TIME Books

Here’s a ‘Lost’ Chapter from Charlie and the Chocolate Factory

The chapter was cut after it was deemed subversive

Fans of Roald Dahl’s children’s classic Charlie and the Chocolate Factory can finally enjoy a lost chapter deemed too subversive to print.

The work, which ran in the The Guardian on Saturday, was found in the deceased author’s papers and was originally intended to be the fifth chapter.

Among the material deemed subversive for children is a description of a “pounding and cutting room” where knives and machines threaten to cut and pound a child instead of fudge.

“[A] whole lot of knives come down and go chop chop chop, cutting it up into neat little squares, ready for the shops,” the chapter quotes Willy Wonka saying, after two ill-behaved children have wound up in the room.

The new excerpt also references eight children who have been selected to tour the factory, four more than in the final version of the book.

[The Guardian]

 

TIME

Is America’s Second Contractors’ War Drawing Near?

Invisible Soldiers: How America Outsourced Our Security
Invisible Soldiers: How America Outsourced Our Security Courtesy Simon & Schuster

Four years ago this Sunday, President Barack Obama declared the end of the Iraq war. So much of that fight and our current involvement in the Middle East is carried out by a privatized military. Here's why that matters

Last year, on the tenth anniversary of the 2003 Iraq invasion, there was the predictable commentary about why we went to war and what the consequences were. And there was some attention given to the fact that this had been the most privatized military engagement in U.S. history, with private contractors actually outnumbering traditional troops — the “First Contractors’ War,” as Middlebury College scholar Allison Stanger called it in 2009. No one, however, talked about the possibility of a second contractors’ war, a topic that may surface sooner than we anticipated and one that yields a multitude of questions. This time, for example, will we be told about the extent of the role of military and security contractors? Will we know which companies are making millions, even billions, from providing armed and unarmed services in the name of American defense? Will we know how many layers of subcontractors there are, from what countries they were hired, and who trained them? When the U.S. government announces casualty totals, will the stats include the contractors who were wounded and killed? And what about the soldiers missing in action? In Iraq by the spring of 2011 there were eight MIAs, seven of which were private contractors.

The First Contractors’ War was “a remarkably unprecedented experiment” in the privatization of America’s defense forces, as California’s U.S. Rep. Henry Waxman (D) told Congress in 2007– one that clearly succeeded. And out of such success arose a bold new industry of private military and security companies, some of which had already existed and grew substantially during the bonanza of contracts that defined the Iraq war, and hundreds, perhaps thousands, of new ones worldwide. Their broad range of services may include police training, intelligence analysis, logistics support, air transport, border patrol, weapons procurement, and drone operations. They assist U.S. forces in contingency operations and remain long after the military withdraws from combat zones; they guard our diplomats; and they play key roles in U.S. counterterrorism strategies. They work for the United Nations, for AFRICOM ( the U.S. unified command in Africa) and for multinational corporations working in hostile environments; they provide armed security to the shipping industry. Their markets exist wherever instability threatens development; wherever military commitments exceed the capabilities of nations; wherever governments are viewed as incapable of supplying defense and security fast enough.

They are the latest incarnation of the solutions that President Eisenhower referred to in the often-overlooked part of his famed 1961 “military-industrial complex” address: “Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties.” Now, wherever our geopolitical missions take us, these companies will be part of the plan. As former U.S. Rep. Chris Shays, who served as co-chair for Congress’s Commission on Wartime Contracting, said recently, “The one thing that’s a given now: We can’t go to war without contractors and we can’t go to peace without contractors.”

But what does it matter? Why should we care who defends and secures us, how and where they are trained, and whether or not they are employees of private military and security companies? Why should we worry at all about the Second Contractors’ War? If dismal and dangerous jobs are outsourced and we can tend to our own concerns, what’s the problem? The simple fact that we have to ask such a question exposes the reality that we know too little about who these contractors are and that we care too little about what it means for our nation to be dependent on them. The simplest answer to why it matters thus becomes one word: democracy.

Private military and security firms promote themselves as on-call businesses, which effectively provide a fast solution that averts the often slow democratic process. To be sure, democracy demands restraint to allow for discourse, which in turn requires transparency. “Reliance on contractors allows the government to work under the radar of public scrutiny,” the New York Times noted in 2010. But what about the citizens’ right to know and need to know for the sake of their own security? The more the citizens of a nation are removed from the job of its defense and do not see the full impact of war, including all casualties, the easier it is for policy makers to engage the nation in conflicts and for citizens to lose a personal connection, a passionate allegiance, to nation — the passion that throughout history has motivated insurgents (including the American rebels in our revolution) to win wars. In other words, such indifference is a threat to our security. If a nation is not aware of the impact of war, then it will not fear going to war; if not affected then its citizens will not discuss and debate.

In August of 2011, the final report of the three- year study by Congress’s Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan exposed some unnerving details about our dependence on private contractors and fervently urged reforms to prevent any repeat performances. It warned: “Delay and denial are not good options. There will be a next contingency, whether the crisis takes the form of overseas hostilities or domestic response to a national emergency like a mass-casualty terror attack or natural disaster.”

Three years later, we as citizens of a democracy must ask ourselves: are we ready for the Second Contractors’ War?

Ann Hagedorn is the award-winning author of the new book The Invisible Soldiers: How America Outsourced Our Security. She’s written four previous books: Wild Ride, Ransom, Beyond the River, and Savage Peace, and has been a staff writer for The Wall Street Journal. She has taught writing at Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism, Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism, Xavier University, and Miami University. She holds an M.S. in journalism from Columbia University and an honorary doctorate in humane letters from Denison University. She divides her time between New York City and a small Ohio River town, which she discovered during her research for Beyond the River.

TIME celebrity

Bruce Springsteen Is Writing a Children’s Book

US singer Bruce Springsteen and The E St
US singer Bruce Springsteen and The E Street Band perform, on May 17, 2012 at Palau Sant Jordi in Barcelona. LLUIS GENE—AFP/Getty Images

It's about a bank-robbing baby, based on his song 'Outlaw Pete'

Well, friends, it looks like the Boss is officially getting into the publishing game. He’s working on a book called Outlaw Pete, inspired by his 2009 song of the same name, the New York Times reports.

Simon & Schuster, which is publishing the book, is touting it as a “a picture book for adults” that can also be read to children. (We’re pretty sure this actually means it’s a children’s book that can also be enjoyed by adults, but okay.)

“It’s a book for anybody who loves a good Western,” Simon & Schuster president Jonathan Karp told the Times Thursday.

“Outlaw Pete,” from Springsteen’s 2009 album Working on a Dream, is an eight-minute track outlining the story of a bank-robbing baby. The book will pair Springsteen’s words with the illustrations of cartoonist Frank Caruso. It hits shelves November 4. Our hearts are already hungry for it.

TIME Books

See an Exclusive ‘Self-Portrait’ From the Creator of XKCD

XKCD Creator Randall Munroe
Munroe has fun with the formulas for angular momentum of a spinning object (top) and centripetal force (bottom). Randall Munroe for TIME

The webcomic's science series, What If?, is now a book

For the past two years, xkcd creator Randall Munroe has been answering fantastical science questions for his popular webcomic’s sister site, What If?. In the new issue of TIME, Munroe talks about turning the project into a book (What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions, hitting shelves Sept. 2) and how he conducts his investigations into topics like jetpacks and dinosaur nutrition.

“I try to be entertaining in the way I share them, but my real motivation with each question is that I want to know the answer,” Munroe says. “Once a question gets into my head, it will keep bugging me until I figure out the answer, whether I’m writing an article about it or not.”

Though Munroe says he uses stick-figures for xkcd and What If? because he’s “not very good at drawing,” we asked him to draw a self-portrait anyway — at least, as much of a self-portrait as you can get using only stick-figures. In the exclusive illustration above, also on newsstands now, Munroe has fun with the formulas for angular momentum of a spinning object (top) and centripetal force (bottom).

TIME psychology

Quiz: Are You A Narcissist?

Take the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, developed by Robert Raskin and Howard Terry.

Check the answer in each pair that comes closest to describing you. Don’t leave any pairs blank; try to complete the survey in just a few minutes. The highest possible score is 40, the lowest is 0.

Penguin Group

Excerpted from The Narcissist Next Door: Understanding the Monster in Your Family, in Your Office, in Your Bed—in Your World

Read More: The Evolution of a Narcissist

TIME Books

The 5 Greatest Fantasy Novels of All Time

From C.S. Lewis to Susanna Clark, Magicians author Lev Grossman makes his top picks

TIME book critic and technology writer Lev Grossman recently published The Magician’s Land, the final book in his fantasy trilogy. To accompany his essay about how fantasy literature is transforming the pop-culture landscape, he’s also named the five most influential fantasy books ever written.

TIME Healthcare

One Patient, Too Many Doctors: The Terrible Expense of Overspecialization

Doctored, by Sandeep Jauhar
Doctored, by Sandeep Jauhar Courtesy Farrar, Straus and Giroux

As physicians become more specialized, our health care system becomes increasingly costly, sloppy and disorganized

Not long ago, a primary-care physician called me about a patient with a right-lung “consolidation” — probably pneumonia, though a tumor could not be excluded — that a lung specialist had decided to biopsy. My colleague wanted me to provide “cardiac clearance” for the procedure.

“Sure, I’ll see him,” I said, sitting in my office. “How old is he?”

“Ninety-two.”

I stopped what I was doing. “Ninety-two? And they want to do a biopsy?”

My colleague, who is from Nigeria, started laughing. “What can I tell you? In my country we would leave him alone, but this is America, my friend.”

Though accurate data is lacking, the overuse of health care services in this country probably costs hundreds of billions of dollars each year out of the $3 trillion that Americans spend on health. This overuse is driven by many forces: “defensive” medicine by doctors trying to avoid lawsuits, a reluctance on the part of doctors and patients to accept diagnostic uncertainty (thus leading to more tests), lack of consensus about which treatments are effective, and the pervading belief that newer, more expensive drugs and technology are better. However, perhaps the most important factor is the overspecialization of the American physician workforce and the high frequency with which these specialists are called by primary-care physicians for help.

The past half-century has witnessed great changes in American medicine. One of the biggest shifts is the rise of specialists. In 1940, three-quarters of America’s physicians were general practitioners. By 1960 specialists outnumbered generalists, and by 1970 only a quarter of doctors counted themselves general practitioners. This increase paralleled an equally dramatic rise in medical expenses, from $3 billion in 1940 to $75 billion in 1970.

Specialist-driven care has now become a fact of medical practice. In the past decade, the probability that a visit to a physician resulted in a referral to a specialist has nearly doubled, from 5% to more than 9%. Referral rates to specialists are estimated to be at least twice as high in the U.S. as in Britain.

The consequences for patients are troubling. Besides high costs, having too many consultants leads to sloppiness and disorganization. As Drs. Donald Berwick and Allan Detsky recently wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association, inpatient care at hospitals has become a relay race for physicians and consultants, and patients are the batons.

I remember a 50-year-old patient of my Nigerian colleague who was admitted to the hospital with shortness of breath. During his monthlong stay, which probably cost upward of $100,000, he was seen by a hematologist; an endocrinologist; a kidney specialist; a podiatrist; two cardiologists; a cardiac electrophysiologist; an infectious-disease specialist; a pulmonologist; an ear, nose and throat specialist; a urologist; a gastroenterologist; a neurologist; a nutritionist; a general surgeon; a thoracic surgeon; and a pain specialist. The man underwent 12 procedures, including cardiac catheterization, a pacemaker implant and a bone-marrow biopsy (to investigate only mild anemia). Every day he was in the hospital, his insurance company probably got billed nearly $1,000 for doctor visits alone. When he was discharged (with only minimal improvement in his shortness of breath), follow-up visits were scheduled for him with seven specialists.

This case — in which expert consultations sprouted with little rhyme, reason or coordination — reinforced a lesson I learned many times in my first year as an attending physician: in our health care system, if you have a slew of specialists and a willing patient, almost any sort of terrible excess can occur.

What to do about this overspecialization? One option is accountable-care organizations, an idea put forward by the Affordable Care Act, in which teams of doctors would be responsible (and paid accordingly) for their patients’ clinical outcomes. This would force specialists to coordinate care. Unfortunately, most doctors, notoriously independent and already smothered in paperwork, have generally performed poorly in this regard.

Reforms will also have to focus on patient education. Medical specialty societies recently released lists of tests and procedures that are not beneficial to patients. By using these lists, cardiologists have been able to decrease their use of imaging tests by 20%. Better-informed patients might be the most potent restraint on overspecialized care. A large percentage of health care costs is a consequence of induced demand — that is, physicians persuading patients to consume services they would not have chosen had they been better educated. If patients were more involved in medical decisionmaking, there would be more constraints on doctors’ behavior, decreasing the possibility of unnecessary testing. This could serve as a potent check on what the doctor ordered.

Today roughly 1 of 6 dollars spent in America goes toward health care. If we do not succeed in controlling these costs, they will gradually crowd out other necessary societal expenditures. Improving health literacy will be critical to these efforts. Without a better understanding of what doctors are actually doing, one may end up like the patient who had 17 consultants and 12 procedures and who reinforced a further lesson I have learned many times since entering practice: when too many specialists are involved in a case, the result too often is waste, disorganization and overload.

Jauhar is a cardiologist and the author of Intern: A Doctor’s Initiation and the new memoir, out today, Doctored: The Disillusionment of an American Physician

TIME Books

The Real-Life Alex From Orange Is the New Black Is Writing a Memoir

Laura Prepon orange is the new black season 3
Jill Greenberg—Netflix

Piper Kerman's former lover will share stories from her life in drug-trafficking and her time in prison

Fans of the Netflix show Orange Is the New Black can read Piper Kerman’s best-selling memoir of the same name to find out the real-life story of Kerman’s time in prison. And soon, they’ll be able to hear the same story from another perspective—that of Cleary Wolters, Piper’s lover, who inspired the character of Alex Vause on the show.

The real-life inspiration for Vause, played by Laura Prepon on the comedy drama, has signed a deal with HarperCollins’ HarperOne to publish Out of Orange in May of 2015. Wolters, who went to jail for participating in a drug trafficking and money laundering scheme, will address her complex relationship with Kerman, her crimes leading up to her imprisonment and her experience inside prison in the book.

“Alex [the character] and Piper have inspired me to tell my whole story — an unbelievable saga that takes place all over the world: Africa, Europe, Asia, and the U.S. both in prison and out,” Wolters said in a statement. “I think people may be surprised at what happened to me after I turned myself in — and where my life is now.”

TIME Books

Meet J.K. Rowling’s New Harry Potter Character

Celestina Warbeck, the "Singing Sorceress," is a favorite of Molly Weasley

J.K. Rowling unveiled a new character in the Harry Potter universe Monday, and she’s a stylish songstress who just happens to be Ron Weasley’s mom’s favorite singer.

Celestina Warbeck has never been seen in the flesh in any of the seven Harry Potter books, but Rowling wrote a new story about her excerpted on Today.com and released in full on Pottermore.com. Here’s a hint about Warbeck’s humble half-Muggle origins and her blockbuster music career:

Internationally-acclaimed singing sensation Celestina Warbeck (sometimes known as ‘the Singing Sorceress’) hails from Wales. Her father, a minor functionary in the Muggle Liaison Office, met her Muggle mother (a failed actress) when the latter was attacked by a Lethifold disguised as a stage curtain…

Some of Celestina’s best-known songs include You Charmed the Heart Right Out of Me and A Cauldron Full of Hot, Strong Love. Her fans are usually older people who love her grandstanding style and powerful voice. The late 20th-century album You Stole My Cauldron but You Can’t Have My Heart was a massive global hit.

You can listen to a full track of Celestina Warbeck’s hit single You Stole My Cauldron but You Can’t Have My Heart on Pottermore.com, but you need a membership and you have to “unlock” it first by playing in the Pottermore universe.

[TODAY]

 

 

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