MONEY Ask the Expert

Do You Really Need Medigap Insurance If You’re in Good Health?

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Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: We are in good health and have a Medigap Plan N for 2014. With same expected health in 2015, do we need anything more than Medicare A, B, and D plans? —Norbert & Sue

A: Medigap, a private insurance policy that supplements Medicare, picks up where Medicare leaves off, helping you cover co-payments, coinsurance, and deductibles. Some policies also pay for services Medicare doesn’t touch, like medical care outside the U.S.

This additional insurance is not necessary, but, says Fred Riccardi, client services director at the Medicare Rights Center, “if you can afford to, have a Medigap policy. It provides protection for high out-of-pocket costs, especially if you become ill or need to receive more care as you age.” (If you already have some supplemental retiree health insurance through a former employer or union, you may be able to skip Medigap; you also don’t need a Medigap policy if you chose a Medicare Advantage Plan, or Medicare Part C.)

If you purchase Medigap, you’ll owe a monthly premium on top of what you pay for Medicare Part B. The cost ranges from a median annual premium of $936 for Medigap Plan K coverage to $1,952 for Plan F coverage, according to a survey of insurers by Weiss Ratings. The median cost for your plan N was $1,332 a year.

Even if you didn’t end up needing your Medicap policy this year, however, think twice before you drop it.

If you skip signing up when you’re first eligible, or if you buy a Medigap plan and later drop it, you might not be able to get another policy down the road, or you may have to pay far more for the coverage.

Under federal law, you’re guaranteed the right to buy a Medigap policy during a six-month open enrollment period that begins the month you turn 65 and join Medicare, says Riccardi. (To avoid a gap in coverage, you can apply earlier.) During this time, insurance companies cannot deny you coverage, and they must offer you the best available rates regardless of your health. You can compare the types of Medigap plans at Medicare.gov.

You also have a guaranteed right to buy most Medigap policies within 63 days of losing certain types of health coverage, including private group health insurance and a Medigap policy or Medicare Advantage plan that ends its coverage. You also have this fresh window if you joined a Medicare Advantage plan when you first became eligible for Medicare and dropped out within the first 12 months.

Most states follow the federal rules, but some, such as New York and Connecticut, allow you to buy a policy any time, says Riccardi. Call your State Health Insurance Assistance Program to learn more.

Outside of one of these federally or state-protected windows, you’ll be able to buy a policy only if you find a company willing to sell you one.And they can charge you a higher premium based on your health status, and you may have to wait six months before the policy will cover pre-existing conditions.

MONEY Ask the Expert

If You Only Have One Investment, This Is the One You Need

Investing illustration
Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: Which is a better long-term investment — a Nasdaq index fund or an index fund that tracks the Standard & Poor’s 500? — James

A: A Nasdaq fund could “play a supporting role in a diversified portfolio,” says Leslie Thompson, a financial adviser and principal at Spectrum Management Group in Indianapolis. But if you’re going to pick just one index fund for the core part of your portfolio, you’re better off buying a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund that tracks the Standard & Poor’s 500,” she says.

Why?

Before getting into the details, let’s start with the basics.

Rather than picking and choosing “the best” securities to own, index fund simply buy and hold all the securities in a given market. By avoiding the stock selection process, index funds give you broad-based market exposure while being able to charge low expenses, which is a good thing.

The downside of this approach, of course, is that you won’t ever “beat the market” or finish at the top using this strategy. In fact, by owning all the stocks in a market, you will by definition get average market returns. However, this also means you will never badly lag the market either.

If you opt for this strategy, the market you choose to index is a critical decision.

The S&P 500 is considered the broadest of the best-known U.S. stock indexes.

The S&P 500 tracks the 500 largest, most liquid stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq — and across a spectrum of industries. “For a long-term core holding, the S&P 500 better represents the economic environment providing more diversified exposures to all sectors of the U.S.,” Thompson says.

By contrast, the most popular Nasdaq index, the Nasdaq 100, tracks about 100 of the largest non-financial companies that are listed on the Nasdaq. It’s considerably less diverse, with technology companies accounting for about 60% of its weighting, says Thompson. It’s also extremely top heavy. “Just two companies, Apple and Microsoft, make up 23% of the index,” says Thompson. The top 10 stocks, meanwhile, account for about half of the entire index versus less than 20% for the S&P 500.

This tech focus hasn’t been such a bad thing over the last decade, when it comes to performance. The USAA Nasdaq Index 100 mutual fund is up an average of 10.6% a year over the last 10 years, nearly three percentage points a year more than the Vanguard 500 Index fund.

The tradeoff: potentially more volatility.

You’ll recall that when the dot.com bubble burst in 2000, Nasdaq stocks took a much bigger hit than the S&P 500. The downside for the Nasdaq 100 hasn’t been as extreme over the last decade, says Thompson, but this isn’t the norm. Keep in mind too that the Nasdaq composite index has yet to surpass its all-time peak of more than 5,000 which it reached in 2000.

The index’s strong performance of late, moreover, has been the result of outsize results from just a handful of companies. (You can probably guess which ones.) If and when these stocks tumble, so too will the index.

 

MONEY Ask the Expert

How To Get Your Kids To Do Some Real Work Around the House

For Sale sign illustration
Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: I owe my handiness to projects I helped my father with as a kid. But my children show no interest in lifting a hammer. How do I motivate them to become capable do-it-themselfers?

A: Thanks to affluenza as well as the draw of computer-based learning, instead of hands-on tutorials, many of today’s young digital natives are sorely lacking in analog skills. We are creating a generation that may never know how to paint a straight line or re-shingle a shed.

The effects are twofold. First, your kids may grow up into adults who, for every household project, are at the mercy of those few capable peers who become handymen and contractors. They’ll pay every time they need to tighten a rattling window or fix the toilet.

Also this lack of hands-on knowledge is—ironically—a contributing factor as to why other countries are outcompeting the United States in science, technology, engineering, and math education, those so-called STEM subjects where many of the good jobs of the future promise to be.

Getting your kids involved with you in safe, age-appropriate DIY projects is a great way to bolster their “spatial awareness,” an understanding of 3D space and how things work that helps later with engineering and physics, according to Vanderbilt University psychologist David Lubinski.

Thus spending a few hours away from their screens helping you build garage shelves or plant flower bulbs can give your kids a leg up on a career in the very technology they love.

Of course, as any parent knows, telling them that may not be enough to motivate them. Yet don’t resort to bribing your kids with a trip to Five Guys or extra screen time to get them to help out, says Carol S. Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University. That sends the message that the job is an unpleasant one that no child in her right mind would want to do.

You’re better off channeling Tom Sawyer and making the project feel fun and interesting. It helps if you pick an exciting improvement task, such as building a fire-pit, hanging cabinets in the recreation room, or painting the kid’s own bedroom in her choice of color (perhaps from a list preselected by you), rather than a maintenance job like snaking a drain or bleeding the radiators. Older youth may be enticed by the chance to use power tools (with plenty of knowledgeable and safe parental supervision).

Projects with relatively immediate gratification, like painting or laying sod, are more inspiring for young minds. Thus make it a project that they’ll get to enjoy the results of—and do it at a time when distractions like video games and social networking are off limits anyway. Then, let her post photos of the finished work on Facebook, if she wants, to help build her pride and a sense of accomplishment in her work.

 

Got a question for Josh? We’d love to hear it. Please send submissions to realestate@moneymail.com.

MONEY Ask the Expert

Here’s a Smart Way To Boost Your Tax-Free Retirement Savings

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Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: I am maxing out my 401(k). I understand there’s a new way to make after-tax contributions to a Roth IRA. How does that work?

A: You can thank the IRS for what is essentially a huge tax break for higher-income retirement savers, especially folks like yourself who are already maxing out contributions to tax-sheltered retirement plans.

A recent ruling by the IRS allows eligible workers to easily move after-tax contributions from their 401(k) or 403(b) plan to Roth IRAs when they exit their company plan. “With this new ruling, retirement savers are getting a huge increase in their ability contribute to a Roth IRA,” says Brian Holmes, president and CEO of investment advisory firm Signature Estate and Investment Advisors.

The Roth is a valuable income stream in retirement because contributions are after-tax, which means you don’t owe Uncle Sam anything on the money you withdraw. Unlike traditional IRAs which require you to start withdrawing money once you turn 70 ½, Roths have no mandatory distribution requirements, so your investments can continue to grow tax-free. And if you need to take a chunk out for a sudden big expense, such as medical bills, the withdrawal won’t bump you up into a higher tax bracket.

For high-income earners, the IRS ruling is especially good news. Singles with an adjusted gross income of $129,000 or more can’t directly contribute to a Roth IRA; for married couples, the income cap is $191,000. If you are are eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA, you can’t contribute more than $5,500 this year or next ($6,500 for people over 50). The IRS does allow people to convert traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs but you must pay income tax on your gains.

Now, with this new IRS ruling, you can put a lot more into a Roth by diverting your 401(k) assets into one. The annual limit on pre-tax contributions to 401(k) plans is $17,500 and $23,000 for people over 50; those limits rise to $18,000 and $24,000 next year. Including your pre-tax and post-tax contributions, as well as pre-tax employer matches, the total amount a worker can save in 401(k) and 403(b) plans is $52,000 and $57,500 for those 50 and older. (That amount will rise to $53,000 and $59,000 respectively in 2015.) When you leave your employer, you can separate the after-tax money and send it directly to a Roth, which can boost your tax-free savings by tens of thousands of dollars.

To take advantage of the new rule, your employer plan must allow after-tax contributions to your 401(k). About 53% of 401(k) plans allow both pre-tax and after- tax contributions, according to Rick Meigs, president of the 401(k) Help Center. You must also first max out your pre-tax contributions. The transfer to a Roth must be done at the same time you roll your existing 401(k)’s pre-tax savings into a traditional IRA.

The ability to put away more in a Roth is also good for people who want to leave money to heirs. Inherited Roth IRAs are free of tax, and because they don’t have taxable minimum required distributions, they can give your heirs decades of tax-free growth. “It’s absolutely the best asset to die with if you want to leave money behind,” says Holmes.

Do you have a personal finance question for our experts? Write to AskTheExpert@moneymail.com.

Read next: 4 Disastrous Retirement Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

MONEY Ask the Expert

How To Pick a Pro to Manage Your Money When You’re Gone

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Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: Are there professional administrator services for private wills? I’m single with no family or appropriate friends. – Paul, Calif.

A: Everyone needs a person or institution to act as executor and administer the estate though the probate process.

Because your executor will be in charge of collecting the estate’s assets, inventorying the property, paying claims against the estate (including taxes), and distributing assets to beneficiaries, you want to give the job to someone who is financially responsible and trustworthy.

That could be someone you know, say a relative or close friend, but it can also be an institution, or what you referred to as a professional will administrator.

Because of the complexity involved, many individual executors have to hire professionals to help. So even if you do have someone close to you take on the role, having a reliable and impartial professional as backup would be smart.

How to find the right pro

You could name your lawyer, accountant, or financial adviser as your executor, but Greg Sellers, a certified public accountant and president of the National Association of Estate Planners and Councils, warns against it, no matter how good a working relationship you already have.

“If your executor is also the one drafting your estate planning documents, there is the opportunity for them to do some self-dealing,” says Sellers. “While they may be legally bound to carry out your wishes, it presents a chance for conflicting interests. They could have undue influence on the documents, could charge higher than normal fees.” And acting as an executor may not be in the normal scope of what your accountant and financial adviser do.

Sellers recommends using a corporate trust company, either one affiliated with a financial institution like your bank or full-service brokerage, or an independent trust company. These companies have teams that manage estates full time. You don’t need a trust to use a trust company; they take on jobs just handling will administration.

What a pro will charge

Of course, hiring a professional will mean paying a fee (leaving a little less for your heirs). Some states set maximums that an executor can charge, but Sellers says that except in rare circumstances, executor fees should not go above 5% of the value of the estate.

The fee will likely land on the high end of the scale if your estate has lots of moving parts, such as a small business, personal property that needs to be sold, or investment accounts in more than one place. The total value of your assets matters too: the larger the estate, the smaller the percentage a professional executor will deduct.

This one-time fee will be paid from your estate after your death and is typically non-negotiable, Sellers says. While companies are upfront about the likely fees, they will not settle on an amount until they find out exactly what being executor involves, which can’t be known until your death.

Once you’ve settled on a company to be you executor, Sellers recommends letting it know and sending a copy of your will (though it isn’t necessary—you can simply note who you picked in your will).

Any company has the right to reject the job, which is why Sellers recommends naming a backup. If both your first and second choices reject the job, the probate court will assign an executor.

MONEY Ask the Expert

Knowing How Many — or Few — Funds to Own

Investing illustration
Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: I have an $800,000 portfolio. How many mutual funds should I own? — Lynn

A: The optimal number of funds will vary depending on your time horizon, tolerance for risk, and exactly what kinds of funds you choose.

That said, if you’re looking to build and manage a diversified portfolio of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or index mutual funds on your own, a good number is either six or 10, says Bill Valentine, president of Valentine Ventures, a Bend, Ore.-based wealth management firm. This is true, he says, whether you have $800,000 or a more modest portfolio.

Anything more than that many funds will “do nothing for diversification,” Valentine says, and will only add cost and complexity to your strategy.

Let’s start by discussing the whole notion of diversification. To get the best balance of risk and reward, you’ll want to invest in lots of securities across many different asset classes. Investing in ETFs or index mutual funds takes care of the first critical point of diversification since most such funds are composed of hundreds of different securities.

Even so, a single fund focused on a single asset class won’t provide you adequate diversification. Likewise, investing in six funds that all hold, say, large blue chip U.S. companies won’t improve returns, and may even detract from them.

“It’s important to blend asset classes than don’t act too similarly to each other, otherwise you’ll lose the benefit of diversification,” says Valentine.

If you’re young and have a long time horizon, you may not own bonds in your portfolio. Valentine says you’ll still want to spread your bets across six primary investment classes.

They include U.S. large cap stocks, U.S. small cap stocks, foreign developed-market stocks (shares of companies based in Europe and Japan), and foreign emerging-market stocks (shares of companies based in faster-growing economies such as like China and India).

And to diversify your equities, you’ll also want to consider owning a small amount in commodities and real estate investment trusts, or REITs.

Exactly how you slice the pie will depend on your specific time horizon and risk tolerance. Note: Valentine is not a proponent of owning bonds if you’re young, but most advisers recommend a small allocation to fixed income, even in a relatively aggressive portfolio.

Now, if you own bonds as part of your mix, you may want to add as many as four fixed-income funds to that mix.

Valentine recommends bond funds that give you exposure to: the broad U.S. fixed-income market (reflecting high-quality corporate and government debt), U.S. high yield bonds (which expose you to higher-yielding but lower-quality corporate debt), U.S. inflation-protected securities (to safeguard your holdings against rising consumer prices), and foreign bonds.

Again, the exact percentages will vary based on the specifics of your situation.

MONEY Ask the Expert

Here’s the Right Amount to Spend On a Home Renovation

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Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: When remodeling my house, I don’t want to spend a lot of money on updates that don’t actually increase my home value. How do I know how much is a smart amount amount to invest, and when I would be going overboard?

A: Jump into a renovation project without first setting a budget and you may spend loads of cash on all sorts of lovely options—from a marble island-top for your kitchen to a two-person hot tub for your new patio—that you won’t get paid back for if you sell your house in a few years.

While that may not be a concern if you’re staying put for the long haul, if you’re likely to move in 10 years or less, it pays to limit your spending to what you might reasonably hope to get back at resale.

Thus start with renovating only spaces that are functionally obsolete, says Omaha, Nebraska, appraiser John Bredemeyer, a spokesman for the Appraisal Institute, a trade association. “Changing out a perfectly good, 10-year-old kitchen, for example, just because you don’t like the previous owner’s style choices, is not an investment that will pay you back at resale,” he says. But if that kitchen is from the 1940s, 1960s, or even the 1970s, a well-budgeted renovation makes financial sense.

How much should you invest? Bredemeyer’s rule of thumb is to spend no more on each room than the value of that room as a percentage of your overall house value (you can find an approximate value of your home at zillow.com).

Here’s how the percentages break down for each room:

Kitchen: 10% to 15% of house’s value

Kitchen renovation budget for a:

$300,000 house: $30,000 to $45,000

$500,000 house: $50,000 to $75,000

$750,000 house: $75,000 to $112,500
Master Bathroom Suite: 10% of house’s value

Master bathroom suite renovation budget for a:

$300,000 house: $30,000

$500,000 house: $50,000

$750,000 house: $75,000

 

Powder Room/Bathroom: 5% of house’s value

Powder room/bathroom renovation budget for a:

$300,000 house: $15,000

$500,000 house: $25,000

$750,000 house: $37,500

 

Finished Attic or Basement: 10% to 15% of house’s value

Attic or basement finishing budget for a:

$300,000 house: $30,000 to $45,000

$500,000 house: $50,000 to $75,000

$750,000 house: $75,000 to $112,500

 

Other Rooms: 1% to 3% of house’s value

Living room, dining room, or bedroom renovation budget for a:

$300,000 house: $3,000 to $9,000

$500,000 house: $5,000 to $15,000

$750,000 house: $7,500 to $22,500

 

Patio, Deck, Paths, and Plantings: 2% to 5% of house’s value

$300,000 house: $6,000 to $15,000

$500,000 house: $10,000 to $25,000

$750,000 house: $15,000 to $37,500

 

Got a question for Josh? We’d love to hear it. Please send submissions to realestate@moneymail.com.

MONEY Ask the Expert

One of the Most Important Retirement Decisions You Need to Make

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Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: My wife is 62 and I am 65. She has a small pension of $21,000 and can take it as a lump sum or an annuity of $154 a month. We also have a credit card with $17,000 at 8% and two car loans of $17,000 at 8%. Should we use the money to pay off debt or roll it into an IRA? – Joe Skovira, Cheshire, Conn.

A: Choosing the right way to handle a pension payout is critical to your retirement success. It’s all too tempting to use that money to pay off debts, when your other sources of cash run short. But raiding your pension could be a mistake. “You should pay off the debt but don’t sacrifice the pension to do it,” says Rich Paul, a certified financial planner and president of Richard W. Paul & Associates.

Even though the pension income is small, that $154 monthly check adds up $1,800 a year, or a 9% payout. It would be hard to generate that consistent income on your own in an IRA. “Those are guaranteed dollars that you’ll receive for the rest of your life—you can’t get that kind of return with conservative investments,” says Paul.

There are also taxes to consider. If you take the pension as a lump sum, and don’t roll it over into an IRA, you’ll likely owe capital gains or income taxes. Moreover, the income from that lump sum might push you into a higher tax bracket, further eroding its value.

As for your debts, they’re clearly a drain on your cash flow. So look for ways to free up cash to pay off those bills by cutting your spending. For strategies on getting on top of that debt, see here and here.

It also makes sense to prioritize your credit card debt over the car loans, says Paul. That way, if you ever need extra cash, you’ll have a bigger credit line to tap. You could even use the $154 to step up payments on the credit card.

“It all comes down to cash flow. You’ll feel a lot more comfortable in retirement with more guaranteed income and less debt,” says Paul.

Do you have a personal finance question for our experts? Write to AskTheExpert@moneymail.com.

Related:

Should I save or pay off debt?

What debts should I pay off first?

Should I take my pension as a lump sum or as monthly payments?

MONEY Ask the Expert

How to Tell if Your Broker Protects You Against Identity Theft

Investing illustration
Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: Are there any brokerages that protect customers from unauthorized computer access or theft? I was going with Vanguard, but on page 7 of its brokerage account agreement, under liability, the company says in writing that it is not liable. — Patty

A: This is a good reminder of why it’s important to actually read brokerage account agreements, especially in light of the massive security breach at J.P. Morgan Chase.

While the details may differ slightly from one firm to the next – which is why you should always check – the wording in Vanguard’s policy is similar to that of other large brokerages. (We ran your question by Charles Schwab, Fidelity and Vanguard.)

The short answer: If someone gains access to your account through no fault of your own — a security breach, for example — the broker would be liable for your losses. If the theft, however, is a result of your own negligence (more on that in a second) then that’s a different story.

“The brokerage account agreement explains that under certain circumstances, Vanguard will not accept legal liability for certain losses in or related to an account,” notes Vanguard spokesperson David Hoffman, adding that this is consistent with Vanguard’s online fraud policy. “… If the client has taken certain appropriate steps to protect the account, we will reimburse the assets taken from the account in the unauthorized transaction.”

Fidelity and Schwab offer similar responses. Under Fidelity’s customer protection guarantee, the firm will reimburse Fidelity accounts for losses due to unauthorized activity, says Fidelity spokesperson Adam Banker. Likewise, the Schwab security guarantee says the firm will cover 100% of losses in any Schwab accounts due to unauthorized activity.

In case you didn’t pick up on it, that word “unauthorized” is key in determining who’s liable.

That’s all the more reason to be particularly vigilant about protecting your account information. Set up a unique and unpredictable password (mix numbers, characters, lower case and upper case). Change your passwords regularly and don’t reuse passwords from other accounts. Store your password in a safe place — ideally not on your computer, your phone or online — and make sure computer has up-to-date security software. Check your accounts regularly and if you see something suspicious, let the broker know immediately.

Finally, never give your account information to anyone calling or emailing and claiming to be your broker or bank.

If someone calls claiming to be from your broker, or any financial institution for that matter, hang up and call the number listed on your statement or the company’s site. Never log in to your account by clicking on a link in an email.

You should also be careful about sharing your account information with family and friends. If you give someone access to your account, that’s considered authorized use, and, yep, you’re liable.

MONEY Ask the Expert

Here’s How to Make Leaf Clean Up Easy This Fall

For Sale sign illustration
Robert A. Di Ieso, Jr.

Q: I’m debating whether to invest in some high-quality equipment to help pick up the leaves in our yard this fall, or hire a pro to tackle the job. How much would I need to spend on tools if I go the DIY route?

A: The problem with hiring a landscaper to do your fall leaf cleanup isn’t necessarily the $250 to $500-plus price tag, it’s that this is not a once-a-season job. In many regions of the country, autumn lasts weeks and weeks, so it takes a handful of cleanups to keep your property neat and tidy. (This is especially true if you have a neighbor who waits until absolutely every branch is bare before he’ll lift a rake, ensuring that his leaves continue to blow onto your lawn until the first frost glues them to the ground.)

The good news is that do-it-yourself leaf removal doesn’t have to be a blister-raising, hamstring-stressing effort. With the right tools, the leaves can be gone before the first afternoon football game kicks off. Here’s what you need to make that happen.

Lawnmower: Throughout the spring and summer, setting the mower to maximum height is one of the best things you can do for your lawn’s health. But come fall, drop it down as low as it’ll go without scalping the turf. Short grass gives leaves less to get caught on as they drift around the neighborhood. It also means the mower will vaporize any leaves that have already fallen (assuming a light coating). Use a mulching mower—meaning the kind without a bag that pulverizes clippings and drops them back into the turf to feed it—such as the Toro 20370 ($309 at Home Depot).

Leaf Blower: Raking is hard work, but so is using a wimpy hand-held leaf blower. The typical plug-in version isn’t powerful enough to extinguish a birthday candle, never mind move a pile of damp leaves—or a single well-nestled acorn. If you’re of strong enough body to rake, you’re probably of strong enough body to handle a gas-powered backpack blower, such as Husqvarna’s top-of-the-line 356BT ($439 at amazon.com). These machines have flexible hoses and variable speed triggers, so you have plenty of power to remove those leaves stuck in your azaleas and also a gentle enough touch for cleaning up around a screen porch without sending dirt inside. (Just please wear ear protection, because even this quieter-than-most version is quite loud.)

Tarp: Don’t try to transport a big pile of leaves all the way to the woods for disposal- or the curb if your municipality picks them up with a vacuum truck— using a blower, not even a backpack one. Instead, rake or blow them onto a tarp and drag them to their destination or, better yet, blow them onto the EZ Leaf Hauler, $40 from plowhearth.com, which has three sidewalls to help corral and relocate large piles.

Bagger: If you need to pack your leaves into brown paper bags for municipal curb pickup, check out the Leaf Chute ($9 at Lowe’s or Home Depot). It’s a low-tech, three-sided plastic tube that props open the empty bag and has a wide mouth for easy loading. Once the bag is full enough to stand on its own, remove the chute and pack in as many more leaves as you can stamp down.

Your Kids: Leaf pickup is an ideal chore for the young people who are eating you out of house and home. Start them with rakes—and quality, well-fitted work gloves—and let them learn the old fashioned way. Then, once they’re capable rakers, understand the basics of the job, and are ready for power tools, let them grab a hold of that sweet new blower.

 

Got a question for Josh? We’d love to hear it. Please send submissions to realestate@moneymail.com.

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