TIME Diet/Nutrition

A Tale of Two Turkeys: Wild vs. Supermarket

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Which bird is better?

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Whether you like yours brined or unbrined, stuffed with cornbread or sausage, in drumstick or leftover-sandwich format, it all starts with the turkey. Today’s turkey-lover has two choices: The supermarket bird, an artificially giganticized product of careful breeding and industrial farming methods, and the wild turkey, which hasn’t evolved much since the first Thanksgiving. Here’s a quick visual guide to help you decide which is best for you:

a tale of two turkeys

This article originally appeared on World Science Festival.

TIME health

New Global Study Calls Violence Against Women ‘Epidemic’

A Pokot woman holds a razor blade after performing a circumcision on four girls in a village about 80 kilometres from the town of Marigat in Baringo County, Kenya, Oct. 16, 2014.
A Pokot woman holds a razor blade after performing a circumcision on four girls in a village about 80 kilometres from the town of Marigat in Baringo County, Kenya, Oct. 16, 2014. Siegfried Modola—Reuters

Governments need to step up their game to protect women, says extensive new research

When it comes to stopping violence against women, actions speak louder than words. So even though there’s increased worldwide awareness about violence against women, the problem won’t be solved unless countries make significant policy and financial changes to support victims, according to a five-part series of studies in The Lancet, one of the world’s premier medical journals.

The series, entitled “Violence Against Women and Girls,” calls the violence a “global public health and clinical problem of epidemic proportions,” and the statistics are bleak. 100-140 million women have undergone female genital mutilation worldwide, and 3 million African girls per year are at risk. 7% of women will be sexually assaulted by someone besides their partner in their lifetimes. Almost 70 million girls worldwide have been married before they turned 18. According to WHO estimates, 30% of women worldwide have experienced partner violence. The researchers said that these problems could only be solved with political action and increased funding, since the violence has continued “despite increased global attention,” implying awareness is not enough.

“No magic wand will eliminate violence against women and girls,” series co-lead Charlotte Watts, founding Director of the Gender Violence and Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said in a statement. “But evidence tells us that changes in attitudes and behavior are possible, and can be achieved within less than a generation.”

One of the major problems highlighted in the Lancet series is that much of the current research on violence against women has been conducted in high-income countries, and it’s mostly been focused on response instead of prevention. The study found that the key driver of violence in most middle-and-low income countries is gender inequality, and that it would be near impossible to prevent abuse without addressing the underlying political, economic, and educational marginalization of women.

The study also found that health workers are often uniquely positioned to help victims, since they’re often the first to know about the abuse.

“Health-care providers are often the first point of contact for women and girls experiencing violence,” says another series co-lead, Dr. Claudia Garcia-Moreno, a physician at the WHO, in a statement. “The health community is missing important opportunities to integrate violence programming meaningfully into public health initiatives on HIV/AIDS, adolescent health, maternal health, and mental health.”

The series makes five concrete recommendations to curb the violence against women. The authors urge nations to allocate resources to prioritize protecting victims, change structures and policies that discriminate against women, promote support for survivors, strengthen health and education sectors to prevent and respond to violence, and invest in more research into ways to address the problem. In other words: money, education, and political action are key to protecting the world’s most vulnerable women. Hashtag activism, celebrity songs, and stern PSAs are helpful, but this problem is too complicated to be solved by awareness alone.

“We now have some promising findings to show what works to prevent violence,” said Dr. Cathy Zimmerman from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. “We urgently need to turn this evidence into genuine action so that women and girls can live violence-free lives.”

The study comes just in time for the UN’s International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, on Nov. 25.

TIME Exercise/Fitness

Why Running May Really Be The Fountain of Youth

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Elderly people who run show similar fitness to 20-year-olds

Older people who run several times a week actually expend the same amount of energy when they walk as a 20-year-old, according to a new study published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and Humboldt State University picked 30 healthy older volunteer adults around age 69 who either walked or ran regularly for exercise. The participants walked on a treadmill at the speeds 1.6 mph, 2.8 mph, and 3.9 mph while their oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured.

People who were runners had similar energy intake to a group of young adults in their 20s from a prior study. However, those elderly men and women who regularly walked did not see that same benefit, and expended up to 22% more energy than the younger crowd.

That could be because runners have better muscle efficiency compared to walkers, or because more vigorous exercise may better train the body. But it doesn’t mean that walking doesn’t have its share of health perks. Walkers still experienced a lower risk for ailments like heart disease and depression.

The researchers say more studies should look at the link between exercise and the effects of age on the body. The authors write that it’s unknown whether there is “an intensity threshold of aerobic exercise that is needed to prevent the decline in walking economy.” But that knowledge could be useful in preventing some of the degenerative side effects of old age.

TIME Addiction

Most People Who Drink Too Much Aren’t Alcoholics

A new report shows that 90% of heavy drinkers are not addicted to alcohol

A new report shows that very few people who drink heavily are actually dependent on alcohol, contrary to some assumptions.

For men, excessive drinking means five drinks in a sitting or 15 over the course of the week; for women, four in a sitting or eight over the week. The survey found that 29% of the population met this criteria, but that 90% of heavy drinkers are not alcoholics.

Health officials believe this is good news for efforts to reduce excessive drinking. Instead of requiring treatment for an addiction, heavy drinkers could be deterred by measures like higher taxes. Excessive drinking causes 88,000 deaths in the U.S. per year.

[NYT]

TIME Diet/Nutrition

8 Awesome Whole Grains You’re Not Eating

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Plus easy, delicious ways to get more of them in your meals

You’ve probably had oatmeal for breakfast, and if you haven’t yet tried quinoa I bet you’ve heard of it, or have seen it on a menu or social media recipe (it’s all over Pinterest!). But there are many other whole grains you may not be familiar with, and incorporating them into your food repertoire is well worth the learning curve.

Whole grains are white hot among chefs and nutritionists. They’re versatile, satisfying, and in addition to providing slow-burning starch (think sustained energy!), vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, whole grains are health protective. Their consumption is tied to a lower risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and obesity (yes, a lower risk of obesity).

HEALTH.COM: 11 Reasons Why You’re Not Losing Belly Fat

Here are eight to try, plus easy, delicious ways to incorporate them into meals and snacks. (And for those with Celiac disease or a gluten intolerance, the first 6 are gluten free.)

Black rice

Black rice is popping up on menus all over the place, in items from sushi to meatloaf. The natural pigment that gives black rice its hue is due to a unique antioxidant tied to protection against heart disease, cancer, and obesity. This is why compared to brown rice, black rice packs more potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as higher levels of protein, iron, and fiber. While I’ve made black rice at home, my local Thai restaurant offers it as a side, and I’ll use the leftovers in a variety of ways, including as the base for a hot cereal (made with unsweetened coconut milk, fruit, nuts, and ginger), chilled and sprinkled onto in a garden salad, or folded into veggie chili.

HEALTH.COM: 6 Surprising Superfoods That Are Black

Kaniwa

This quinoa cousin is similar nutritionally speaking—high in protein, minerals, and antioxidants—but it’s about half the size, so it cooks quickly (about 15 minutes). Like quinoa it’s incredibly versatile. You can whip cooked, chilled kaniwa into a smoothie, fold it into yogurt with fruit, nuts, and cinnamon, add it to a garden salad, or use it in place of bulgur in tabbouleh. Hot kaniwa can be stuffed into peppers, added to a stew, or used any way you’d enjoy quinoa—in burgers, lettuce wraps, frittatas, you name it!

Sorghum

Sorghum, also called milo, originated in Egypt thousands of years ago, and is a staple in Africa. In addition to being nutrient rich, this gluten-free grain is digested and absorbed slowly, so it has a “stick to your ribs” quality that keeps you fuller longer, delays the return of hunger, and helps regulate blood sugar and insulin levels. Sorghum can be used in countless recipes, from smoothies to savory hot or cold veggie salads, but my favorite way to prepare it is to pop it, just like popcorn!

HEALTH.COM: 12 Foods That Control Your Appetite

Teff

This African whole grain is probably best known as the key ingredient in spongy Ethiopian flatbread. Known for its sweet, molasses-like flavor and versatility, teff can be cooked as an oatmeal alternative, added to baked goods, or made into polenta in place of corn. Teff packs about three times the calcium as other whole grains—over 120mg per cup cooked—and it provides resistant starch, a unique kind of carbohydrate that’s been shown to naturally up your body’s fat-burning furnace. Teff can be incorporated into homemade energy bars, pie crust, cookies, or used in savory meals, such as a teff lentil loaf, or as a coating for lean proteins like fish.

Buckwheat

While wheat is in the name, buckwheat isn’t related to wheat at all. In fact, it’s thought of as a whole grain due to its nutritional properties, but it’s technically a cousin of rhubarb, and is naturally gluten free. You may have tried buckwheat pancakes, but one of my favorite forms of buckwheat is soba noodles. I coat them with a quick sauce I make from almond butter thinned with warm water and brown rice vinegar, fresh grated ginger, minced garlic, and crushed red pepper, tossed with lots of veggies, topped with a lean protein. You can also enjoy buckwheat as a breakfast porridge, or use buckwheat flour for making anything from crepes to cookies.

HEALTH.COM: 24 Food Swaps That Slash Calories

Millet

A staple in India, this tiny oval whole grain contains antioxidants in addition to key minerals including copper, magnesium, manganese, and phosphorus. Like many of the grains listed here, millet can be served chilled or hot, or used in baking. I also love puffed millet as a cold cereal base, and I fold it into nut butter, along with chopped dark chocolate, minced dried fruit, and spices, to make crunchy millet balls as an alternative to crispy rice treats.

Rye (not gluten free)

Aside from rye bread, which is often a mixture of refined wheat and rye, there are many ways to enjoy 100% whole rye grain. Rye flour can be used for baking, rye flakes can be swapped for rolled oats, and rye berries can be used in place of rice. Recent research has shown that rye is more satiating compared to wheat, and in one animal study mice fed whole-grain rye versus wheat shed more weight, and experienced slightly better improvements in cholesterol levels and insulin regulation. When shopping for packaged rye products, be sure to read the ingredients. In most mainstream supermarkets you can find 100% whole rye crackers, made simply from whole-grain rye flour, water, and salt. They’re an easy way to fit in a whole grain serving, and delicious spread with a little ripe avocado, hummus, olive tapenade, or pesto.

Barley (not gluten free)

You may have had barley in soup, but there are many other ways to enjoy this hearty whole grain. One of the oldest cultivated grains, barley has been found in Egyptian pyramids, and was consumed by ancient Greeks for medicinal purposes. Natural substances in barley have been shown to help reduce cholesterol even more than oats, and feed the “good” bacteria in your gut, which improve digestive health, immunity, and weight control. Barley is also the highest fiber whole grain, another boon for weight control, since fiber helps boost satiety and curbs calorie absorption. Try it as a hot breakfast cereal, in a chilled vegetable and bean dish, or as a rice alternative in pilaf.

Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, is Health’s contributing nutrition editor, and privately counsels clients in New York, Los Angeles, and long distance. Cynthia is currently the sports nutrition consultant to the New York Rangers NHL team and the Tampa Bay Rays MLB team, and is board certified as a specialist in sports dietetics.

This article originally appeared on Health.com

TIME health

New Crisis Line Aims to Help Transgender People at Risk of Suicide

On 2014's annual day of remembrance for transgender victims of violence, a new hotline is ready to field calls

On Nov. 20, people are gathering at events around the nation to read names of transgender people who have died in the past year in violent crimes. The descriptions on the website for the occasion, the annual Transgender Day of Remembrance, are chilling: “massive trauma, found dead in an alley,” “murdered and burned,” “gunshot to the back.” Transgender people, particularly transgender women, are subject to high rates of violence and harassment. A 2013 report found that 72% of homicide victims in LGBT-related hate crimes were transgender women of color.

On this somber day, an organization based in the Bay Area is trying to get the word out that there’s a new resource available to fight what may be an even deadlier problem among transgender people: suicide.

According to the most definitive report on transgender issues in recent years, 41% of transgender people attempt to commit suicide, a statistic that doesn’t necessarily factor in successful attempts. That’s a number that the people behind Trans Lifeline (877-565-8860), a crisis hotline staffed entirely by transgender people, want to see decreased.

“There are a ton of suicide hotlines. There’s no shortage of them,” says Greta Martela, a software engineer and president of the organization that went live this month. “But it’s really difficult to get a person who isn’t trans to understand what it’s like to be trans.”

Empathy is a powerful emotion for people attempting to come to terms with being transgender. Many transgender people say they only had the courage to come out once they met someone else who was living a happy life as an openly transgender person, people Orange Is the New Black actress Laverne Cox calls “possibility models.”

Martela came out last year, as a 44-year-old parent. Before she did, she was plagued by anxiety and debilitating panic attacks. In the process of coming out, she called a suicide hotline. A man answered the phone, she says, and when she explained the trouble she was having, he just went quiet and told her to go to the hospital. “They had no idea how to deal with a trans woman,” she says. And when she got to the hospital seeking help, she had to explain what being transgender was to the hospital staff.

Her aim is to get people in crisis—whether that person is a suicidal, closeted teenager or the confused parent of a six-year-old—access to volunteers who can understand what they’re going through right away and direct them to more help wherever they are. “Those are the people I want to call the most,” Martela says of parents who are trying to understand what a child is going through. “Getting them good resources could spare their child a lifetime of pain.”

Right now, the corporation—which has applied for status as a non-profit—is a shoestring operation, fueled by open source software that allows Trans Lifeline to funnel calls to on-duty volunteers wherever they are. They’re raising funds for advertising to get their number out there, to people like Martela who couldn’t find anything like the hotline when she needed it. “There’s a body count associated with people not accepting trans people,” Martela told TIME in a previous interview for a cover story on transgender issues. “It’s costing lives.”

TIME Health Care

Obama Administration Boosted Obamacare Numbers With Dental Plans

Obamacare Expedited Bid Process Limited Who Could Build Website
Andrew Harrer—Bloomberg/Getty Images

Says it was a "mistake," having earlier counted dental plans separately

The Obama administration discreetly included dental plan sign-ups in its most recent report on the Affordable Care Act’s enrollment numbers.

The White House claimed in September that 7.3 million people had enrolled in insurance plans under Obamacare, surpassing President Obama’s 7 million sign-up goal. But investigators from the House Oversight and Government Committee analyzed these enrollments and found that as many as 400,000 of the plans were simply for dental coverage, Bloomberg reports. In earlier reports, the administration had counted dental plans separately.

Excluding dental plans, Obamacare enrollment would be around 6.7 million — missing the administration’s stated goal. The Department of Health and Human Services issued a statement Thursday calling the numbers a “mistake”:

A mistake was made in calculating the number of individuals with effectuated Marketplace enrollments. We have determined that individuals who had both Marketplace medical and dental coverage were erroneously counted in our recent announcements. The correct number of individuals with effectuated Marketplace medical coverage as of October 15 is approximately 6.7 million. Our target for 2015 open enrollment remains 9.1 million individuals. Moving forward only individuals with medical coverage will be included in our effectuated enrollment numbers.

U.S. Health and Human Service Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell called the error “unacceptable”

Burwell had perviously asserted that the success of Affordable Care Act should be measured by the U.S. uninsured rate, not the Obamacare enrollment numbers, which may fluctuate. The uninsured rate is down about four percentage points to 13.4% over the past year.

 

[Bloomberg]

TIME Infectious Disease

Africa Nears Polio Eradication, CDC Says

German Minister Mueller Travels Nigeria
German Development Minister Gerd Mueller vaccinates a child against polio in a hospital on June 11, 2014 in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Thomas Imo—Getty Images

Health officials credit successful vaccination efforts in Nigeria

Correction appended, November 21, 2014

Wild poliovirus has nearly been eradicated in Africa thanks to successful vaccination efforts in Nigeria, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed in a new report Thursday.

No case of polio has been recorded on the continent since August, the report finds. There have been 22 cases of polio in Africa overall since the beginning of 2014, six of which were in Nigeria, one of the last three endemic nations alongside Pakistan and Afghanistan. The latest tally marked a drastic reduction from 49 cases in Nigeria the previous year.

That drop has been credited to vaccination campaigns in the country’s restive northern states, where a decade of periodic outbreaks had reintroduced the virus to 26 polio-free countries. “Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable,” the report finds, but only with expanded vaccination coverage to some of the region’s most remote and hard-to-reach communities.

Correction: The original version of this article misstated the total number of polio cases across Africa and how many countries were affected. There were 22 cases in Africa since the beginning of 2014 and the virus was reintroduced to 26 polio-free countries since 2003.

TIME Obesity

Obesity Now Costs the World $2 Trillion a Year

Half the world's population could be obese by 2030, warns a McKinsey Global Institute report

The global cost of obesity has risen to $2 trillion annually, according to a new report, more than the combined costs of armed violence, war and terrorism.

The McKinsey Global Institute report says currently almost 30% of the world’s population is obese, and that if present trends continue, that almost half the population will be clinically overweight or obese by 2030.

The report cautioned that no single solution would reverse the problem, instead calling for a “systemic, sustained portfolio of initiatives” to tackle the crisis, such as better nutritional label, healthier food at schools, advertising restrictions on fatty foods and beverages, and public health campaigns.

TIME Parenting

The 5 Trends Driving the Surge in ADHD

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Researcher says it's less to do with brain chemistry and more to do with money

Until recently, 90% of all Ritalin takers lived in the U.S. Now, America is home to only 75% of Ritalin users. But that’s not because Americans are using less of the drug, says a Brandeis professor. That’s because ADHD diagnoses, and treatment via pharmaceuticals are growing in other parts of the world.

In a recent paper in the journal Social Science and Medicine, sociologists Peter Conrad and Meredith Bergey looked at the growth of ADHD in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy and Brazil and found that prescriptions for Ritalin-like drugs have risen sharply, particularly in the U.K. and Germany.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is a controversial subject among many parents, educators and medical professionals. Some doctors insist it’s a genuine neurological condition, if occasionally over-diagnosed and not treated properly. Others believe parents are giving their children drugs unnecessarily. (For a look at what it’s like to be, or parent, an ADHD child, read TIME’s special report, Growing Up with ADHD).

Conrad and Bergey, while not doctors, fall into the second camp. They list five possible reasons for the jump in ADHD diagnoses that have little do with medicine.

1) Pharmaceutical companies are well-resourced and determined lobbyists, and have coaxed some countries to allow stimulants, such as Ritalin and Adderall to be marketed more directly.

2) Treating patients with counseling and non medical therapies is becoming less popular than treating them with medicine. (Many insurers, including Medicaid, will pay for drugs but not for psychotherapy, for example.)

3) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), the bible of mental disorders, is gaining more traction in Europe and South America. The DSM has slightly broader standards for diagnosing ADHD than the system used by many other countries, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), hence more folks are falling within the standard.

4) ADHD advocacy groups are raising awareness of the condition.

5) Because everybody is occasionally fidgety and distracted and nearly everybody despairs of not getting enough done, people turn to the internet for answers and find checklists put up by drug companies, with overly general questions like: “Are you disorganized at work and home?” and “Do you start projects and then abandon them?” and encourage people to ask their doctors about medication.


According to the study, fewer than 1% of kids in the U.K. had been diagnosed with ADHD in the 1990s, but about 5% are today. In Germany, prescriptions for ADHD drugs rose 500% over 10 years, from 10 million daily doses in 1998 to 53 million in 2008. Conrad, author of The Medicalization of Society, worries that we may be addressing a sociological problem with a chemical solution.

“There is no pharmacological magic bullet,” says Conrad, who suggests that the one-size-fits-all compulsory education system might be more to blame for kids who can’t sit still rather than a flaw in brain chemistry.

“I think we may look back on this time in 50 years,” writes Conrad, “and ask, what did we do to these kids?”

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