TIME Somalia

Somali Militants Overrun Base for African Union Forces

The attack in the small farming town of Janale started with a suicide car bombing at the base's gate

(MOGADISHU, Somalia) — Islamic extremists overran an African Union base in southern Somalia after a firefight with troops there early Tuesday, a Somali military official said.

The attack in the small farming town of Janale started with a suicide car bombing at the base’s gate, followed by a firefight which lasted more than an hour, said Col. Ahmed Hassan.

The Islamic extremist group al-Shabab claimed responsibility for the attack, saying it had killed many troops.

Hassan told The Associated Press by phone that the militants overran the base after damaging a nearby bridge with a massive bomb to prevent troops from escaping.

There were no official details about casualties.

Despite losing most of its key strongholds in south and central Somalia, al-Shabab continues to carry out attacks on the government and African Union troops across the Horn of Africa nation.

In June, al-shabab fighters overran another African Union base in Lego, a small town in the Lower Shabelle region in southern Somalia, killing dozens of soldiers and seizing military armaments.

TIME swaziland

At Least 38 Women and Girls Killed in Swaziland Car Crash

The victims—young women and girls—were allegedly travelling on the back of an open truck

(JOHANNESBURG) — At least 38 girls and young women were killed in a crash while travelling to Swaziland’s most famous traditional festival, a rights group said on Saturday.

About 20 others were injured when the truck they were in collided with another vehicle on Friday, the Swaziland Solidarity Network said in a statement. The young women and girls were travelling on the back of an open truck, the rights group said.

The girls and young women were on their way to the Swazi king’s royal residence for the annual reed dance.

About 40,000 young women participate in the eight-day reed dance ceremony in which they sing and dance, usually bare-breasted, as they bring reeds to reinforce the windbreak around the royal residence. During the reed dance, the king often selects one of the young women to become one of his wives. Swaziland is polygamous and the king has more than a dozen wives.

“We all have heard about the dark cloud that has befallen the ‘imbali,'” said King Mswati III, using the Swati language word for flower, used to refer to the groups of women dancers. Speaking Saturday at the opening of an international trade fair in Swaziland’s economic center Manzini, the king promised that the affected families would be compensated. He added that an investigation into the accident was underway.

Police in Swaziland, a small mountainous country of 1.4 million people bordering northeastern South Africa and Mozambique, discouraged reporting on the accident, said the rights group. Press photographers were prevented from taking pictures at the scene, said a Swazi journalist who insisted on anonymity for security reasons. However some people managed to take photographs of the aftermath of the crash with their cell phones.

A high-ranking police officer contacted by The Associated Press refused to comment on the accident, saying the matter was related to the “highest authority,” and no details could be disclosed to the media.

“You don’t hide a death,” said Lucky Lukhele, spokesman for the Swaziland Solidarity Network. Members of the Swaziland Defense Force alerted the rights group to the accident, Lukhele said, adding that he expected the death toll to rise.

The females were travelling on a highway between the Swazi cities of Mbabane and Manzini, when the truck carrying them smashed into a vehicle and was then hit in the rear by a second truck, the Times of Swaziland reported.

“We were about 50 on board the first truck that smashed into the Toyota van,” said Siphelele Sigudla, 18, a survivor quoted by the Times of Swaziland.

Swaziland is Africa’s last absolute monarchy, ruled by King Mswati since 1986. Swaziland held parliamentary elections in 2013, but many international observers say the electoral process is manipulated to prolong the king’s hold on power. According to the king, Swaziland’s image has been damaged by misinformation.

The country has one of the world’s highest rates of HIV infection.

TIME Africa

How to Buy an Ethical Diamond

The diamond industry is still tainted by conflict, but it's possible to buy a jewel that helps people—instead of hurting them

This post was updated on Sept. 1, 2015:

As I write in the cover story in this week’s TIME International, blood diamonds still exist, and the industry as a whole is still beset by problems over conflict, smuggling and child labor. Even worse, because the existing Kimberley Process certification system has so many loopholes, it can be almost impossible to be sure that your diamond isn’t tainted. But if you’re in the market for an engagement or wedding ring, there are ways to ensure that your money is more likely to help miners on the ground in countries like the Congo than it is to hurt them. Here is a checklist to make sure your lifetime investment doesn’t mean a lifetime of poverty and suffering for someone else:

Even under the best of circumstances, spending a few thousand dollars on a diamond can be a fraught decision. Add to that concerns that the diamond in question may have funded a far off conflict, contributed to human rights abuses, unfair labor practices or harmed the environment in its extraction, and the process becomes downright agonizing. Until the diamond industry can establish a transparent certification process similar to one that lets you drink your fair trade coffee with peace of mind, splashing out on a solitaire or a tennis bracelet in an ethical way requires some legwork. Your 10-step guide for the responsible consumer.

* Ask your jeweler where the diamonds were mined. A responsible jeweler will know every step in the path from mine to market. If he doesn’t, move on.

* Demand details. Don’t settle for vague assurances about reputable suppliers or Kimberly Process certification—the KP does not ban diamonds that fund war crimes and human rights abuses by government forces. Nor does it address unfair labor practices or environmental degradation brought about by irresponsible diamond mining. “Consumers need to ask questions when they shop, and to resist the easy answer,” says Ian Smillie, a conflict diamond expert and author of several books on blood diamonds, including Blood on the Stone: Greed, Corruption and War in the Global Diamond Trade

*Avoid diamonds that come from countries like Zimbabwe and Angola, where human rights abuses in and around mines have been well documented by organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch.

*Look for diamonds mined in Canada. They may be more expensive, but labor and environmental standards are rigorously enforced. That said, buying Canadian diamonds doesn’t help African countries improve their industries. Consider donating to organizations like Diamond Development Initiative International, a group that’s working to support small-scale diamond operations around the world.

*In Africa, Namibia and Botswana are another good bet. Those countries work with small-scale miners as well as large-scale industry to make sure that income from mining creates jobs and leads to development. Both countries enforce strict labor and environmental standards. Sierra Leone is going in that direction, though the recent Ebola outbreak has temporarily set progress back.

* Know your supplier. De Beers’ Forevermark diamonds come with a guarantee that each one was mined with stringent criteria on responsible sourcing. Though you can’t trace your Forevermark diamond back to the exact mine where it came from, the company invests substantially in local communities by building schools and hospitals near its mines in Botswana and South Africa. It also funds micro-credit enterprises and mentorship programs to help communities transition from diamond-based economies to more sustainable livelihoods, in preparation for the day when the diamonds run out. Other companies like Tiffany, Signet and Cartier are investing in cutting and polishing plants in Botswana, which means more of the diamond income stays in the country.

*Buy from jewelers that make a commitment to ethical sourcing, like Hume Atelier and Brilliant Earth or Chicago’s Leber Jeweler. Not only are they doing all the hard work when it comes to asking the right questions, they are actively pushing for certification changes in the diamond industry. They also fund organizations like the Diamond Development Initiative, which is working to support small-scale miners around the world.

*Recycle. Look for vintage or antique rings. A good jeweler can reset, or even recut, an old stone to make a modern ring. They may have had bloody beginnings, but at least its over.

*Consider alternatives. Synthetic diamonds have the same sparkle, with none of the dirt. And colored gemstones, while plagued by the some of the same issues as diamonds, are much easier to trace. Columbia Gem House and Nineteen48 are a good place to start.

*Don’t stop with the diamonds. Check the origin of your gold as well. Gold mining leaves toxic wastes like mercury and cyanide that are very damaging for the environment and the people who mine it. It also funds conflict. Opt for recycled gold, or Fair trade gold.

TIME South Sudan

South Sudan President Signs Peace Deal With Rebels

Salva Kiir Riek Machar sudan
AP South Sudan's President Salva Kiir, left, shakes hands with rebel leader and former vice president Riek Machar after signing an agreement at the end of talks in Arusha, Tanzania on Jan. 21, 2015.

President Salva Kirr has been under immense pressure to sign the deal

(JUBA, South Sudan) — South Sudan President Salva Kiir has signed a peace deal with rebels, after 20 months since the start of fighting between loyalist forces and rebels led by his former deputy.

Kiir signed the agreement in Juba, the South Sudan capital, in a ceremony witnessed by regional leaders on Wednesday. Kiir’s opponent, former Deputy President Riek Machar, signed the agreement last week in Ethiopia but Kiir asked for more time to consult supporters.

Kiir has been under intense international pressure to sign the agreement mediated by a group of neighboring states, with the U.S. threatening new U.N. sanctions if he failed to do so.

The agreement binds Kiir into a power-sharing arrangement with Machar, whose dismissal in July 2013 sparked a political crisis that later boiled over into a violent rebellion.

TIME On Our Radar

Viviane Sassen’s Parallel Universe of Mirrors, Shadows and Dreams

A retrospective of Sassen's work will go on show next month in Paris

At the age of 5, when her parents brought her back to her native Amsterdam, Viviane Sassen started having vivid nightly dreams about the life she left behind. “From that moment on, I always had the deep feeling that I belong to Africa and not in Holland, and that my real life would go on without me in Africa. I was kind of stuck in this parallel universe,” the photographer says, her voice vibrating from the memory. Nightly dreaming is serious business for Sassen, just as important as the activities that shape her daily life, as for her, it is a wellspring of inspiration. Having accessed that “parallel universe” where memories, daily events and stories blend together at night, she now invariably seeks that dimension through her art.

Her upcoming exhibition, UMBRA, opening for the first time in Paris at the Atelier Néerlandais on Sept. 11, plays with the idea of shade. Though this word comes from the Latin for “shadow,” UMBRA also explores Sassen’s fascinating universe of sculptural bodies turned into shapes and stories, impalpable geometries of transcendent axes, forms and contours that transform the ordinary — a sheet drying in the sun, a cloud glimpsed between roofs, the shadow of a leaf — and dare to surpass the apparent. These images have an otherworldly feel as if seeking a dimension that might exist within those shadows, mirrors and reflections, within those childhood dreams.

UMBRA, commissioned by the Nederlands Fotomuseum in Rotterdam, is composed by six bodies of work — Axiom, Totem, Larvae, Carbon, Rebus and Soil — each one exploring the relation between realism and abstraction through the signature elements in Sassen’s work. In Totem, one of her most relevant works from 2012, silhouettes cut from a bright background offer diverse levels of interpretation. The horizontal landscape contrasts the vertical human shape, evoking, she says, the “traces we leave as mankind on the surface of the earth,” the constant dichotomy between nature and culture that we face every day.

In her work Marte, the model’s body becomes a field of meaning and exploration, and the mirror winks at this capricious game, multiplying legs and creating a space where the eye travels between two realities. Sassen’s work bears traces of Surrealism, but the physical body often breaks in, a solid anchor to a necessary dimension of reality. In Marte, Sassen’s eye slides along her friend’s bare neck, where the bony shoulder blade, pointy knee and timid fingers become both form and narration.

The corporal element appears also in Axiom — inspired by Kazimir Malevich’s black square poster with her injection of bright color. The shadow of a hand culminates the synergy between a small mirror in the burning sand of Kenya and the shadows cast by color perspexs. “I still wanted to have this personal human element in the picture,” she says. “We are always confronted with ourselves in the end, so I think it is beautiful to have this relation with the human body and the spiritual.”

Far from being political or conceptual, Sassen is drawn by an intuitive experience of reality — her childhood in Africa, her vivid memories and the complexity caused by confrontations between the two cultures — all of which open up a space for discussion where her elements — the body, the shadows, the glasses — are just a thread of her semantic approach. “I get inspired by certain things that I find on my path, and then I just go for it and most of the time it isn’t until much later that I realize what it has meant to me personally,” she says. “All artists in some sense make self-portraits, so my work is also kind of a self-portrait, I try to make it layered and complex for myself as well because that is what keeps on driving me,” she says.

The complexity of the multi-layered world she attempts to frame leads to a conscious ambiguity she purposely seeks in her photographs, pulling the viewer into a mutual, amplified wonder. “What is real? What is true?” she questions, as she stumbles upon multiple truths. “My pictures function as some kind of mirror,” she admits. “I like to ask questions rather than give answers.”

Viviane Sassen is a Dutch photographer and artist based in Amsterdam. Her series UMBRA, which won Sassen a nomination for the Deutsche Börse Photography Prize 2015, has been exhibited at the Nederlands Fotomuseum and will be presented at the Atelier Néerlandais from Sept. 11 to Nov. 1, 2015.

Lucia De Stefani is a writer and contributor to TIME LightBox. Follow her on Twitter and Instagram.

 

TIME Zimbabwe

If You Got Mad Over Cecil the Lion, Here Are 5 Ways You Can Bring About Change

Zimbabwe Lion Killed cecil
Andy Loveridge—AP In this undated photo provided by the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Cecil the lion rests in Hwange National Park, in Hwange, Zimbabwe.

Don't just tweet your rage. Do something

The death of Cecil the lion at the hands of American dentist Walter Palmer in July may have sparked a worldwide groundswell of rage, but Cecil’s death represents a larger problem with deep roots. Hwange National Park, where Cecil lived for 13 years, was the site of what the Telegraph called the “the worst single massacre in southern Africa for 25 years” in 2013 when poachers poisoned the water supply, killing 300 elephants; a recent study estimates that 33,000 are killed per year on the African continent.

The situation is just as grim for lions and rhinos: Teresa Telecky, director of wildlife at Humane Society International (HSI), estimated to TIME that, as of early August, 49 lions had been killed throughout Africa just this year. And the World Wildlife Fund estimates that 60% of the rhino population in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zimbabwe was killed between 2003 and 2005.

If you want to make a difference to these statistics, here are some suggested ways.

1. Become Informed

“What we’ve found is a lot of the consumers are not aware that animals die for this,” said Mark Witney, whose company, Singita, employs 250 anti-poaching scouts within the nature parks it owns or manages throughout southern Africa. He was referring to countries like Vietnam and China, but the same is often true in the U.S., where ivory consumers may not realize the material in their trinkets, firearm embellishments and even piano keys was harvested from a dead elephant.

Witney points to the South African Peace Parks Foundation as one organization doing powerful work on awareness. The foundation recently ran an essay competition in Vietnamese schools, with the winning students flown to wilderness reserves in southern Africa to learn about conservation issues. By many estimates, the U.S. is the second biggest consumer of ivory in the world. Educating yourself and helping friends and family gain that same perspective is key to long-term change, Telecky said.

2. Make Your Voice Heard

As part of the anti-poaching fight, HSI and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) have teamed up on a petition supporting a policy proposed by President Obama earlier this summer that would ban the interstate sale of most ivory, as well as ivory imports. That rule would align with a proposal by the U.S. Department of the Interior to name the African elephant a “threatened species,” severely restricting imports of materials associated with the animal’s hunting.

The department is now holding a 60-day comment period during which members of the public can make arguments to sway the results of its final ruling on the subject. The HSI-WCS petition will be presented in September to support the bid to make the “threatened” designation permanent. Care about ivory trade and elephant poaching? Your signature has weight.

HSI is also circulating a petition to support endangered-species status for the African lion, which would result in similar restrictions for lion trophies as those suggested for ivory. Telecky told TIME she hopes the designation would “drastically curtail” lion trophy hunting.

3. Visit

“This is the frontline where the war is being fought and tourists who get here are like eyes and ears against the enemy,” ex-ranger and eco-travel promoter Mark Butcher told the Guardian in 2014. Many safari companies participate in anti-poaching efforts, both out of vested interest in a continuing local animal population and out of moral obligation, anti-poaching activists say.

Some lodges allow guests to help with day-to-day activities and put a portion of proceeds toward their anti-poaching work. If you’re going on vacation, spending your money with such organizations is one way to contribute indirectly to the cause. But Witney, whose organization puts what he says is “quite a large portion” of their proceeds into the trust used for the parks it cares for, stresses the importance of common sense and careful selection, as some groups might misrepresent their intentions.

4. Volunteer

Hundreds of organizations work on all sides of the poaching crisis, and some accept volunteers. For example, the International Anti-Poaching Foundation (IAPF), one of the most extensive anti-poaching initiatives in southern Africa, allows volunteers to undergo training and spend a minimum of two weeks with IAPF rangers going on patrol. It’s not an experience free of risk, but if you’re looking for a hands-on way to help, CEO and founder Damien Mander told TIME that his organization particularly looks especially for volunteers with special skills, like paramedics and teachers.

5. Donate

Some anti-poaching organizations accept material donations. IAPF’s wish list, for example, includes camera equipment, Leatherman multi-tools, first-aid supplies and handheld GPS devices, among other items.

Still, Mander said that old-fashioned monetary donations are most useful for organizations like his. Both he and Witney encourage would-be philanthropists to research organizations carefully. But in the right hands, money can go far, funding what activists say is the most effective method of fighting poaching: people.

“Anti-poaching is 90% managing people,” Mander told TIME, because the most effective anti-poaching organizations tap into local expertise. Your donations mean hiring more rangers who can, as Mander put it, “follow tracks of a poacher at running speed the same way you would read an article in a newspaper.”

TIME Bill Gates

What Happened To Bill Gates’ Feces Water Machine

Bill Gates during an interview in New York City on Jan. 21, 2015.
Seth Wenig—AP Bill Gates during an interview in New York City on Jan. 21, 2015.

Here's an update to the machine that turns feces into water.

Remember that time Bill Gates took a swig from a seemingly normal glass of water, but it turned out to be made from feces? Well, that’s a thing that happened a few months ago. Now, the machine, dubbed the Janicki Omni Processor, is in Dakar.

And Gates wants us to know what happened to the machine, which has the potential to provide clean water to areas of the world struggling with having enough clean drinking water.

“Earlier this year, I shared a video where I drank water made from feces. (My review: It was delicious.) Today the machine that produced the water, the Janicki Omni Processor—or JOP—is in Dakar, Senegal, as part of a pilot project that could ultimately save lives and reduce disease in poor countries. Here’s an update on where things stand,” he wrote in a blog post.

“You may recall that the JOP takes human waste and turns it into drinking water, electricity, and ash. (It is actually one of several Omni Processors being developed that treat human waste and produce something of value.) It’s tempting to focus on the drinking water, for obvious reasons. But the goal is not to provide water. The goal is to dramatically improve sanitation for all the cities in poor countries,” he explained.

Gates took to Twitter to remind his followers of the machine:

He posted a video updating people about it, too:

 

“So it is great that we are now on the learning curve with a unit in the field. So far, the results on all fronts have been promising. The JOP is working as predicted. The partners in Dakar, especially the national sanitation utility, have been fantastic—you can see in the video how energetic and optimistic they are. At every step, we’re learning and will incorporate what we find in future designs and operating plans,” Gates added.

TIME United Kingdom

The U.K.’s Foreign Minister Says ‘Marauding’ Migrants Could Lower European Living Standards

Politicians Attend COBRA Meeting To Discuss Tunisian Terror Attack
Rob Stothard—Getty Images Philip Hammond, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, walks along Downing Street on June 29, 2015, in London

Philip Hammond says the current migrant influx is "not a sustainable situation"

British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond says that the quality of European life will fall if the E.U. is forced to absorb millions of African migrants.

He made controversial remarks while on a trip to Singapore, the BBC reports.

“The gap in standards of living mean that there will always be millions of Africans with the economic motivation to try to get to Europe,” he told the BBC.

“So long as the European Union’s laws are the way they are, many of them will only have to set foot in Europe to be pretty confident that they will never be returned to their country of origin. Now, that is not a sustainable situation, because Europe cannot protect itself and preserve its standard of living and social infrastructure if it has to absorb millions of migrants from Africa.”

He also spoke pointedly on the migrant camps in the coastal French city of Calais, where the entrance to the Channel Tunnel has become a bottleneck of those who seek to enter the U.K.

“So long as there are large numbers of pretty desperate migrants marauding the area, there always will be a threat to the tunnel’s security,” Hammond said. “We’ve got to resolve this problem ultimately by returning those who are not entitled to claim asylum back to their countries of origin.”

Steve Symonds, director of Amnesty International’s refugee program in the U.K., described Hammond’s comments as “mean-spirited” and “shameful.”

“Rather than throwing up the drawbridge and talking about how Europe can ‘protect’ itself from migrants, Mr. Hammond should be working with our E.U. partners to ensure that people don’t drown in the Mediterranean or get crushed beneath lorries at Calais,” he told the BBC.

TIME cecil the lion

How Much Delta’s Lion Head Trophy Ban Could Cost Africa’s Economy

Some say hunting actually promotes animal protection

Amid the outrage over the killing of Cecil the lion by an American dentist in Zimbabwe last month, several major airlines, including U.S. carriers Delta Air Lines and American Airlines, said they would no longer transport lion heads or other leopard, elephant, rhinoceros, and buffalo hunting “trophies.”

While wildlife conservationists praised the bans as a way to discourage the poaching of endangered species, not all environmental groups were pleased with the new policies. In particular, South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs announced on Thursday that it was “disappointed” with Delta’s decision, saying the airline’s “blanket ban” does not distinguish between animal “specimens” that were acquired legally versus those killed illegally.

The trade of animal trophies is a significant contributor to South Africa’s economy, with the country’s hunting industry worth nearly $500 million, the environmental agency said.

Namibia also complained that the airline bans would actually endanger more animals by reducing hunting tourism, which funds the country’s protection efforts, according to the Associated Press.

An editorial in The Wall Street Journal on Thursday, titled “How Trophy Hunting Can Save Lions,” argued a similar point. The editorial cited statistics that Kenya’s 60% to 70% of Kenya’s large wild animals have been wiped out since the country banned hunting in 1977: “Lion conservation succeeds when it provides incentives for local people to protect lions and their habitat. In other words, if it pays, it stays,” the authors wrote. “When done responsibly and legally, trophy hunting is a way to ensure African lions are here to stay.”

MONEY mutual funds

Dar es Salaam Is the New Brewery Hot Spot

148715184
Tom Cockrem—Getty Images Street scene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Roughly 45% of Tanzanians are between the ages of 15 and 45, prime ages for drinking beer.

Lagos and Dar es Salaam are the new brewery hot spots, according to U.S. mutual fund managers as they tap Africa’s emerging beer companies in pursuit of long-term returns on investment.

U.S. fund managers who originally entered the African market by investing in infrastructure said the continent’s youthful demographics – large swaths of the continent are at prime beer-drinking age – and favorable economics brought by local production are a recipe for a profitable outlook.

“It would cost four or five times more for Tanzanians to import beer than to make it domestically,” said Babatunde Ojo, portfolio manager for Harding Loevner’s $600 million Frontier Emerging Markets strategy.

His fund has added in recent months 730,000 shares of Tanzania Breweries Limited and 900,000 shares of East African Breweries, also a Tanzanian company, according to Lipper data.

The Templeton Frontier Markets Fund noted that it added $3.58 million to East African Breweries and $11.80 million to Nigerian Breweries.

Roughly 45% of Tanzanians are between the ages of 15 and 45, prime ages for drinking beer, said Ojo.

Those demographics are reflected elsewhere in the continent. Cities including Dar-es-Salaam and Lagos, hubs for young professionals, are expected to experience rapid growth of their young populations, according to a 2015 trends report by Ernst and Young.

Africa is expected to see the largest increase in the legal drinking age population by 2018, while in western Europe and North America, the cumulative decline in beer volumes since 1998 has been between 5% and 10%, according to Rabobank Research.

Mark Mobius, executive chairman of the Templeton Emerging Markets Group, is particularly enthusiastic about Nigerian Breweries Plc, which is majority owned by Heineken Holding NV. Templeton Asset Management Ltd. holds 0.83% of the company.

“Relative to its competitors, the company (Nigerian Breweries) imports considerably fewer raw materials – reducing its exposure to the depreciating naira, and lessening the impact on profit margins and turnover – and also has the strongest distribution capability among its peers,” Mobius wrote in an email to Reuters last week.

To be sure, share prices in Nigerian Breweries and other African peers have been falling this year as some countries suffer from decreased revenue and other commodities and in part because of uncertainty among minority investors about how and whether large global liquor companies Heineken and Diageo PLC will take their interests in Africa.

Should they choose to deemphasize beer at the expense of spirits, that could hurt the brewers.

Furthermore, some of these stocks are thinly traded and investing in Africa is still considered risky by many.

“If you invest in Africa, it will be a rocky ride between the possibility of economic and political instability, but if you look at the long-term potential, the rewards you can reap are very interesting and worthwhile,” said Francois Sonneville, Director in Food and Agribusiness Research at Rabobank International, a Dutch banking company.

Sonneville also said governments could impose tough taxes on beer companies if economic growth remains low this year.

Furthermore, not all of Africa may be equally ripe for beer sales. North African countries with large Muslim populations have some of the highest abstention rates in the world, according to the World Health Organization’s 2014 global status report on alcohol and health.

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