TIME Workplace

Science Explains Why Women Are Always Freezing at Work

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Neil Webb—Getty Images/Ikon Images An illustration of a businesswoman working inside of ice cube.

Turns out workplace thermostats are kinda sexist

Women who are always freezing at work finally know who to blame: Men.

In a new report published Monday in Nature, researchers found that most office building temperatures are set using a decades-old formula for a “thermal comfort model” that takes into account factors like air temperature, air speed, and clothing insulation. That’s converted into a seven-point scale and compared to the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied, which gauges how many people are likely to feel uncomfortably cool or warm.

The problem is that one variable in that formula is inherently sexist. Turns out that the resting metabolic rate, or the measure of how fast we generate heat, that’s used in the calculation is based on a 40-year-old man weighing about 154 pounds. But women, who make up half of today’s workforce, typically have slower metabolic rates because they’re on average smaller and have more body fat. Thus, the study says the current “thermal comfort model” may overestimate women’s resting heat production by up to 35%.

Women’s physiology and wardrobe selection are also factors. Joost van Hoof, a building physicist at Fontys University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, was not involved in the study, but provided this memorable commentary to The New York Times:

“Many men, they wear suits and ties, and women tend to dress sometimes with cleavage. The cleavage is closer to the core of the body, so the temperature difference between the air temperature and the body temperature there is higher when it’s cold. I wouldn’t overestimate the effect of cleavage, but it’s there.”

What’s there to do about the problem? The study offers this solution: change the temperature setting formula. Accounting for women’s metabolic rates and body tissue insulation, female workers might prefer a 75 degree Fahrenheit office, the Times says. Typical office temperatures now hover around 70 degrees.

TIME human behavior

Are There Really Benefits to Writing Things By Hand?

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Jeffrey Coolidge / Getty Images Is writing by hand really psychologically beneficial?

A new Bic commercial claims four benefits to writing by hand.

Most office-working adults in America spend their days hunched over a computer, tapping at keys to form words on a screen. Very few use a notebook or spend time writing. Even those of us whose professional occupation is “writer” tend to spend far less time writing with a pen in hand than they do typing.

Of course, as with so many things that are perceived as old-timey, writing by hand has become if not a modern necessity, then a trend. Cursive lessons have become all the vogue in some circles and is credited with helping dyslexic students. J. K. Rowling famously wrote the Harry Potter series on napkins. Handwriting has been elevated to the highest levels of art, be it the digitally collected ecriture infinie or Brooklyn Museum’s exhibit on artist Jean-Michel Basquiat’s notebooks.

Jumping on the bandwagon too is Bic, the pen company, which has launched a campaign to get kids to write. Called “Fight for the Write,” the campaign boasts a video featuring a boy inspiring a classroom of kids through a series of “interesting facts” that show the benefits of writing: increased creativity, better critical thinking, boosted self confidence, and a correlated improvement in reading capability with writing prowess.

But are these benefits real? The short answer: Mostly not. “There’s lot of caveats in handwriting research,” says Karin James, a psychologist at Indiana University who studies early childhood brain development at Indiana University and has looked at how writing by hand affects pre-literate brains.

The creativity claim is most likely a stretch because measuring creativity is nearly impossible. “How are you defining creativity?” James says. “There’s all kinds of ways to: across individuals, ages, contexts—social, academic. It’s really hard to study, so that [claim] is a stretch.”

Intuitively, the idea that handwriting can improve critical thinking makes sense: Writing more would seem to entail thinking more thoroughly about topics and journaling, we know, has been shown to be excellent for introspection. But while writing by hand has been shown to be a good exercise for introspection, the evidence of writing out homework assignments remains very muddled.

As for self-confidence: writing and reading comprehension are neurally connected, and better readers often have more academic self-confidence. “If a kindergartner is reading at a first grade level, they do better academically, which means they have more confidence in their ability to perform,” James says. “The more children write, the easier it is for them to recognize a letter. Letter recognition is the highest predictor to reading later on.”

So there is merit in this claim. But on its own, writing probably does little to boost self-confidence. More likely, James says, is that increased creativity and self-confidence are secondary, correlated effects.

In 2012, James published a study along with her co-author, Laura Engelhardt, that began: “In an age of increasing technology, the possibility that typing on a keyboard will replace handwriting raises questions about the future usefulness of handwriting skills.”

James and Engelhardt found that writing is particularly instrumental in the cognitive development of pre-literate 5 year olds. The kids, who were learning the alphabet, wrote, traced, and typed letters. MRI scans found that the kids who had written letters were able to perceive the letters better, helping them to read at better rates compared to the typers and tracers.

Still, since control groups are impossible in reading and writing studies—you can’t decide to not teach some kids to read or write—“It’s tricky,” James says.

The parts of the brain activated when children learn to write—the left fusiform gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior parietal cortex—are the same that are active in older children and adults when they are reading. James wanted to know whether reading affected writing or the other way around. “That’s why we looked at [pre-literate] kids,” she said. “We didn’t know if reading came first and activated this network for handwriting of if it was vice versa. We found that reading networks are activated when reading happens, and writing uses that network.”

So while the idea of writing by hand and its memory-enhancing capabilities have been covered—and studied—ad nauseum, the effects of writing on other mental indicators are less understood. Research is correlational. “We don’t really have facts, we have evidence,” says James. “But it’s highly suggestive evidence.”

TIME Infectious Disease

Don’t Worry, There’s Probably No Bubonic Plague on NYC Subways

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Getty Images

The findings of a widely publicized study may have been overblown

If you gave up riding the New York City subway after a study suggested it might be hosting bubonic plague, then it’s time to buy yourself an MTA card — the study’s conclusion has been walked back by its authors.

The research, which was published in February in the journal Cell Systems, suggested that there were possible traces of bubonic plague and anthrax on New York City subways in addition to other microbes. In a correction added to the study on July 29, the researchers underline the very speculative nature of their findings.

In reference to the bubonic plague and anthrax findings, the researchers write, “there is minimal coverage to the backbone genome of these organisms, and there is no strong evidence to suggest these organisms are in fact present, and no evidence of pathogenicity.”

When the researchers’ findings were first published several months ago, medical experts at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the New York City Department of Health took issue and publicly called them into question. In the wake of the study’s release, the researchers admitted they could not be completely certain the bacteria they found was indeed bubonic plague, but the findings were not updated until last Wednesday.

Despite the correction, the research has not been retracted.

TIME Exercise/Fitness

5 Running Mistakes Beginners Always Make

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Getty Images

Wearing the wrong shoes can cost you more than just a few blisters

Summertime is the perfect season to start a running program. With the sun shining, there’s simply no reason to not lace up your sneaks and hit the road. But before you get started, learn the five mistakes every beginning runner makes. And skip them!

Starting too fast

The most common mistake new runners make: going too hard, too fast. By not easing into it, you end up exhausted much sooner than expected, and the tail end of your run becomes a wind-sucking session. This can make running seem too hard, which can lead you to quit your program all together.

Solution: The key is pacing yourself; running is a sport in which progress is especially slow and gradual. If you’re running outside, downloading a pacing app like RunKeeper (free, iTunes and Google Play) can help you keep track of your speed. Start off at a moderate pace, and gradually increase throughout your run. This will make for not only a more enjoyable run, but it’s also the key to building endurance.

Wearing the wrong shoes

Maybe you’ve heard this one before, but it’s worth repeating. You may think because your feet feel okay, and you’re not getting blisters, you’re in the clear. But poor-fitting shoes can cause all sorts of unexpected problems: ankle pain, hip pain, even shoulder pain, and so on. This is why I think of the wrong shoes as the “silent killer” of running programs.

Solution: The best advice is to sidestep this from the get-go. Hit your local running store and have them fit you for the proper shoes. They will look at your gait and see what areas of your feet take on the most pressure while you walk and run. The right shoe will take your runs to a whole new level.

Setting unrealistic goals

It’s very easy to get caught up in what others are doing and try to match up with them, especially when it comes to running. But remember: the only person you should be competing against is yourself. If you’re a brand new runner, trying to run a 5k straight through right off the bat is likely going to leave you feeling discouraged. It’s okayeven recommendedto start with an even smaller goal, like running a mile. And then move forward from there.

Solution: Start with a realistic program that will help you build the strength and endurance to reach your running goal. For example, start with a run/walk program that allows you to take rests in between each set of running. Over time, you’ll build the endurance to run all the way through with no breaks.

Fueling improperly

A car can’t run without gas, right? It also probably won’t run very well if you fill it with water. This is exactly the way you should be thinking about fueling yourself for a run. New runners often find that one day, they feel like a million bucks on their run, but then the next, it feels like all progress has gone out the window. Often the difference is proper food and water.

Solution: Everybody is different, so you’ll have to experiment a bit to find out what works best for you, but there are some tried and true solutions that work for most.

If you have 1 hour or less before your run, eat a small mixture of protein, carbohydrates and fats. This could be a slice of whole wheat bread with peanut or almond butter spread on top.

If you have 2 hours, eat a meal that includes larger portions of protein, carbohydrates and fats. This could be eggs, bacon, and a slice of whole wheat toast.

If you’re going on a longer run, you can bring some energy gels (GU Energy Gels are a popular option) for the road, but I find it easier and healthier to just snag a pack of your kid’s fruit snacks. My kids and I love Fruigees since they’re a natural, organic option and made with only fruits and veggies. This is a super efficient snack that will give you that quick punch of natural sugar to help you keep going, without upsetting your stomach.

Heel Striking

You may have heard the term, but many people don’t know what this is or how to fix it. By overstriding (landing on your heel first), you are opening yourself up to injury, such as shin splints.
Solution: Aim to land mid-sole. Your stride may have to shorten up to achieve this, but you’ll be happy you did in the long run (pun intended)!

For more running tips like this, check out The Pros and Cons of Running On the Treadmill

This article originally appeared on Health.com

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TIME Infectious Disease

What to Know About Legionnaires’ Disease

Four people in New York City have died from Legionnaires’ disease. Here's everything to know about the outbreak:

How serious is this outbreak?
The latest numbers suggest there are now around 65 cases of the disease reported in the South Bronx area of New York City, and four fatalities.

What is Legionnaires disease and how does it spread?
Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial ailment classified as a type of pneumonia. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Legionnaires’ can be contracted by breathing in water mist that contains the bacteria but does not spread person-to-person.

The New York City Department of Health says the disease is generally traced to plumbing systems like hot tubs, humidifiers, cooling towers and large air conditioning systems. In this case, authorities have determined the disease has spread via five local cooling towers.

How common is it?
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 8,000 to 18,000 people in the U.S. are hospitalized with Legionnaires’ disease each year. Those most at risk of infection are men and women over age 50, smokers, people with chronic lung disease and those with weak immune systems, according to the NIH. The New York Times reports that cases of Legionnaires’ disease in the city increased to 225 in 2014 compared to 73 cases reported in 2004.

Can it be treated?
Yes. Most people recover with antibiotics, but the disease can be severe, and in some cases, fatal. The fatality rate for the disease can be as high as 30% depending on the outbreak, according to the CDC.

What’s it like to have Legionnaires’ disease?
Most people who are infected will not get sick, but those who do can experience respiratory issues like fever, cough and chills. Symptoms of the infection usually do not emerge until two to 10 days after exposure. The Health Department has warned New Yorkers who experience these symptoms to seek medical attention.

How can I protect myself?
Be wary of sources of water vapor. Hot tubs are one of the more common carriers of Legionnaires’ bacteria, and the CDC recommends hot tub owners be especially diligent about disinfecting their tub’s water. The Times reports many New Yorkers in the affected area are drinking bottled water, though the city has said tap water is safe.

TIME Mental Health/Psychology

Here’s Why You Should Take Your Child’s Picky Eating Seriously

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Glowimages—Getty Images/Glowimages

Despite the fact that many doctors dismiss picky eating as just a phase, a new study shows it may be a sign of deeper issues

Rare is the child who will eat pretty much anything. Most toddlers develop specific favorite foods and, of more concern, absolute no-go foods.

To a certain extent, that’s normal. But when eating preferences make it difficult for the child to eat with others, that could be a sign of more serious sensitivities, say scientists in a report appearing in Pediatrics.

Nancy Zucker, director of the Duke University Center for Eating Disorders, and her colleagues looked into the implications of picky eating when she made a connection between more and more adults with eating-related issues who reported having been picky eaters as children. No studies had looked in depth at the longer term effects of selective eating during childhood, so Zucker studied 917 children two to nearly six years old who were enrolled in an anxiety study. The children’s parents recorded their eating habits, and the researchers conducted tests to determine how the children scored on measures of anxiety and symptoms of mood disorders.

About 20% of the children were picky eaters, meaning they either ate only a restricted number of foods or could not eat with others because of their limited range of food preferences. Only about 3% fell into the latter category of severe selective eaters. Those children were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression or social anxiety. Even children in the moderately picky eating group were more likely to show symptoms of depression, social anxiety or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder compared to children who weren’t picky eaters.

Zucker says the findings shouldn’t alarm parents, but should help them and their doctors to start being more specific about when picky eating is normal and when it should be seen as a sign of possible anxiety issues. What may be happening, she says, is that selective eating may be a symptom of a broader hyper sensitivity. So for certain children who see, feel, hear and taste their world more intensely, being picky about which foods they eat may be a way of coping with an otherwise overwhelming influx of sensory information. “The restriction and narrowness in eating is a way of simplifying their rich, overwhelming world,” she says.

She stresses that it’s only a theory, but in her study, there was evidence that for the severe picky eaters, and for some of the moderately picky ones, their aversion to certain food tastes and textures wasn’t just ‘yuck’ but involved gagging.

While Zucker doesn’t want to turn picky eating into a “medical” condition, she does feel that parents need more guidance from pediatricians about what to do if their children become selective eaters. Parents are already confused by advice from pediatricians that includes urging them to feed their children a varied diet, including fruits and vegetables, to help their development, but at the same time telling them not to worry if their child refuses to eat certain foods.

Her advice? “Try to get meal times back,” she says. That means not trying to force children to eat foods they don’t like at meals, since they’ll start associating the table with unpleasant experiences. Instead, try introducing them to new or non-favorite foods at different times, as part of food adventures, to help them become more comfortable with and willing to try new things.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

These Are the Worst Pizzas in America

And 8 healthier indulgences to eat instead

Melted cheese recently melted the Internet, when Pizza Hut introduced their latest artery-clogging frankenfood, the 15″ Hot Dog Bites pie—a large, one-topping pizza with pigs-in-a-blanket backed into the crust. “I tried it and survived,” wrote one taste-tester online. This, about a food our Italian ancestors imagined would be a low-cal appetizer.

Unfortunately, Pizza Hut isn’t alone in offering pies that better resemble manhole covers than Neapolitan delicacies. At most popular restaurants and in frozen food aisles, thin, healthy crusts have gotten thicker, more bloated with cheap carb calories. Toppings have gotten gimmicky, so healthy mozzarella and tomato sauces are sometimes replaced with things like burger meat, ziti or chicken fingers. And serving sizes—especially for “individual” pizzas—have taken these pies to a new level of caloric callousness.

How bad is it? The editors of Eat This, Not That! magazine researched every pie in America and determined the absolute worst for your health and waistline. Indulge once in a while with our relatively healthier choices.

  • 1. Worst Pizza Slice

    Sbarro Stuffed Sausage and Pepperoni Pizza (1 slice)
    810 calories, 40 g fat (15 g saturated fat), 2,180 mg sodium, 73 g carbohydrate, 36 g protein
    That’s the Fat Equivalent of: 10 slices of pan-fried bacon!

    The architecture of this thing makes it less like a slice of pizza and more like a pizza inspired Chipotle Burrito. It relies on an oversize shell of oily bread to hold together a gooey wad of cheese, sausage and pepperoni. The net result is a pizza pocket with two-thirds of your day’s fat and more than a day’s worth of sodium. And the traditional pizza slices aren’t much better; few fall below 600 calories. If you want to do well at Sbarro, think thin crust with nothing but produce on top.

    Eat This Instead!
    Sbarro New York Style Fresh Tomato Pizza (1 slice)
    410 calories, 14 g fat (8 g saturated fat), 790 mg sodium, 53 g carbohydrates, 16 g protein

  • 2. Worst New Pizza

    Pizza Hut Hot Dog Bites Pizza
    Estimated per slice: 460 calories, 30 g fat, 9.9 g saturated fat, 32.7 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Fat Equivalent of: 7.5 Taco Bell Soft Fresco Steak Tacos!

    We’ve seen Pizza Hut do some kooky things in the past to try to woo new fans—remember the Crazy Cheesy Crust Pizza, with 16 crust pockets of five totally different cheeses? Their latest monster mashup is Hot Dog Bites Pizza—a cheesy, pepperoni pizza surrounded by pigs in a blanket instead of the standard crust. Combining two fattening, calorie-dense, all-American foods is a lose-lose situation (though you won’t lose weight)—there’s a whopping 3,680 calories in a typical, 8-slice pie, to be exact. Oh, and it’s served with French’s mustard—for dipping all those hot dogs, of course. Yum?

    Eat This Instead!
    Pizza Hut Skinny Beach Pizza, 1 slice, 14” large skinny slice
    400 calories, 12 g fat (6 g saturated), 880 mg sodium, 56 g carbohydrates.

  • 3. Worst Frozen Pizza

    Red Baron Thin & Crispy Pepperoni Pizza (½ pie)
    400 calories, 19 g fat (9 g saturated), 1,020 mg sodium, 41 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Saturated Fat Equivalent of: 16 Burger King Chicken Tenders!

    “Thin & crispy” sounds healthy, but the Baron’s pie gives Burger King Chicken Tenders a run for their money in saturated fat content. If you’re in the frozen aisle, choose Newman’s Own Thin & Crispy Uncured Pepperoni, Kashi Stone-Fired Thin Crust Pizza Mushroom Trio & Spinach instead, or—if you absolutely must-have a nostalgic guilty pleasure: Bagel Bites. They’re not the perfect snack, but still decent for a non-diet pizza product.

    Eat This Instead!
    Bagel Bites (4 pieces)
    200 calories, 6 g fat (2.5 saturated), 340 mg sodium, 28 g carbohydrates

  • 4. Worst Pizza Wannabe

    Romano’s Macaroni Grill Smashed Meatball Fatbread
    1,420 calories, 59 g fat, 28 g saturated fat, 2,970 sodium, 149 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Calorie Equivalent of: Almost 17 Eggo Confetti Waffles!

    That is not a typo: Romano’s loudly advertises their “fatbread”—baked dough smothered with cheese and toppings—as being “fat on crust, fat on toppings and fat on flavor” but they should have added “fat on you.” Consuming more than half of your daily calories in one sitting is just asking for a 3 P.M. desktop snooze and a fatter tummy. Skip them and choose a simpler pasta instead. (But beware: Ravioli alla Vodka and the Penne Arrabbiata are 2 of only 4 lunchtime pastas with fewer than 1,000 calories.)

    Eat This Instead!
    Ravioli alla Vodka
    660 calories, 37 g fat, 20 g saturated fat, 1,440 sodium, 50 g carbohydrates.

  • 5. Worst Pizza for Kids

    CiCi’s Pizza Buffet Mac & Cheese (two 12” Buffet Pizza Slices)
    380 calories, 9 g fat (4 g saturated fat), 880 mg sodium, 60 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Carb Equivalent of: Shotgunning more than 4 slices of Wonder bread!

    Macaroni and cheese pizza? While it might seem like the best idea ever to kids the world over, this cute concept is potentially disastrous for your health—and your children’s. Why top an already carbohydrate-heavy dish with more carbs, not to mention fat? While the calorie count doesn’t register as high as most problematic pies on this list, that’s only because the slices are tiny; believe us, in CiCi’s all-you-can-eat environment, the damage can add up quickly. But if you bring one of their pizzas home, celebrate their smaller slices as built-in portion control—and go with flatbread. The kids will love the crunch.

    Eat This Instead!
    Cheese Flatbread (2 slices)
    200 calories, 9 g fat (5 g saturated fat), 380 mg sodium, 24 g carbohydrates

  • 6. Worst Seafood Pizza

    Red Lobster Lobster Pizza
    680 calories, 31 g fat (12 g saturated fat), 1,740 mg sodium, 66 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Fat Equivalent of: 442 large shrimp!

    Fare from the sea is typically a healthy way to go, but sprinkle it over a bed of starchy dough and fatty cheese and you have a different story altogether. Billed as a starter, this Lobster Pizza is the only pizza on Red Lobster’s menu—luckily it shares space with one of the world’s greatest appetizers: shrimp cocktail.

    Eat This Instead!
    Chilled Jumbo Shrimp Cocktail
    120 calories, 1 g fat, 590 mg sodium, 9 g carbohydrates

  • 7. Worst Mashup Pizza

    Papa John’s Fritos Chili Pizza (2 slices)
    720 calories, 30 g fat (12 g saturated), 1,400 mg sodium
    That’s the Sodium Equivalent of: Dumping 5 salt packets into your mouth!

    Papa John’s seasonal concoction of pizza, beef chili and yes, Fritos is an insult to almost every cuisine known to man. By our estimates, a whole pie would come salted up with nearly 6,000 mg of sodium! A better defense is a good offense, so start your meal off here with a few pieces of belly-filling protein in the form of wings or chicken strips. Consider it insurance against scarfing too many slices later on.

    Eat This Instead!
    The Works Original Crust Pizza (1 slice, large pie) and Chickenstrips (3) with Cheese Dipping Sauce
    400 calories, 26 g fat (8.5 saturated fat), 1,060 sodium

  • 8. Worst Pizza in America

    Uno Chicago Grill Chicago Classic Deep Dish Individual Pizza
    2,300 calories, 164 g fat (53 g saturated, 1 g trans fat), 4,910 mg sodium, 119 g carbohydrates
    That’s the Sodium Equivalent of: 27 small bags of Lays Potato Chips!

    The problem with deep dish pizza (which Uno’s knows a thing or two about since they invented it back in 1943) is not just the extra empty calories and carbs from the crust, it’s that the thick doughy base provides the structural integrity to house extra heaps of cheese, sauce, and greasy toppings. The result is an individual pizza with more calories than you should eat in a day. Oh, did we mention it has nearly 3 days’ worth of saturated fat, too? The key to (relative) success at Uno’s lies in their flatbread pies—and share them!

    Eat This Instead!
    Cheese and Tomato Flatbread Pizza (1⁄2 pizza)
    490 calories, 23.5 g fat (11 g saturated), 1,290 mg sodium, 48 g carbohydrates

    This article originally appeared on Eat This, Not That!

    More from Eat This, Not That!

TIME Children

Picky Eating in Kids Could Be a Sign of Emotional Distress

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A small portion of children who are selective about what they eat could have anxiety or depression

CHICAGO — Parents of picky eaters take heart: New research suggests the problem is rarely worth fretting over, although in a small portion of kids it may signal emotional troubles that should be checked out.

Preschool-aged children who are extremely selective about what they eat and dislike even being near certain foods are more likely than others to have underlying anxiety or depression, the study found. But only 3 percent of young children studied were that picky.

Less severe pickiness, dubbed “moderate selected eating” in the study, was found in about 18 percent of kids. These are children who will only eat a narrow range of foods. Kids with either level of pickiness were almost two times more likely than others to develop anxiety symptoms within two years, the study found.

More typical pickiness, including kids who just refuse to eat their vegetables, is probably merely “normal dislike,” said eating disorders specialist Nancy Zucker, the lead author and an associate psychiatry professor at Duke University’s medical school. These are the kids who typically outgrow their pickiness as they mature.

Zucker said young children with moderate pickiness are probably more likely to outgrow the problem than the severe group, although more research is needed to confirm that.

The study was published Monday in the journal Pediatrics.

Dr. Arthur Lavin, a Cleveland pediatrician said picky eating is among the top concerns parents bring to his office, and that the study “helps us understand who we should be concerned about.”

“There’s more going on here than just not wanting to eat broccoli,” said Lavin, a member of an American Academy of Pediatrics committee on psycho-social issues. He was not involved in the research.

The study focused on about 900 children aged 2 through 5 who were recruited from primary care doctors affiliated with Duke’s medical center in Durham, North Carolina.

Researchers did in-home interviews with parents to evaluate kids’ eating habits and any mental health issues. Follow-up evaluations were done two years later in almost 200 children.

Compared with children who aren’t fussy eaters, depression and social anxiety were at least two times more common in kids with severe pickiness; attention deficit behavior and separation anxiety symptoms were more common in moderately selective kids.

Severe selective eating described in the study is akin to a condition called avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, added in 2013 to the latest edition of a widely used psychiatric manual, the study authors said. It can occur in all ages; some of those affected are extra-sensitive to food tastes, smells and textures.

Zucker said severe pickiness may be the first clue for parents that a child is experiencing anxiety or depression and that they may want to seek help from a mental health specialist.

Moderate pickiness is less concerning but affected kids can make family meal-times a battleground, she said. To avoid that, Zucker suggests that parents try introducing new foods at random times during the day.

TIME Cancer

Users of Jessica Alba’s Honest Company Sunscreen Are Posting Photos of Epic Sunburns

An investigation by NBC5 in Chicago found that the company reduced the zinc oxide levels in its sunscreen to 9.3%, when the standard is between 18 and 25%

Eco-friendly Honest Company’s sunscreen may be “naturally derived,” “unscented” and “non-toxic,” according to the company’s website, but now some users on social media are claiming that it doesn’t work.

The sunscreen, promoted by sometime-movie-star Jessica Alba’s wildly successful baby product company as “providing the best broad spectrum protection for your family,” is getting bad reviews by users online, many of whom are posting painful-looking sunburn photos they say they took after using the product.

In a statement to the Today Show, the Honest Company stressed that the sunscreen is tested by an independent third party with positive results and that “the number of complaints received on our own website about our Sunscreen Lotion constitute less than one half of one percent of all units actually sold at Honest.com. We stand behind the safety and efficacy of this product.”

A country-wide investigation by NBC5 in Chicago found that the sunscreen’s formula was changed at some point, reducing to 9.3% non-nano zinc oxide from 20%. (The majority of zinc oxide sunscreens list their active ingredients at 18 to 25%). Still, the company says it added other components to make up for the difference in zinc.

“The Honest Company has been transparent about the amount of zinc since the new formula came out in early 2015 as seen on the website and the new formula’s packaging,” the company told Today.

[Today]

Read next: You Asked: Is Sunscreen Safe —and Do I Really Need It Daily?

 

TIME brazil

WHO Seeks Virus Tests After Sewage Found in Rio’s Olympic Waters

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Ricardo Moraes—Reuters A fisherman casts his line as birds fly over the Sao Conrado beach in Rio de Janeiro on Feb. 26, 2015.

Officials are concerned about athletes' health

(RIO DE JANEIRO) — The World Health Organization has asked the IOC to analyze virus levels in Rio de Janeiro’s Olympic waters, and the governing body of world sailing says it will start doing its own independent virus tests.

The moves come after an Associated Press investigation showed a serious health risk to Olympic athletes in venues around Rio rife with sewage.

In a statement to the AP, the World Health Organization said it suggested the International Olympic Committee start monitoring for viruses at the Rio venues.

“WHO has also advised the IOC to widen the scientific base of indicators to include viruses,” the statement said. “The risk assessment should be revised accordingly, pending the results of further analysis. The Rio Local Organizing Committee and the IOC are requested to follow WHO recommendations on treatment of household and hospital waste.”

A spokesman from the Rio organizing committee referred comment to the IOC, which is meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Olympic organizers and the Brazilian government have tested only for bacteria to decide if the water is safe. Many experts say viruses are a far bigger problem and need to be monitored.

The International Sailing Federation said independently it would start testing for viruses.

“We’re going to find someone who can do the testing for us that can safely cover what we need to know from a virus perspective as well as the bacteria perspective,” Peter Sowrey, chief executive of the ISF, said. “That’s my plan.”

The sailing venue in Guanabara Bay is badly polluted, as is a separate venue for rowing and canoeing — Rodrigo de Freitas lake — in central Rio. The AP investigation also showed venues for triathlon and open-water swimming off Copacabana Beach had high virus levels that pose a threat to athletes and tourists.

Sowrey, who spoke from Kuala Lumpur, has a local interest. His wife Alesandra is a native of Rio, and he has a 9-year-old daughter Marie.

“I’m a father myself,” Sowrey said. “I want to make sure that everyone who goes out in the water is as safe as possible and is given the right guidance and right security.”

The AP analysis showed dangerously high levels of viruses and bacteria from sewage in venues where about 1,400 athletes will compete in water sports, in the games which open in a year — Aug. 5, 2016.

In Rio, much of the waste and sewage goes untreated and runs down hillside ditches and streams into Olympic water venues that are littered with floating rubbish, household waste, and even dead animals.

At the world swimming championships in Kazan, Russia, swimmers said they were worried about the situation in Rio.

“The athletes and the athletes’ commission have expressed their concern at the current problems with the quality of water, the cleanliness of the water,” Vladimir Salnikov, a former Olympic gold-medal winner, said. “That will be put into a recommendation, and people will pay attention to that.”

Shin Otsuka, an executive board member of the International Triathlon Union, said on Friday his body was considering testing for viruses.

The ITU is holding an Olympic qualifying race on Sunday using the waters off Copacabana Beach.

Costa Rican triathlete Leonardo Chacon said he knows the risks, but will take them.

“We know we are exposed to viruses, maybe to a health problem later,” he said on Friday in Rio. “But in my case, I have invested so much to prepare myself for this, and I want this to happen because I can’t recuperate this investment any other way other than competing and winning the points that I need to win.”

When Rio was awarded the Olympics in 2009, it promised cleaning its waters would be an Olympic legacy. But Rio Mayor Eduardo Paes has repeatedly acknowledged this will not be done, calling it a “lost opportunity.”

Sowrey said the ISAF would start doing its own water testing in Rio this month, no longer relying solely on Brazil’s government analysis.

“We want to make sure we keep pressure on the organizing committee and the Brazilians to make sure they put some energy into cleaning up the bay,” Sowrey said. “My job is to make sure something actually happens and it’s not just talk, and someone is actually walking the walk.”

Sowery said he received a call from a woman who wanted reassurance that the ISAF was giving the right guidance to her child and others competing in an Olympic sailing test event this month in Rio.

He said a “backup plan” included sailing all the events outside Guanabara Bay in the open Atlantic. The ISAF has three courses there, and three inside the bay.

He said it would be “‘heartbreaking” to sail outside the bay and lose the postcard backdrop of Sugarloaf Mountain, which will be a focus of television coverage.

In most Olympics, sailing is contested far from the main Olympic venues. In Rio, the sailors and rowers and canoeists get center stage — a chance to win fans and valuable sponsors.

“We’re not going to sacrifice health for the sake of good pictures and good TV,” he said. “But the backdrop of Rio is an amazing backdrop, and will do something for the sport of sailing.”

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