TIME Opinion

How Celebrities Helped Me Get Through Breast Cancer

When I was diagnosed at 40, Betty Ford, Betsey Johnson and Sheryl Crow stepped in

If you’re diagnosed with cancer and you live, you’re graced with a label that’s meant as an honor: “Survivor.” And yes, surviving cancer is a powerful experience that can enrich and embolden the rest of one’s days. But what of people whose lives are taken by the disease? Anyone who has lost a loved one to cancer knows well that people who die of cancer commonly display extraordinary determination, clarity, and grace. We don’t have a fitting term for those people — “victims” is not exactly empowering — and yet, as Breast Cancer Awareness month begins, their experience is just as worthy of being honored.

I took a crash course in these issues when I was diagnosed with breast cancer, at age 40, in 2008. Part of what I learned during that time came from close connections, especially those I found in a national group called the Young Survival Coalition, which provides support and information for younger women facing this diagnosis. At the same time, I also found a community somewhere less expected: with celebrities.

Before connecting with others dealing with the disease, I could immediately turn to the famous women whose experiences I had watched throughout the decades before. I thought of Betsey Johnson, who’d been diagnosed in 2002. She had apparently come through more fabulous than ever; I’d interviewed her a few years before and found her insightful, buoyant, and laughter-filled. I thought of Minnie Riperton, a musician I’d loved all my life. Her candor about her diagnosis earned her a spokesperson position for the American Cancer Society in 1977 and the ACS’s Courage Award, presented by President Jimmy Carter, in 1978. She ultimately died of breast cancer, at 31, but I remembered the impression she’d made on me when I was a child by communicating in public about her illness with honesty and grace.

The list goes on: Sheryl Crow and Christina Applegate emerged from their breast cancer treatments determined to help others who face the disease. Edie Falco was diagnosed at 40, in 2003; she later said that the way long-held wishes came to the fore in her life after cancer treatment encouraged her to adopt her children. Robin Roberts came out about her sexuality after she was treated for a blood disorder that appears likely to have resulted from the chemotherapy she received for breast cancer five years before. I also thought of photographer Linda McCartney, diagnosed with breast cancer in 1995. In March of 1998, her face somewhat gaunt and her hair just growing back from chemotherapy, she nonetheless shone with pride at her designer daughter Stella’s fashion show. One month later, she died of the disease — but I will never forget the photos I saw of her that day and how she put herself, though very ill, in the public eye for an event she held dear, living on her terms till the end.

The impact these women can have on those fighting the disease out of the spotlight just goes to show how important it is that celebrities now feel free to speak out if they want to.

That’s where Shirley Temple Black comes in. When the former child star was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1972, it was not only common for women to keep the diagnosis a secret from others, but also for their doctors to keep secrets from them: Doctors often told women they were having a biopsy when in fact a mastectomy was planned; the thinking was that a woman would not be able to handle the news in advance. Black, one of the first women in this country to speak publicly about her breast cancer diagnosis, expressed outrage at this practice: “The doctor can make the incision; I’ll make the decision,” she wrote in McCall’s magazine.

Just two years later, First Lady Betty Ford was diagnosed, mere weeks after her husband took the oath of office. TIME reported that she received what was then the standard surgery for breast cancer: a “radical mastectomy” that “removed the entire right breast, its underlying pectoral muscle, and lymphoid tissue in the adjacent armpit.” Today, less invasive surgical options are far more common, even when a mastectomy is performed. (Ford went on to commit herself to many causes, most famously helping to erase stigma from another illness she faced: addiction.) Within weeks, Happy Rockefeller, the Vice President-designate’s wife, had decided to learn from Ford’s example and perform a breast self-exam. She found a lump in her breast and was diagnosed with breast cancer; Ford was publicly credited with leading Rockefeller toward the diagnosis and what proved to be successful treatment.

The First Lady’s decision to be open about what was still a taboo topic — a frightening illness in a private part of the body — had paid off immediately. And I can attest that the trend she helped start, of sharing a breast cancer experience publicly, continues to make a difference.

These days, of course, one needn’t even be a global celebrity to have a broad impact. In mid-2010, I discovered the writings of journalist Mary Herczog, who had also been treated for breast cancer. I loved her warm, witty writing style; and I loved that she had decided to pursue a doctorate after her initial cancer treatments. I wanted to meet this remarkable survivor — but was devastated to learn that Herczog had died of breast cancer a few months before, at age 45. In a blog entry about a month before her death, Herczog acknowledged her somewhat unusual refusal to despair over terrible medical news. “Either there’s a whole lot of unavoidable bad coming at me,” she said, “in which case I don’t see the need to rush up and greet it, or I feel pretty swell, and I roll out with cookies and good books.” Words to live by, from one whose legacy will continue to survive.

As for what to call those who, like Herczog, were not themselves survivors, one of my friends from the Young Survival Coalition has a suggestion: call them by their names. That goes for boldface names as well as the names of beloved friends.

Meanwhile, whatever term you want to use for someone who had cancer and now shows no evidence of the disease, that’s what I am. And I carry in my heart others who touched my life while they faced the disease — those who survived and those who didn’t — even if I only ever knew them from a distance.

Read TIME’s 2013 cover story about the impact of Angelina Jolie’s mastectomy, free of charge, here in TIME’s archives: The Angelina Effect

TIME Research

You Asked: Is It Good or Bad to Take a Nap?

Illustration by Peter Oumanski for TIME

Snooze, or skip it?

You’re right to be confused. Even as a recent study linked napping to higher mortality, companies and colleges across the U.S. are installing nap rooms to boost productivity. Truly, it would be a dream to get some napping consensus.

But whether or not napping is right for you depends. “First of all, it’s important to ask yourself why you’re taking the nap,” says Dr. Sara Mednick, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside and author of Take a Nap! Change Your Life. If you’re spending a big chunk of your day feeling sleepy and out of sorts, then your desire to snooze may be driven by stress, insomnia, sleep apnea or a hundred other slumber-disrupting health conditions, Mednick says.

“Daytime napping is an early indicator of underlying ill health,” adds Yue Leng, a University of Cambridge sleep researcher and coauthor of the study linking naps to higher mortality rates. Like Mednick, Leng suggests daytime drowsiness is likely a symptom of other health issues, not their cause.

Put simply, blaming naps for higher mortality rates is like blaming your doctor for heart disease; you’re more likely to see a doc if you have heart issues, but that doesn’t mean she’s to blame.

MORE: The Power of Sleep

Actually, naps are good for most people, Mednick says. Her research shows a nap—defined as daytime sleeping that lasts between 15 and 90 minutes—can improve brain functions ranging from memory to focus and creativity. “For some people, naps are as restorative as a whole night of sleep,” she adds. More research shows a quick nap can lower stress and recharge your willpower. And napping has also been linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and inflammation.

But all of these benefits depend on you getting a good night of sleep to begin with, Mednick stresses. Also, not everyone is a good napper. “Some people wake up from naps feeling like crap,” she says.

Genetics could explain why some people are nappers and some aren’t. But regardless of the explanation, there’s clearly a difference between the two groups. “People who aren’t habitual nappers tend to fall into very deep sleep during naps, and waking up from that leaves them feeling groggy,” Mednick explains. On the other hand, natural nappers—you know who you are—don’t plunge into deep slumber during their daytime snoozes, Mednick says. This allows them to wake up from naps feeling energized and alert, not discombobulated.

MORE: Pass The Pillow: “Google Naps” Is Google Maps for Places to Nap

For natural nappers, she says it’s “incredibly important” that you do catch your daytime ZZZs. “These people—and they probably account for about 40% of the population—tend to do really poorly if they don’t nap,” she explains. Without their much needed daytime shuteye, habitual nappers often reach for energy drinks, caffeine or other stimulants that perk them up but don’t recharge their cognitive batteries the way a short, healthy snooze would.

“For these people, skipping their nap is a huge productivity killer,” Mednick says, and that’s a compelling reason for employers and universities to provide nap spaces for employees and students.

While the length of an ideal siesta varies from person to person, 20 to 30 minutes is plenty for most. But up to 90 minutes—about the length of one full sleep cycle—could also be beneficial, Mednick says. She recommends trying different nap lengths to find the one that leaves you feeling the most refreshed.

If you’ve never been a napper but want to cash in on napping’s brain and health benefits, Mednick says you may be able to teach yourself to nap. The trick is to keep your daytime shuteye very short—no more than 15 minutes at first. This will prevent your brain and body from slipping into the deeper levels of slumber that leave you feeling foggy upon waking, she adds.

But if you’re just not a born napper, don’t sweat it. “Everyone’s different,” Mednick says. “If you feel good, whatever you’re doing is fine.”

TIME Infectious Disease

Liberia Hopes Ebola Diagnosis in the U.S. Will Lead to More Help

“Now the Americans know Ebola can go there, maybe they will send more doctors to Liberia”

The news that a man who recently traveled from Liberia to Dallas has been diagnosed with Ebola, the first diagnosis on American soil, was met with mixed reaction Wednesday in one of the West African countries struggling to contain the deadly disease.

Government officials in the capital Monrovia said they have no knowledge of the man’s identity, and have privately expressed frustration that the United States, citing patient confidentiality laws, has not revealed his name or even his nationality. Liberians, ever sensitive to the stigma of Ebola, repeatedly point out that just because the man departed from the capital’s international airport on Sept. 19, it does not necessarily mean he is, in fact, Liberian.

That frustration is reflected on the country’s lively call-in radio talk show. Callers want to be able to identify the man, and pinpoint his nationality, because they say they want to “clear Liberia’s name.” Liberians feel they have been unfairly identified with the Ebola outbreak, which, many point out, started in neighboring Guinea and Sierra Leone, even if Liberia now has the majority of cases. Other call-in guests are taking a longer view, expressing hopes that the case, which is already getting around the clock U.S. media attention, may elicit further American support for the Ebola effort in Liberia.

“Now the Americans know Ebola can go there, maybe they will send more doctors to Liberia,” one caller said. Another brought up the case of American-Liberian Patrick Sawyer, who caught Ebola while working in Liberia, and took it to Lagos, Nigeria, on July 20. He died five days later, unleashing a chain of transmission that ultimately infected 20 and killed eight. Nigerian officials are now saying that the outbreak has been contained. Like the Sawyer case, the caller said, this just further “proves to the world that Ebola is real, and a global threat.” The host agreed. “It is good,” he said, that the patient was getting good treatment in Dallas. It was also good, he added, that Americans can now see the reality of Ebola for themselves: “This will raise international attention, this will let Americans know that Ebola is real.”

TIME Cancer

The New HPV Vaccine Could Be 90% Effective

hpv image
Getty Images

An even more effective vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer, may be on the horizon, according to new research published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. Merck announced that it’s investigating a 9-valent HPV vaccine that protects against nine total types of HPV—five more than the current one on the market.

The current vaccine, GARDASIL, also manufactured by Merck, is 70% effective against cervical and other HPV-related cancers and protects against two of the main types that cause cancer—type 16 and 18—as well as two more that cause most cases of genital warts, types 6 and 11. The potential new vaccine, which isn’t named yet, will protect against approximately 90% of cervical cancers, says study author Elmar Joura, an associate professor of gynecology at the Medical University of Vienna in Austria (who received grant support, lecture fees and advisory board fees from Merck). It protects against the HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58.

MORE: HPV Vaccine Cuts Rates of Genital Warts 61%

Coverage against those extra strains could be good news for women worldwide, as some races are prone to different types of HPV. In East Asia, HPV 52 and 58 are more common than in the U.S. or Europe, Joura writes in an email to TIME. “The good thing is that the nine valent vaccine will equalize these differences,” Joura writes. “The grade of protection will be the same worldwide.”

In the study, Joura and his team analyzed data from 12,514 women and found that of those ages 15-26 who had precancers, 32% had more than one type of HPV—that number was 19% for women between the ages of 24 to 45.

MORE: There’s a Vaccine Against Cancer, But People Aren’t Using It

The FDA is currently reviewing the vaccine, and Joura expects them to reach a decision by the end of 2014. “The vaccine will hopefully be available soon after,” he wrote.

TIME Infectious Disease

Dallas EMS Crew Tests Negative For Ebola

The EMS crew that transported the patient with Ebola in Dallas has tested negative for the disease, according to the City of Dallas.

The crew that took the patient to Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas was undergoing medical evaluation yesterday, though none of them were symptomatic. The crew has been sent home.

The CDC and Texas Department of Health will continue to track down people the Ebola patient in Dallas came in contact with while they were infectious. CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden said on Tuesday that he is confident that Ebola will be cared for and contained.

MORE: Ebola in the United States: What You Need to Know

TIME Infectious Disease

How Ebola is Changing Liberia: A First Person Account From the Ground

TIME's Africa bureau chief talks about the situation in West Africa

Monrovia, the capital of Liberia, is the epicenter of an Ebola outbreak that has killed nearly 3,000 people in the West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.

TIME’s Africa bureau chief, Aryn Baker, is on the ground in the West African city. She has reported on musicians who educate crowds on the infectious disease, the stigma dead body management teams face, the United States’ responsibility to assist Liberia, among other stories.

In the video above, Baker discusses everyday life in the densely packed seaside city of Monrovia, where the stench of chlorine and the sight of thermometers and rubber boots have become commonplace as locals attempt to stem the Ebola outbreak.

TIME Infectious Disease

Dallas Keeps Calm and Carries On After Ebola Arrives

Dr. Edward Goodman, left, epidemiologist at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, points to a reporter for a question as Dr. Mark Lester looks on during a news conference about an Ebola infected patient they are caring for in Dallas, Sept. 30, 2014.
Dr. Edward Goodman, left, epidemiologist at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, points to a reporter for a question as Dr. Mark Lester looks on during a news conference about an Ebola infected patient they are caring for in Dallas, Sept. 30, 2014. LM Otero—AP

Officials search for answers and urge calm in Dallas

A Dallas hospital patient is battling Ebola, it emerged Tuesday, the first victim of the deadly disease to be diagnosed on American soil. But Texans have resisted the urge to panic at the news, and, contrary to type, have so far been subdued and measured in their public reaction.

Within minutes of the news that a man who had flown from Liberia to Dallas had fallen ill with the deadly virus, a chorus of Texas officials took to the airways to call for calm and insist that this invasion would be defeated. “Take a deep breath,” urged Jay M. Bernhardt, PH. D., director of the University of Texas Center for Health Communication. The former director of the National Center for Health Marketing at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested on Austin television that the state’s media had a responsibility to be measured and informative in its response — a stance most media outlets appear to be taking, so far. The Dallas Morning News urged readers to take a calm approach to the alarming news: “Time for panic? Absolutely not. This is a time to stay informed and follow the instructions of health professionals so they can ensure that the virus doesn’t spread.”

Even Texas Gov. Rick Perry, usually a ready voice when it comes to expounding on the issue of the day, be it Iranian nukes or border security, took a decidedly low key approach. No immediate statement was forthcoming from the governor’s office, but he did offer a few offhand comments in New York –“we will continue to monitor the situation” — while campaigning for New York Republican gubernatorial candidate Rob Astarino.

But while the call for calm has gone forth, questions are beginning to pile up in Texas — the most serious being why was the patient was originally sent home after initial treatment. The patient first came to Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital on Sept. 26, and was treated, given antibiotics, and discharged, according to numerous local news reports. He then returned on Sunday, Sept. 28. Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings confirmed Tuesday that the EMS crew that transported the patient back to the hospital after his condition worsened had been placed in quarantine and the ambulance decontaminated. It also was unclear how the patient had travelled to the U.S., what his itinerary had been, and what were his activities upon arrival.

Texans were given some assurances Tuesday. Health officials had been on alert for the possibility of an Ebola outbreak, they were told — after all, the state is home to two significant African immigrant communities in Dallas and Houston, both home to major international airports. Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, where the patient presented himself, had a run through of Ebola-response activities last week, according to hospital officials.

“We were prepared,” Dr. Edward Goodman, an epidemiologist at Texas Health Presbyterian, said Tuesday in a news conference. “We have had a plan in place for some time now in the event of a patient presenting with possible Ebola. We are well-prepared to deal with this crisis.” The Texas Department of State of Health Services also had been alert to the possible crisis and was certified to do Ebola testing on Aug. 22, David L. Lakey, state health commissioner said Tuesday, enabling a speedy analysis of the patient’s blood.

The news that Ebola had landed in Dallas, while anticipated in an abstract sense by the medical community, was little surprise to some in Dallas’ African immigrant community. Dallas is home to a vibrant African immigrant population, many of them well-educated West Africans who have escaped the poverty of their ancestral homes to build new lives in the U.S, often as healthcare workers or small business owners. The community includes between 5,000 and 10,000 Liberians, according to one Liberian community group, many of whom regularly return to the African country that has been worst hit by the disease. Carolyn Woahloe, head of the Dallas Liberian Nurses Association told KXAS, the Dallas NBC affiliate: “We have people going and coming every day, so like I said, this is shocking, because they take all the necessary precautions over there at the airport and even when they get here.”

But for another established member of the Dallas community, there was a sense of inevitability about this week’s developments. Foday Fofanah has lived in the U.S. for 30 years, and recently returned from his native Sierra Leone after burying his mother. Over the years, he has built up a non-profit, dubbed Sankofa, to help pull his native county out of extreme poverty, and lately he has focused on the impact of Ebola on one of the world’s poorest nations. Sierra Leone has 2,021 cases of the disease and 605 deaths, according to the CDC.

Fofanah told KTVT, the Dallas CBS affiliate, that he wasn’t surprised by the arrival of Ebola in Texas. “There are 5,000 Sierra Leonians in the Dallas area. They know about Ebola,” he said. “I just knew it was bound to happen because people travel every day. It’s a small globe. It was bound to happen.”

TIME Food

This New Method of Farming Could Change Where Our Food Comes From

"It could be that the best strawberries in the world come from Detroit"

Caleb Harper, founder of the CITYFarm Research Project, and his team at MIT’s Media Lab in Cambridge, Mass. appear to have found a way to grow food four times faster than it does in nature, using a new farming method called “Aeroponics.”

Unlike regular hydroponics, a growing method that uses water instead of soil, the plants at CITYFarm do not sit in still water, but rather have their roots suspended in a “fog chamber” which sprays a nutrient-rich mist.

The CITYFarmers take great care to monitor each aspect of the plants’ growth, to see which conditions work the best, including a technique of limiting light to red and blue.

“This is the spectrum of light that the plants need to grow extra plant material,” Harper explains–and the rest of the spectrum besides red and blue only serves to provide heat.

Harper believes that Aeoroponics not only grows fuller, more developed plants, but could be a solution to local farmers looking to provide sustenance to booming city populations.

“We all know the phrase, ‘the best X comes from X'”, he explains, instead proposing that “the best X comes from the environment that created it.”

“There is a new way to think of using fabrication space, especially if you look at a city like Detroit.”

By building a similar set up, which requires no soil or great tracts of land, “it could be that the best strawberries in the world come from Detroit.”

TIME viral

People on Twitter Are Replacing Parts of Movie Titles With ‘Ebola’

Not everyone sees the funny side

Twitter users have reacted to the news of America’s first confirmed case of Ebola by inserting the virus’s name into their favorite films, with the hashtag #ReplaceMovieTitleWithEbola trending on the social network.

Health officials confirmed Tuesday that a patient in Dallas has the disease, which has so far claimed more than 3,000 lives in West Africa and brought several nations to the brink of collapse. Alongside various expressions of concern and sympathy, a bizarre game emerged on social media.

Of course, not everyone saw the funny side.

TIME Infectious Disease

How U.S. Doctors Can Contain Ebola

Ebola’s early symptoms look a lot like the flu or malaria. What are US doctors doing to distinguish Ebola from other diseases?

With the first case of Ebola diagnosed Tuesday in the U.S., doctors are on alert for other cases of travelers from the region who might be infected and bring the virus back with them to the States. But what are they doing and, perhaps more pressing, what should they be doing?

Officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have been expecting such a case, given how mobile the world’s population is. So the agency has published guidelines to help doctors and hospitals distinguishing Ebola, particularly in its early forms, from the common flu or other infections.

Complicating matters is the fact that Ebola can take as long as 21 days to incubate, after which the first symptoms, including fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, might send sick patients to the hospital or their local urgent care center. But fevers, especially in October in much of the U.S., generally mean the flu—and most doctors won’t think twice about recommending a flu shot (if the patient hasn’t already been vaccinated) and some fever reducing medication before sending a patient home.

That needs to change, say infectious disease experts and CDC officials. “Given the current outbreak, I think all U.S. hospitals should review processes for evaluating patients with fever,” says Ryan Fagan, who is leading the domestic infection-control efforts related to Ebola for the CDC. “It’s good practice to take travel histories.”

“Asking the questions takes literally five seconds for most patients,” says Dr. Mark Kline, an infectious disease specialist and physician in chief at Texas Children’s Hospital. “It’s quick and it’s easy, and for 99% of patients we see, if they say they haven’t traveled outside of the U.S. in the last 21 days, that’s the end of the Ebola discussion right there.”

At Patient First, a primary-care and urgent care facility in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, CEO Dr. Pete Sowers has been preparing an Ebola plan that will now be put into place. Patients will be greeted with a sign at the entrance and at the registration kiosk asking them to notify the receptionist if they have recently traveled to Guinea, Liberia or Sierra Leone and have any of the symptoms connected with Ebola. A nurse then meets the patient at the reception area and interviews them briefly to determine if they have potentially been in direct contact with the virus and if so, guides them to the nearest hospital. All staff are also educated about how to screen for common Ebola symptoms that might otherwise be mistaken for something else, like the common flu.

Similarly, at the University of Texas hospitals in Houston, nurses and staff who register patients in the emergency rooms or any of the clinics are trained to ask patients if they have traveled outside of the U.S. in the past 21 days. If they have, patients are asked where they have been. If the patient has been in Guinea, Liberia or Sierra Leone, they are brought to a separate room where they are given surgical masks and where health care personnel wear protective equipment, including gowns, gloves and masks, when entering the room.

MORE: The 5 Biggest Mistakes in the Ebola Outbreak

Any hospital, no matter how small, has the capability of implementing such a system. Because Ebola is not an airborne virus, and can only be spread via direct contact with infected body fluids such as saliva, blood or other excretions, specially ventilated rooms aren’t necessary to contain infection and protect the rest of the hospital from getting exposed.

That’s why infectious disease experts are advising primary care doctors and those working at urgent-care clinics to adopt the same simple procedures: first asking patients about where they have been in the past month to triage those who are at highest risk of having Ebola, and also having a room ready for those who they suspect might be infected.

Even if they have recently traveled to the active Ebola areas in west Africa and have fevers doesn’t mean these patients harbor the virus. So far, says Fagan, hundreds of calls have come in to the CDC from local health departments about suspected cases of Ebola, and none, until the Dallas case, has been positive. Malaria and other infections also cause fevers that can last several days and make patients feel nauseous and weak. A quick look at a patient’s blood can reveal the malaria parasite under a microscope, and a relatively simple blood test can detect the genetic signature of the Ebola virus.

But it’s not practical nor necessarily helpful to run the Ebola test on every patient with a fever, says Fagan. Health departments and the CDC don’t have the resources to perform that many analyses, and even if they did, “if you test people who have low likelihood of having the disease to begin with, you start to run into problems with false positives since no test is perfect,” he says.

So here again, doctors have to rely on a much more labor-intensive but still effective technique: asking more detailed questions about their patients’ experience in the Ebola-stricken countries. Such as, did they have direct skin contact, or contact with the blood, urine, feces, saliva or vomit of an Ebola patient, or someone suspected of having Ebola? Did they have direct contact with the body of an Ebola patient during a funeral? Those patients would be at high risk of contracting Ebola, and would likely need a blood test to confirm presence of the virus. Doctors would take a blood sample and then call their local health department for testing, who would then notify the CDC, and both labs would likely perform analysis that looks for genetic signatures of the virus.

If the person had been in a home or health0care facility with Ebola patients, but didn’t have direct contact with them, they would be at medium risk of having the infection, and, says Fagan, public health officials would consult with the CDC to determine whether that person’s blood needed to be tested.

Despite the high death rate from Ebola in West Africa, health officials in the U.S. say that same toll is unlikely to be repeated here, since relatively easy infection control measures can be implemented in nearly every U.S. doctor’s office and clinic.

 

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