TIME Solutions That Matter

See How Robotics Is Changing What It Means to Be Disabled

At the Human Engineering Research Laboratories (HERL) in Pittsburgh, Pa., veterans, engineers, doctors and researchers are working together to improve the lives of people with disabilities. Since 1994, Dr. Rory Cooper and his team have been solving everyday problems of people with disabilities and inventing new technologies to change the way people with disabilities interact with and experience the world around them

TIME animals

Minnesota Dentist Named as Killer of Beloved Lion

Cecil the lion
Zimbabwe National Parks/AFP/Getty Images Much-loved Zimbabwean lion called "Cecil" in Zimbabwe on Oct. 21, 2012.

Walter James Palmer allegedly paid $50,000 to kill Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe

A conservation group in Zimbabwe has named a dentist from Minnesota in the illegal killing of a beloved male lion.

U.S. citizen Walter James Palmer allegedly paid $50,000 to kill Cecil, a 13-year-old male lion, on a game hunting trip, according to a report from the Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force. Zimbabwe authorities also told the Associated Press that Palmer was the individual accused of slaughtering the beast.

Palmer said in a statement that he had hired guides to secure permits and that his hunting expedition was legal and properly handled and conducted.” He has not been contacted by authorities, Palmer said.

“I had no idea that the lion I took was a known, local favorite, was collared and part of a study until the end of the hunt,” he said via email. “I relied on the expertise of my local professional guides to ensure a legal hunt.”

The hunter’s two accomplices have been apprehended by police and await a court hearing, the country’s government said. “Ongoing investigations to date suggest that the killing of the lion was illegal since the land owner was not allocated a lion on his hunting quota for 2015,” the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority said in a statement. “Therefore, all persons implicated in this case are due to appear in court facing poaching charges.”

Palmer and a guide, Theo Bronkhorst, allegedly entered a national park where lions are protected on July 6 and lured Cecil from the park by tying a dead animal to the back of their car. They shot him first with a bow and then a gun when he didn’t die immediately, according to the conservationist group’s report. Though the hunters had left the protected park, they still lacked proper permits, the conservation group said.

Cecil was a draw for tourists visiting the country’s Hwange National Park and the subject of research conducted by the Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit. Oxford University Professor David Macdonald, who runs the center, condemned the killing as “reprehensible and unacceptable.” In turn, Cecil’s shooting will likely result in the death of many other lions that depended on Cecil, he said.

Palmer is an avid big game hunter whose hunting successes landed him attention in a 2009 New York Times story on the sport. He was previously convicted of bear poaching in Wisconsin, according to the Minnesota Star Tribune.


TIME astronomy

How to Watch the Delta Aquarid Meteor Shower

Meteor Stars Green Detail
Getty Images

The best time to watch is between moonset and sunrise early Wednesday morning

The Delta Aquarid meteor shower is set to light up skies across the globe with shooting stars in the wee hours of Wednesday morning.

While the Delta Aquarid meteor shower started on July 12 and is expected to continue until Aug. 23, the time between moonset and sunrise early Wednesday morning is slated to be the best time to see the shower’s shooting stars.

Astronomers suggest gazing up at the sky a few hours before dawn—at about 2 a.m.—when meteor showers are easiest to see and most frequent, with up to 15 or 20 meteors per hour. While a telescope or binoculars are unnecessary, city dwellers might find the showers hard to see; NASA suggests getting as far away from “urban light pollution as possible and find a location with a clear, unclouded view of the night sky.”

Click here to see where NASA recommends you watch meteor showers in your area.

Watch a livestream of the meteor shower at the top of this post starting at 9 p.m. EDT.

TIME space

Fatal Virgin Galactic Spaceship Crash Blamed on Co-Pilot Error

virgin galactic spaceshiptwo crash
Kenneth Brown—Reuters A combination of photos show Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo as it detaches from the jet airplane that carried it aloft and then exploding over the skies of the Mojave Desert, Calif. on October 31, 2014.

The accident killed the co-pilot and seriously injured the pilot

(WASHINGTON) — Federal safety investigators said Tuesday the crash of a Virgin Galactic spaceship last year was caused by a catastrophic structural failure triggered when the co-pilot unlocked the craft’s braking system early.

National Transportation Safety Board investigators said the resulting aerodynamic forces caused the brakes to actually be applied without any further action by the crew. Investigators said no safeguards were built into system to overcome the error of the co-pilot.

The spaceship broke apart over the Mojave Desert during a test flight 10 months ago. The accident killed the co-pilot and seriously injured the pilot.

NTSB officials said early in the investigation that the co-pilot prematurely unlocked equipment designed to slow the descent of the spacecraft during initial re-entry. Simply unlocking the spacecraft’s brakes shouldn’t have applied them, but that happened anyway.

In determining the probable cause of the accident, board members were focused on prioritizing the lack of systems put in place to mitigate or overcome human error. Scaled Composites developed the craft for Virgin Galactic, and NTSB member Robert Sumwalt said the company “put all its eggs in the basket” the crew doing everying correctly.

“My point is that a single-point human failure has to be anticipated,” Sumwalt said. “The system has to be designed to compensate for the error.”

NTSB chairman Christopher Hart said he hoped the investigation will prevent such an accident from happening again. He said the NTSB learned “with a high degree of certainty the events that resulted in the breakup.”

“Many of the safety issues that we will hear about today arose not from the novelty of a space launch test flight, but from human factors that were already known elsewhere in transportation,” Hart said.

Virgin Galactic has been proceeding with its plans for space flight and is now building another craft. Company officials have said in recent months that their commitment to commercial spacecraft has not waivered despite the crash and they expect the company to resume test flights later this year. Eventually, the company envisions flights with six passengers climbing more than 62 miles above Earth.


There May Have Been a Major Breakthrough in MERS Treatment

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Researchers in Hong Kong have cured infected monkeys of MERS using existing drugs

Two existing and widely available drugs may prove to be effective treatments for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), new research published by the University of Hong Kong suggests.

According to the South China Morning Post, the medicines—lopinavir with ritonavir and a type of interferon—were tested on marmosets, small monkeys that a 2014 U.S. study concluded would be the best subject for MERS trials because of the way their reactions to the virus mimics human illness. The drugs, currently used to treat HIV and sclerosis, were found to be effective in curing MERS-infected marmosets.

The research is the first of its kind in the world.

“We would recommend doctors to start using both drugs immediately to treat MERS patients if they are critical,” said Jasper Chan Fuk-woo, one of the researchers, told SCMP. “The evidence in this study is quite strong in proving the effectiveness of these two drugs.”

Currently, there is no known cure for MERS.

Meanwhile, South Korea, which struggled with a MERS outbreak in May and June, has not reported any new MERS cases for 23 days and no deaths for more than two weeks. The country declared a “de-facto end” to its outbreak on July 28, although a spokesman for the World Health Organization told the BBC it would not declare an official end to the country’s outbreak until 28 days had passed with no new infections—twice the disease’s incubation period.


TIME climate change

U.S. Flood Risk Could Be Worse Than We Thought

flooding climate change
Getty Images

A new study looks at what happens when storm surge occurs at the same time as high rain fall

The way scientists have traditionally analyzed storm surge and heavy rainfall, the two main drivers of flooding in coastal communities, may underestimate flood risk in the United States, according to new research.

In the past, disaster experts have used analyzed storm surges and high rainfall separately to define flood zones and devise preparedness plans. The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, shows that this method underestimates the risk of storm surges and high rainfall occurring at the same time. The number of these so-called compound events has increased over the past 100 years, researchers found.

New York City, for instance, has experienced an increase in the number of compound events with both storm surge and high precipitation in recent years, a change researchers write can be attributed to “storm surge weather patterns that also [favor] high precipitation.” Overall, a reevaluation of potential flooding scenarios that includes the possibility of compound events more than doubled odds of flooding in the city.

“Usually it requires an extreme storm surge to cause flooding or an extreme rainfall event,” said study author Thomas Wahl, a researcher at the University of South Florida. “But the combination of two events that are not really extreme on their own may cause larger damages than one of the two events alone.”

Read More: This Factor Predicts What People Think About Climate Change

The risk of these compound events varies greatly from city to city, according to the study. Cities most prone to hurricanes and other large storms on the East and Gulf coasts are more vulnerable than their West coast counterparts, for instance.

Researchers note that while the new research looks at storm surge and precipitation, long-term sea level rise remains the biggest driver of increased flood risk. A study released last week suggests that sea levels may rise by 10 feet above current levels within the next century. The estimates, which would make places like New York City and London uninhabitable, significantly exceed those by the widely-respected Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have been met with skepticism by many climate scientists.

“Continued high emissions would result in multi-meter sea level rise this century and lock in continued ice sheet disintegration such that building cities or rebuilding cities on coast lines would become foolish,” Hansen wrote in a statement accompanying his paper.

TIME A Year In Space

See the Best Photos from an Astronaut’s Fourth Month in Space

Astronaut Scott Kelly just passed the four-month mark in his yearlong stay aboard the Space Station. Here is a collection of the best photos he's snapped so far.

TIME is following Kelly’s mission in the new series, A Year In Space. Watch the first two episodes here.

TIME climate change

Companies To Invest $140 Billion To Fight Climate Change

The White House organized this large private-sector commitment

More than a dozen leading U.S. companies have committed to investing a total of $140 billion in new funds to combat climate change in a White House-organized effort meant to demonstrate the private sector’s commitment to the issue, the White House announced Monday.

The initiative, the latest in a series of White House moves on climate change, signals the continued effort by the administration to position global warming as a major issue in the lead up to a landmark United Nations conference on climate change in Paris at the end of the year.

“They’re not just committing to support a successful outcome in Paris, they’re walking the walk,” said Brian Deese, the president’s senior climate change advisor, on a conference call for journalists. “Commitments are varied, but the thing they all share is that they’re innovative and ambitious.”

The list of companies committing money and resources to fighting climate change contains many of the country’s most prominent corporations, including retailers, banks and tech companies. And, while many have made previous efforts to combat climate change, the announcements contains new commitments from each of the 13 companies. Financial institutions like Goldman Sachs and Bank of America have committed to financing billions of dollars in renewable energy plants. Tech companies like Google and Microsoft committed to purchasing 100% of the energy for their power-hungry data centers from renewable energy sources, in addition to a variety of other commitments. Companies like Walmart and Pepsico have agreed to rethink elements of their supply chain in an environmentally conscious manner.

“What’s exciting about this is these commitments are new and push beyond what has been done,” said Deese. “They are accountable, measurable and verifiable.”

Read More: Here’s Where to Buy a House In the U.S. That Will Be Resilient to Climate Change

The announcement also suggests an increased acceptance in the business community to the realities of climate change. The companies total revenue topped $1.3 trillion in 2014, and they have a combined value of more than $2.5 trillion. Still, the list of companies notably lacks an oil company, and it remains to be seen whether one will join the initiative in a future round of pledges. In response to a question on that topic, Deese said that he expects to see “substantial support from across different industry sectors” in the coming months.

The announcement, first reported by the Wall Street Journal, comes just months before a United Nations conference on climate change in Paris that many hope will lead to the strongest international agreement on the issue yet. Obama has sought to position the U.S. a leader on climate change in the lead up to that conference, committing to cut carbon emissions in the U.S. by 26 to 28% by 2025.

“There’s one issue that will define the contours of this century more dramatically than any other, and that is the urgent and growing threat of a changing climate,” Obama said at the UN climate summit last September.

TIME climate change

This Factor Predicts What People Think About Climate Change

climate change protest
Getty Images

Education affects climate change beliefs differently if you live in the U.S.

Around the world, people with higher levels of education are more likely to understand climate change than their less-educated counterparts, according to new research published in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Using data collected by Gallup from 119 countries, researchers found that education level was a key determinant of climate change risk perceptions in 62% of countries around the world. But all bets are off when it comes to education and views of climate change in the United States, along with a select few English speaking countries. Political party and ideology predicted views of climate change in the U.S., not education alone. (Information on political ideology and climate change beliefs was not available for countries outside the U.S.)

“[For Americans] just having higher education does not mean that you understand or accept the science,” says study co-author Anthony Leiserowitz, director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. “[Americans] who have attained higher education are better at cherry picking evidence that seems to validate what we already believe.”

Read More: How the Recession Accidentally Helped the Planet

Overall, different regions had vastly different levels of awareness of climate change. Two-thirds of people in Egypt, Bangladesh and Nigeria, for instance, had never heard of climate change, the study found. Still, many in developing countries who lacked formal knowledge of the concept said they had noticed changes in their local weather patterns indicative of climate change. The lack of climate change awareness in developing countries should be of particular concern because many of those countries have been deemed more vulnerable to environmental changes. “If you don’t know you’re at risk, you’re even more at risk because you can’t possibly be taking the actions to prepare,” says Leiserowitz.

Global public awareness about climate change could also play a role in negotiations for a global treaty on climate change at a United Nations conference on the issue later this year. Public support for an agreement will help countries to follow through on commitments made at the summit, Leiserowitz said.

“It won’t be some top-down commandment from a legally binding treaty from the UN making everybody do it,” he says. “It’s going to be national dynamics where each government commits to doing this and then they have to get people onboard to support those policies.”

TIME animals

Obama Announces Major Restrictions on Ivory Trade

When implemented, the proposed rule will result in a near total ban on the ivory trade in the U.S.

President Obama announced sweeping new measures to stem the ivory trade on Saturday, including a ban on the interstate sale of most ivory in the U.S. and new restrictions on when the material can be exported. When implemented, the rule would result in a near total ban on the ivory trade in the U.S.

“We’re proposing a new rule that bans the sale of virtually all ivory across state lines,” Obama said at a press conference in Kenya.

Existing U.S. ivory regulations mostly concern the import and export of the material from the country, while allowing some legal trade of the material between states. The new regulation, which will be finalized later this year, would restrict interstate trade to antique items that are over 100 years old or contain a minimal amount of ivory. The proposed rule also contains new restrictions on the international trade.

Prior to the Saturday’s announcement, many animal conservationists had argued that allowing some legal ivory trade provided a cover for criminals who were actually selling illegal ivory. In a 2009 investigation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service officials seized more than a ton of ivory from a Philadelphia art store that had been manipulated to appear old enough to meet federal standards. Ivory from that seizure was destroyed at a “ivory crush” event in Times Square last month.

“By tightening domestic controls on trade in elephant ivory and allowing only very narrow exceptions, we will close existing avenues that are exploited by traffickers and address ivory trade that poses a threat to elephants in the wild,” said Fish and Wildlife Service Director Dan Ashe in a press release. “Federal law enforcement agents will have clearer lines by which to demarcate legal from illegal trade.”

Read More: Why Elephant Advocates Crushed a Ton of Ivory in Times Square

The announcement comes as conservation groups have warned about an increase in the prevalence of elephant poaching and a subsequent decline in the number of African elephants. Fewer than 500,000 elephants roam the continent today, and more than 50,000 are killed each year. After China, the U.S. is the world’s second largest market for ivory product sales, according to some estimates.

In addition to protecting elephants, the regulations will promote economic growth in Africa in the many countries rely on wildlife-based tourism, officials said. It will also aid the fight against terrorist groups that fund their efforts with money from the ivory trade.

“This is an issue not just about protecting elephants, but alleviating poverty, spurring economic growth, and fighting off people intent on destroying governments and terrorizing communities,” said Wayne Pacelle, president and CEO of The Humane Society, in an emailed statement. “Here’s a case where protecting wildlife is bound inextricably with core concerns about economic and national security.”

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