three cups of coffee) are less likely to experience erectile dysfunction than their peers who consume little or no caffeine, according to CBS News. Researchers can’t prove causality in this finding, but they suggest the correlation could be true because caffeine helps relax muscles and arteries, allowing freer blood flow.

The finding does not seem to apply, however, to diabetics, who face higher risks of erectile dysfunction.

[CBS]

TIME Diet/Nutrition

How Much Coffee Should You Really Be Drinking?

espresso-coffee-cups
Getty Images

To determine your daily dose, here are five factors to consider

I love coffee, and I’ve written about it a lot over the past few years, from why it’s actually good for both mental and physical health, to reasons to drink java before a workout. So I wasn’t surprised when, for the first time in history, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee gave coffee a thumbs up.

But many of the headlines pertaining to the report didn’t tell the whole story, leaving a lot of people wondering how much is really OK. To determine your daily dose, here are five factors to consider.

Everyone’s different

The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee looked at whether coffee poses any health risks, a topic they have previously been silent on. They concluded that strong evidence shows moderate coffee consumption (3 to 5 eight-ounce cups per day, or up to 400 milligram/day caffeine) isn’t tied to any long-term dangers for healthy people. Now, the word “healthy” is key (read on for more), and this is a general statement, not a directive. In other words, the committee isn’t saying that everyone should drink 3 to 5 cups a day.

Even if it may offer some benefits, it’s important to listen to your body. Some people can drink a strong cup of coffee and feel fantastic. Others may drink half a cup and feel jittery and be left with an upset stomach. There’s a lot of individual variation when it comes to how coffee makes you feel. So, don’t take this as a green light to down a pot a day. Consider what feels best for you. (And if the answer is none, there’s no reason to start drinking java.)

Read more: 20 Best Foods to Eat for Breakfast

Your current health matters

The committee considered healthy individuals. If you already have heart disease or other chronic conditions, you may still need to curb your coffee consumption. For example, I sometimes recommend coffee to my healthy athlete clients, but others who suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or other digestive disorders feel much better when they eliminate it, as do those who have anxiety disorders. And while coffee hasn’t been shown to cause high blood pressure across the board, it may aggravate the condition. Bottom line: if you have any acute or ongoing medical conditions or your blood work values have been out of the normal range, talk to your doctor or personal dietitian/nutritionist about what’s best for you.

Be mindful of your sleep

One thing we know for certain is that caffeine interferes with sleep for most people, and catching enough zzz’s is critical for mental and physical well being, as well as for weight control (check out my previous post 5 Healthy Habits That Regulate Your Appetite). A good rule of thumb is to nix all caffeine at least six hours before bed. So if you’re tempted to pour another cup when you’re in an afternoon slump, find other ways to perk up, like going for a quick walk, listening to a five-minute guided meditation, or drinking a cold glass of water.

Read more: 18 Reasons Why Your Stomach Hurts

Your genetics play a role

Due to a genetic variation which affects a particular enzyme, some people break down caffeine at a very slow rate. It’s fairly common and, for these people, even a moderate daily coffee intake can increase the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure. Access to this genetic test was extremely limited until recently, but if you’re interested, a University of Toronto-affiliated company called Nutrigenomix now offers it, and you can order it through a registered dietitian.

Consider what else is in your cup

While I’ve written about coffee’s potential benefits, I still often recommend limiting it to just one cup in the morning. That’s because many people aren’t able to drink it without doctoring it up with some kind of milk and sweetener, and those extras can add up to surplus calories that feed fat cells. For example, 150 calories (roughly the amount in a skinny vanilla latte) doesn’t sound like much, but downing an extra 150 calories above and beyond what your body needs to support your ideal weight each day can leave you 10 to 15 pounds heavier. Not to mention that extra cups of Joe tend to crowd out water, the ultimate beverage for optimal health. Balance is always the goal.

Read more: Best and Worst Foods for Sleep

Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, is Health’s contributing nutrition editor, and privately counsels clients in New York, Los Angeles, and long distance. Cynthia is currently the sports nutrition consultant to the New York Rangers NHL team and the Tampa Bay Rays MLB team, and is board certified as a specialist in sports dietetics.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

Read next: Why You Should Order a Latte Instead of Coffee

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TIME Heart Disease

Moderate Amounts of Coffee May Help Keep Arteries Clear, Study Says

Man on desk holding cup of coffee, close up
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Coffee in your veins may actually be healthy

Drinking three to five cups of coffee per day may help to reduce signs of blocked arteries, says a new study out of South Korea.

Published Monday in the medical journal Heart, the study involved more than 25,000 male and female workers, who previously showed no signs of heart disease, looking for calcium buildups indicating plaque growth that can cause heart attacks and strokes.

The results showed that those who drank the least amount of coffee, and the most, had a larger amount of calcium in their arteries than those who consumed a moderate amount.

Interestingly, researchers also discovered that the findings were consistent through different subsectors, such as smokers, drinkers and those with obesity issues.

“While this study does highlight a potential link between coffee consumption and lower risk of developing clogged arteries, more research is needed to confirm these findings and understand what the reason is for the association,” Victoria Taylor of the British Heart Foundation told the BBC.

Taylor also noted that the results should not be generalized because different cultures have distinct lifestyle and dietary customs that may also contribute to cardiovascular health.

TIME Careers & Workplace

Here’s How Caffeine Can Silently Kill Your Success

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Jorn Georg Tomter—Getty Images

Your daily cup of joe is hurting your performance far more than it's helping it

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This post is in partnership with Inc., which offers useful advice, resources and insights to entrepreneurs and business owners. The article below was originally published at Inc.com.

This week’s tip for improving your performance is the most simple and straightforward method I’ve provided thus far. For many people, this tip has the potential to have a bigger impact than any other single action. The catch? You have to cut down on caffeine, and as any caffeine drinker can attest, this is easier said than done.

For those who aren’t aware, the ability to manage your emotions and remain calm under pressure has a direct link to your performance. TalentSmart has conducted research with more than a million people, and we’ve found that 90 percent of top performers are high in emotional intelligence. These individuals are skilled at managing their emotions (even in times of high stress) in order to remain calm and in control.

The good: Isn’t really good.

Most people start drinking caffeine because it makes them feel more alert and improves their mood. Many studies suggest that caffeine actually improves cognitive task performance (memory, attention span, etc.) in the short-term. Unfortunately, these studies fail to consider the participants’ caffeine habits. New research from Johns Hopkins Medical School shows that performance increases due to caffeine intake are the result of caffeine drinkers experiencing a short-term reversal of caffeine withdrawal. By controlling for caffeine use in study participants, John Hopkins researchers found that caffeine-related performance improvement is nonexistent without caffeine withdrawal. In essence, coming off caffeine reduces your cognitive performance and has a negative impact on your mood. The only way to get back to normal is to drink caffeine, and when you do drink it, you feel like it’s taking you to new heights. In reality, the caffeine is just taking your performance back to normal for a short period.

The bad: Adrenaline.

Drinking caffeine triggers the release of adrenaline. Adrenaline is the source of the fight-or-flight response, a survival mechanism that forces you to stand up and fight or run for the hills when faced with a threat. The fight-or-flight mechanism sidesteps rational thinking in favor of a faster response. This is great when a bear is chasing you, but not so great when you’re responding to a curt email. When caffeine puts your brain and body into this hyper-aroused state, your emotions overrun your behavior.

Irritability and anxiety are the most commonly seen emotional effects of caffeine, but caffeine enables all of your emotions to take charge.

The negative effects of a caffeine-generated adrenaline surge are not just behavioral. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that large doses of caffeine raise blood pressure, stimulate the heart, and produce rapid shallow breathing, which readers of Emotional Intelligence 2.0 know deprives the brain of the oxygen needed to keep your thinking calm and rational.

The ugly: Sleep.

When you sleep, your brain literally recharges, shuffling through the day’s memories and storing or discarding them (which causes dreams), so that you wake up alert and clear-headed. Your self-control, focus, memory, and information-processing speed are all reduced when you don’t get enough–or the right kind–of sleep. Your brain is very fickle when it comes to sleep. For you to wake up feeling rested, your brain needs to move through an elaborate series of cycles. You can help this process along and improve the quality of your sleep by reducing your caffeine intake.

Here’s why you’ll want to: caffeine has a six-hour half-life, which means it takes a full twenty-four hours to work its way out of your system. Have a cup of joe at 8 a.m., and you’ll still have 25 percent of the caffeine in your body at 8 p.m. Anything you drink after noon will still be at 50 percent strength at bedtime. Any caffeine in your bloodstream–with the negative effects increasing with the dose–makes it harder to fall asleep.

When you do finally fall asleep, the worst is yet to come. Caffeine disrupts the quality of your sleep by reducing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the deep sleep when your body recuperates and processes emotions. When caffeine disrupts your sleep, you wake up the next day with an emotional handicap. You’re naturally going to be inclined to grab a cup of coffee or an energy drink to try to make yourself feel better. The caffeine produces surges of adrenaline, which adds to your emotional handicap. Caffeine and lack of sleep leave you feeling tired in the afternoon, so you drink more caffeine, which leaves even more of it in your bloodstream at bedtime. Caffeine very quickly creates a vicious cycle.

Withdrawal.

Like any stimulant, caffeine is physiologically and psychologically addictive. If you do choose to lower your caffeine intake, you should do so slowly under the guidance of a qualified medical professional. The researchers at Johns Hopkins found that caffeine withdrawal causes headache, fatigue, sleepiness, and difficulty concentrating. Some people report feeling flulike symptoms, depression, and anxiety after reducing intake by as little as one cup a day. Slowly tapering your caffeine dosage each day can greatly reduce these withdrawal symptoms.

TIME Research

Energy Drinks May Drive Kids to Distraction

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A new study finds a link between consumption of energy drinks and hyperactivity and inattention

Middle schoolers who consume sweetened energy drinks are 66% more at risk for hyperactivity than other kids, according to a new study.

To assess the effect of a variety of beverages on middle schoolers, Yale School of Public Health researchers surveyed 1,649 students in 5th, 7th, and 8th grade about their beverage consumption and assessed their levels of hyperactivity and inattention.

“Despite considering numerous types of beverages in our analyses (eg, soda, fruit drinks), only energy drinks were associated with greater risk of hyperactivity/inattention,” the authors write in the study published in the journal Academic Pediatrics.

Unlike soda and juice, energy drinks often contain ingredients like guarana and taurine. The researchers say it could be the effect of these ingredients mixed with caffeine that causes problems.

“Energy drinks contain large amounts of caffeine, sugar and other ingredients that work synergistically with caffeine. Caffeine may be contributing to this association because the caffeine content of energy drinks is far greater on average than that of soda,” the authors write.

It’s important to note that the researchers could not determine that the energy drinks caused the hyperactivity and inattentiveness in the kids. The American Beverage Association has guidelines for energy drink companies that recommend against marketing their products to children and not selling in K-12 schools.

However, a January report from U.S. Sens. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.), Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), and Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.) shows most energy drink companies will market to young people under age 18, which the senators object to arguing there are safety concerns for teenagers as well.

“Our results support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that parents should limit consumption of sweetened beverages and that children should not consume any energy drinks,” study author Jeannette Ickovics, director of CARE (Community Alliance for Research and Engagement) at the Yale School of Public Health said in a statement.

 

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