TIME public health

The Best Way to Treat Food Poisoning

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Don't rush to take over-the-counter drugs

You had an undercooked burger, ate some deviled eggs that were sitting out on the picnic table a bit too long, or sampled something from a dodgy food truck…and now you’re paying the price. Here’s how to spot the signs and symptoms of food poisoning—and how to treat it.

What causes food poisoning

In the majority of food poisoning cases, the technical term for your misery is gastroenteritis—an irritation of the stomach and intestines. It’s typically caused by bacteria (such as Salmonella, E. coli, or Campylobacter) or a virus (like norovirus).

In the case of food poisoning, you likely picked up bacteria in something you ate, but you can also get gastroenteritis from coming in contact with someone who’s infected, or not washing your hands after going to the bathroom. (You’ll sometimes hear it referred to as “stomach flu,” but it has nothing to do with the influenza virus.)

Food poisoning symptoms

The signs of food poisoning can range from very mild (a passing stomachache) to severe (fever and nonstop diarrhea). Depending on which bug you’ve picked up, symptoms start in as little as 8 hours, but you may not start feeling sick for up to 2 weeks. You might have:

How to treat food poisoning

DON’T take an over-the-counter anti-diarrhea drug without a doctor’s OK. Your body is trying to expel the bugs that are making you sick, and you don’t want to interfere with the natural healing process.

DO stay hydrated. You’ll need to replenish all the fluids you’re losing, to avoid serious dehydration. Sip electrolyte-rich liquids, like Gatorade, broth, or coconut water. If you’re keeping down fluids, slowly introduce easy-to-digest foods, like the classic BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast.

If you’re a healthy adult with a solid immune system, most bouts of food poisoning will pass on their own after a couple of, ahem, crappy days. In general, there’s nothing you can really do to speed the healing. The best thing you can do is rehydrate, rest, and try not to dwell on the meal that did this to you.

When to get help

See a doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
1. You have diarrhea along with a fever higher than 101°.
2. You’re dizzy, light-headed, or intensely thirsty.
3. You haven’t kept anything down for 24 hours.
4. You’ve had diarrhea for five days or more.

Go straight to the ER if you have any of these symptoms, which may point to a life-threatening case:
1. Your stool has a lot of blood in it (i.e., it’s maroon or black).
2. You have a pounding, racing, or skipping heartbeat.
3. You’re sick from shellfish, mushrooms, or a canned item—toxins from these foods can have especially serious consequences.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

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TIME health

When Shedding a Few Pounds Meant Reaching for Some Milk

In the 1930s, women attempted to lose weight by spending time at a dairy farm

In recent years, rich dairy foods haven’t exactly had a reputation as fad-diet favorites. That may be changing, and it wouldn’t be the first time that foods like butter appealed to those hoping to get healthy. In fact, dairy was so central to a women’s weight loss retreat in the 1930s that the camp was situated on a milk farm.

Rose Dor Farm, located up the Hudson River from New York City, was run by siblings Bob, Rosalie and Doris Taplinger. A ten-day stay came with a strict diet—three days of what today would be called juicing, followed by a week of cultured milk and vegetables—as well as gym classes. As LIFE described the farm:

Men who get out of condition from sitting too long at a desk or leading too high a life have long been in the habit of slipping off for a couple of weeks of clean living and hard exercise at some health farm. Now women whom the pace of modern life requires to look their best are turning increasingly to “milk farms” where strict diet and regular scientific exercise takes pounds off oversize figures.

If many of the women in Alfred Eisenstaedt’s photographs don’t appear to have much weight to lose, it’s because the farm attracted “not only stylish stouts but many a young girl who wants to work off a few pounds to get that modeling job.”

Some women, like one Mrs. Remer of Kansas City, couldn’t resist the temptation to cheat (“she sneaked fried chicken till caught”). Barring lapses from the milk-and-veggies diet, women could expect to lose a pound per day.

Liz Ronk, who edited this gallery, is the Photo Editor for LIFE.com. Follow her on Twitter @lizabethronk.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Research on Mice Suggests We Could Be Better Off Eating More Healthy Carbs and Less Protein

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Bad news for the Paleo crowd

While calorie-restriction diets are known to have positive health benefits, a group of researchers in Australia has found that, in mice, a low-protein high-carbohydrate diet produces similar results regardless of caloric intake.

If the study bears out for humans, it could rehabilitate the image of carbohydrates, which has taken a battering in recent years, when the high-protein Atkins and Paleo diets have reigned supreme.

Scientists at the University of Sydney put mice on varying diets in terms of the proportion of carbohydrates, protein and total calories consumed. They found that, in terms of insulin, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels, mice on unrestricted low-protein high-carb diets fared best.

“It still holds true that reducing food intake and body weight improves metabolic health and reduces the risk of diseases like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and fatty liver disease,” said senior author Stephen Simpson of the University of Sydney. “However…it appears that including modest intakes of high-quality protein and plenty of healthy carbohydrates in the diet will be beneficial for health as we age.”

The next step, according to the scientists, will be to learn if specific types of proteins and carbohydrates make a difference in long-term health.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Why You Should Put a Fried Egg on Your Salad

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To get the most nutrients out of your salad, you should consider adding some eggs

Eating eggs with your salad actually helps you absorb more nutrients from the veggies, according to a new study, which builds upon earlier research about eating fat and vegetables in combination.

In a small study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers had male volunteers eat different versions of a mixed-vegetable salad. One salad had no eggs, one had 1.5 scrambled eggs and one had three scrambled eggs. The test salads had tomatoes, shredded carrots, baby spinach, lettuce, and Chinese wolfberry and 3g of canola oil. Their goal was to see how well the men absorbed carotenoids—a kind of antioxidant—from the salad.

By testing the mens’ blood, the researchers discovered that the men who ate the salads with eggs had higher levels of carotenoids in their system. The effect was higher for when the men ate the three eggs with their salad, but the researchers say that two eggs should be enough for a significant effect.

What’s so special about eggs? It’s the fat in the yolk. Prior research, including research from the authors of the new study, show that eating vegetables with a fat can increase absorption of certain nutrients. That’s because carotenoids are fat-soluble compounds, which means fats help them enter the blood stream. “We believe it’s the lipids or fat in the yolk that are helping,” says study author Wayne Campbell, a professor of nutrition science at Purdue University.

The researchers chose to study eggs because they are a common salad-bar topping, and they decided to scramble them to make sure the men in the study were eating the whole eggs, especially the yolks. But if you eat a salad with a poached egg on top, that can help too. “If [one egg] was the only source of lipids or fats, it may not be optimal, however, if you are also including some fat-containing salad dressing or some cheese, those will all contribute to the total amount of fats in your meal and that’s helpful,” says Campbell.

Next time you’re having a salad for lunch, don’t get the dressing on the side. And definitely feel free to put some eggs on it.

TIME Research

U.S. Teen Trends In Sex, Bullying, Booze and More

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Good news: Today's teens experience notably low rates of bullying, drinking, pregnancy and unprotected sex

The latest statistics on teenagers paint a rosy portrait of American teens. They’re drinking, smoking and bullying less than they used to, and fewer are getting pregnant.

“Adolescence is an inherently risky time,” says Dr. Stephanie Zaza, the director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) division of adolescent and school health. “They are stretching their wings. We can’t eliminate all risk, but we are seeing overall good trends in all areas.”

Here’s a snapshot on teen behavior, based on recent reports:

Bullying

Recent data from the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics showed bullying at school was on the decline. Bullying among kids ages 12 to 18 dropped to 22% in 2013. The rate is lower than the 28-32% that was reported in all other survey years since 2005. Even cyberbullying—the use of electronic services to harass someone—has dropped. Only 6.9% of students reported being cyberbullied in 2013 compared to 9% in 2011.

Zaza adds that bullying has often targeted LGBTQ youth, and with increasing acceptance and major policy changes regarding same-sex marriage in the news, social norms regarding sexuality may be changing too, and that may contribute to less fighting.

Smoking

Teens are smoking less, too. In the last CDC National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which analyzes health risk behaviors among high school students, revealed that the high school smoking rate had dropped to 15.7%, the lowest recorded level since the survey started in 1991. It meant that the CDC had met its goal of lowering the adolescent smoking rate to under 16% by 2020, several years early.

Zaza says what’s responsible is a combination of widespread public health initiatives and changing social norms. “When you look at excise taxes, smoking bans, quit lines, campaigns and innovations in therapies, you see this amazing trend in adult and youth tobacco use,” says Zaza. “With all of those changes came a really big change in the social norms around smoking.”

Still, data from the CDC suggests that while high schools are smoking fewer cigarettes, e-cigarette use tripled among middle and high schoolers in just one year.

Drinking

The number of students who drink alcohol also dropped. Though it was still high at 35%, teens reported less physical fighting in school, and most students who were sexually active used condoms.

Sex and Babies

National teen pregnancy rates are also at a record low, with recent data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) showing a continuous drop over the last 20 years, with a 10% decline just between 2012 and 2013. It’s unclear what is driving the decrease, but it appears teenagers are less sexually active than they have been in the past, and teens that are sexually active report using some form of birth control.

“There’s no doubt birth control and sex education are the most important factors in reducing unintended teen pregnancy,” Cecile Richards, president of Planned Parenthood said in an email. “Teens are increasingly using IUDs and implants, which are the most reliable methods of birth control.”

America’s teen pregnancy rate is at a record low, but it’s still higher than many developing countries.

Texting While Driving etc.

Zaza says she’s worried about the number of teens who text and drive—41%—as well as the nearly 18% of teens who report using prescription drugs without a prescription.

“I worry about these numbers,” says Zaza, adding that there’s still room for improvement.

TIME

Scientists Figure Out How to Retrieve ‘Lost’ Memories

The latest research shows memories “lost” to amnesia aren’t gone forever; they’re just not accessible

Mice certainly aren’t men, but they can teach us a lot about memories. And in the latest experiments, mice are helping to resolve a long-simmering debate about what happens to “lost” memories. Are they wiped out permanently, or are they still there, but just somehow out of reach?

Researchers in the lab of Susumu Tonegawa at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT conducted a series of studies using the latest light-based brain tracking techniques to show that memories in certain forms of amnesia aren’t erased, but remain intact and potentially retrievable. Their findings, published Thursday in the journal Science, are based on experiments in mice, but they could have real implications for humans, too.

MORE: How to Improve Your Memory Skills

The mice were trained to remember getting a shock in a certain chamber. The scientists then used protein labels to tag the specific cells in the hippocampus of the brain that were activated and responsible for making that memory. According to Tomas Ryan, lead author of the paper, anywhere from 3% to 5% of the cells in a portion of the hippocampus are recruited to form a memory. When these mice were then placed into the same room again, they froze, recalling and anticipating the shock. But when the animals were given a drug that interrupts the memory-making process immediately after the shock, they no longer remembered the shock and didn’t freeze if placed in the room.

Then the researchers tried to retrieve the lost memory by simply activating just the circuit of cells that were responsible for the memory — without the shock. They did this using a technique called optogenetics, in which laser lights stimulate the tagged cells in the hippocampus. When the circuit was activated, the animals froze again, even if they were in a neutral room that they didn’t associate with the shock. The results suggest, says Ryan, that “this type of amnesia in general is due to inaccessibility of a memory; the memory itself is still present.”

MORE: You Asked: Do Brain Games Really Improve Memory?

While the studies were done in mice, the findings could have implications for memory loss in humans. Specifically, the work suggests that memories lost after a traumatic brain injury such as a concussion, car accident or even a stressful event or some forms of dementia may be retrievable. How successful that may be depends on how soon after the memory-robbing event the recall occurs; it’s more likely to happen, says Ryan, soon after the traumatic event and before the memory is completely stored in the brain. But if the brain is severely damaged, then it’s possible that the process of storing the memory itself is compromised, and the memory won’t be retrievable.

Still, there may be conditions where being able to find lost memories is critical, and these results indicate that those memories are still there, it’s a just a matter of finding the best way to retrieve them, which hasn’t been worked out yet for people.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

9 Ways to Quit Sugar for Good

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Sugar out of sight is also out of mind

Here’s a shocker: the average person takes in 22 teaspoons of sugar daily—more than three times the amount suggested by the American Heart Association. And although it has never been considered a health food, new evidence shows sugar can do even more damage than previously thought, setting you up for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. But weaning yourself off sugar can be daunting. It’s tough to dodge because it hides in so many foods, and it provides an almost addictive buzz, thanks to a surge of the neurotransmitter dopamine after it enters the body, says research neuroscientist Nicole Avena, PhD, author of Why Diets Fail (Because You’re Addicted to Sugar) ($19; amazon.com). Still, slashing sugar is one food trend worth trying. Find out all about sugar rehab, plus tactics to make your commitment stick.

The dangers of sweet stuff

Sugar has 16 calories per teaspoon. That doesn’t seem like much, but it can pack on hundreds of calories without offering any nutritional value, says Avena. Extra calories raise your risk of obesity, which in turn sets you up for diabetes.

A 2013 study found that for every 150 calories of added sugar consumed in a population—the equivalent of one can of soda—diabetes prevalence in the population went up 1.1%. Then there’s the research tying sugar to heart disease. A 2014 study from JAMA: Internal Medicine found that the more added sugar a person took in, the higher their odds of dying of heart disease.

Don’t forget about the way sugar plays with blood glucose levels, sending them surging, then crashing—leaving you fatigued, brain fogged, and irritable, says Brittany Kohn, RD, a New York City nutritionist.

Cut this kind of sugar

The sugar offender to steer clear of is refined white sugar, the kind spooned into coffee or added to baked goods. The bloodstream absorbs this simple sugar quickly, causing surges in blood glucose levels and insulin that can wreak havoc on the body, says Avena.

Refined sugar is also added to countless food products during processing, from ketchup to bread to salad dressing to beef jerky. Manufacturers try to trick consumers by calling it cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup, or some other unfamiliar name, but they’re all just fancy ways of saying sugar. Molasses, honey, and maple syrup are also added sugars, and though they’re not always processed the way refined white sugar is, they have the same harmful effect, says Avena.

Sweets you can eat

The types of sugar you don’t have to ditch are found naturally in foods, such as fructose in fruit and lactose in milk products. These get a pass as long as you consume them in their original food form. “Fruit, for instance, contains an amount of sugar that is in better proportion with the amount of fiber and other nutrients in it,” says Aveda. “These other nutrients mitigate sugar’s harmful effect.”

Artificial isn’t the answer

Swapping out sugar in favor of a chemical sweetener like aspartame or saccharin may not be the answer. “Artificial sweeteners provide sweet taste without calories, so when you consume these products, hunger isn’t satisfied, leading you to crave more afterward,” says Kohn. A 2013 study in Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism lends credence to this, finding that drinking just one diet soda a day is linked to weight gain and diabetes.

Why do chemical sweeteners boost hunger? It’s not clear, but it might have to do with the intensity of the sweetness in these products. Artificial sweeteners are many times sweeter than natural sugar, and that can dull your taste buds to less intensely sweet foods such as fruit, ramping up cravings for high-sugar—and high-calorie—foods, says Kohn.

Don’t go cold turkey

Because our bodies are so used to the sweet stuff, going sugar-free very abruptly can lead to crazy-intense withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, anxiety, and mood swings, says Kohn. Ever gone without your usual morning latte or other caffeine fix? That’s what sugar withdrawal is like, times 10. “It’s better to ease yourself off it slowly by taking one step at a time, so your body has time to adjust,” says Kohn. Another reason to not be in a rush: slower changes tend to last, says Avena, especially when it comes to diet changes.

Give up sugary drinks

Soda, fruit juice, sports drinks, iced tea—these and other sweetened beverages are sneaky sources of added sugar. One can of cola, for example, racks up nine teaspoons, already a third more than the six teaspoon daily limit suggested by the American Heart Association.

“Sweetened beverages or drinks made from fruit juice are like liquid sugar, and they add lots of calories without satisfying hunger,” says Avena. She suggests substituting soda for seltzer, which has no added sugar and zero calories. As for fruit-flavored beverages and fruit juice, sub in fruit-infused bottled water or water with fresh fruit slices added to it.

Ditch simple-carb sweet treats

Pastries, cookies, muffins, and other white-bread, refined-flour treats offer little nutrition-wise but are dense with added sugar. And since they’re not hard to identify, it’s easy to slash them from your diet. They mess with blood sugar levels, setting up a cycle of grabbing a donut or muffin for energy that doesn’t last, says Kohn. Instead, get your carb fix with whole grains. These are converted to sugar during digestion, but because they’re the complex kind rather than the simple type, they’re absorbed more slowly and provide steady energy.

Suss out sugary restaurant food

They don’t call it sweet and sour pork for nothing. Many types of takeout or eat-in cuisine are smothered in sauces or coatings made with added sugar. Even the crust of takeout pizza is likely to pack hidden sugar, even though you may not taste it, says Avena. Glazes, condiments, and even pasta sauces are often loaded with sugar, the same sugar that is just as harmful in a prepackaged box of cookies, she adds. Read labels carefully: look for brown sugar, corn syrup, maltose, fructose, dextrose, molasses, agave, brown rice syrup, cane sugar, cane syrup, and evaporated cane juice, which are all just other ways to say “sugar.”

Ease off the table sugar

If you’re used to adding sweetener to your food and drinks, give yourself time to ease out of the habit, suggests Kohn. Typically start your day with two spoons of sugar or honey in your tea or coffee? Cut back to one sugar for a week, then slash it to zero a week later—or sweeten it with a slice of orange or a little milk. Same thing with the sugar you put on top of French toast or cereal, or the maple syrup doused on your pancakes. Gradually reducing the amount will make it less noticeable that you’re cutting back, and you’ll be less craving-crazed for a sugar hit.

Designate a sweets drawer

If the rest of your household isn’t cutting back on sugar with you, you’re likely to see sweet treats and added-sugar products all over your kitchen, inviting temptation. “Instead, make one drawer or shelf in your kitchen the place where everyone else can stash their treats, but you don’t have to see the products every time you open the cabinet or fridge,” suggests Avena. Most of us go for the food we see first, so if you don’t see sweets, you won’t crave them, and then cave in to them, she adds.

Pile protein and healthy fats onto your plate

Cutting out sugar is the perfect excuse to indulge in more healthy fats (nuts, olive oil, avocado, dairy) and lean protein (eggs, turkey, and legumes). Both keep you feeling satiated and energized, preventing the blood sugar rise and fall that can lead to hard-to-resist sugar cravings.

A protein-fat breakfast will help you start the day off right. “Have a breakfast with protein and fat as the stars, like eggs and avocado, instead of the traditional starch and sugar combo, like a muffin or sweetened cereal,” suggests Kohn.

Go with naturally sweet flavors

To satisfy a sweet tooth without resorting to the refined stuff, just look through your spice rack. Cinnamon or vanilla extract added to coffee, cereal, or baked goods offer a sweet taste without sugar’s side effects, and zero calories too, says Kohn. Other sweet spices and herbs to add to beverages and meals include chicory, ginger, nutmeg, and cardamom. Citrus zest also adds a fruity, refreshing sweetness.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

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TIME Diet/Nutrition

Should I Drink Tomato Juice?

3/5 experts say yes.

At 30,000 feet, tomato juice is almost as popular as beer, the top-selling beverage. But its health benefits are more up in the air, our experts say.

The very reason people order it on planes is why you should be wary. This stuff is salty—great for flavor while flying, since a new study shows that very loud noise, like the roar of airplane engines, changes our sense of taste by dulling sweet flavors and enhancing umami, the signature flavor of tomato. But most Americans aren’t exactly suffering from a salt deficiency.

“Most tomato juice has added salt at a rather shocking concentration,” says David Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center. An 8-ounce serving can pack 670 mg of sodium: 28% of a person’s government-recommended daily intake, and about as much as four small bags of chips.

A good way to think about sodium, he says, is that the overall diet shouldn’t have more than a milligram of sodium per calorie. Since a cup of tomato juice only has 50 calories, it has about 13 times as much sodium as it should by this standard of measurement.

The real draw of tomato juice is lycopene—an antioxidant found in ruby and orange foods that may help lower risk of stroke, prostate cancer and metabolic diseases. Americans get more than 80% of their lycopene from tomatoes in its various forms. You’re in good shape if you regularly eat the whole fruit, especially if it’s cooked and with a little healthy fat; fat makes certain nutrients easier for the body to digest and absorb, say Steven Schwartz, PhD, and Robin Ralston, RD, of the Center for Advanced Functional Foods Research and Entrepreneurship at Ohio State University. “But the same health-beneficial compounds in tomatoes are also in tomato juice,” they say, while also echoing the importance of paying attention to salt content.

If you don’t regularly eat tomatoes, swapping unhealthy beverages like soda with tomato juice is a good way to get the benefits of lycopene, says Pei-Min Chao, PhD, professor and chair of the department of nutrition at China Medical University in Taiwan. In a small 2015 study, Chao gave 25 healthy young women 9 ounces of tomato juice every day for two months. Compared to their levels before the experiment began, tomato juice was linked to higher levels of lycopene and lower body weight, body fat, BMI and cholesterol blood levels after the experiment ended. And a randomized controlled trial by Gity Sotoudeh of the school of nutritional sciences and dietetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran found that tomato juice reduces oxidative stress in overweight women.

If you’re jonesing for the juice, the healthiest bet is to follow this recipe from Deborah Cohen, MD, senior natural scientist at the RAND Corporation. “Just put tomatoes in a blender,” she says, “and drink up.”

Tomato-juice
Illustration by Lon Tweeten for TIME
TIME Diet/Nutrition

7 Things You Never Knew Were In Your Wine

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Low-alcohol wines are lighter in calories

Sulfites, tannins, resveratrol—if you’ve read anything about wine, you’ve probably come across at least one of these terms. But what does all the fancy verbiage mean for your health? We asked Jim Harbertson, PhD, associate professor of enology (that is, the science of wine) at Washington State University, to decode the lingo commonly found on bottle labels so you know exactly what you’re drinking, and how it affects you, beyond a nice buzz.

Sulfites

What it means:Sulfites are normally added to wine to protect it from oxidation or unwanted microbial growth,” Harbertson says. In other words, they keep wine fresh and prevent it from morphing into vinegar. Sulfites have developed a bad rap for causing allergic reactions like sneezing and headaches, but in reality, only a small portion of the population exhibits a sensitivity or allergy to them. There’s also some indication that they trigger symptoms for asthmatics, but the relationship between worsened asthma symptoms and sulfites isn’t totally clear, Harbertson says. You’ll spot “contains sulfites” on wine bottles because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that labeling when any food contains more than 10 parts per million of sulfites, but for most people, they’re nothing to worry about. Know for sure you’re allergic? Look for the words “sulfite-free” on labels.

Histamine

What it means: The nitrogen-based compound is a common allergen found in foods and can cause an inflammatory response. (It’s also, confusingly, the name for a substance our bodies release when they’re having an allergic reaction.) Histamines sometimes crop up in wines that undergo a second fermentation to smooth out their acidity and texture, Harbertson explains. Unfortunately, it’s nearly impossible to tell which wines undergo this process and which don’t without checking with the winemaker, though some bottles are now labeled as not undergoing malolactic fermentation, meaning they should be histamine-free, Harbertson says). The good news: “There really isn’t any definitive research that demonstrates that the histamines in wine cause human health problems,” Harbertson says.

Tannins

What it means: You know that dry feeling you get on your tongue after sipping certain kinds of vino? That astringent sensation is caused by tannins, a type of polyphenol that get produced during the winemaking process, mostly from grapes. While these micronutrients may be disease-fighting when consumed in certain forms and foods, when imbibed in wine, “these natural compounds tend to get bound up in salivary proteins and proteins in the human digestive system, so their health benefits are somewhat limited,” Harbertson says. Tannins are most often found in big, full-bodied red wines—look for labels bearing the names Bordeaux, Shiraz, Barolo, or Barbaresco.

Resveratrol

What it means: You may have seen this buzzy antioxidant, found in the skin of grapes listed on the packaging of beauty serums and creams touting its anti-aging properties. You’ll be hard-pressed to find a wine label doing the same. “Based on current studies, it’s not clear that there’s a health benefit [of drinking it] because the resveratrol concentration in wine is low,” Harbertson says. Want to try to load up on resveratrol, just in case? Know that there’s likely a higher concentration of it in red wines versus white. But that’s still no reason to drink more than the recommended one glass a day.

Heavy metals

What it means: Okay, this one’s not listed on any label, but you might have heard about these being linked to wine anyway. Heavy metals are metals and metal compounds that can adversely affect our health when consumed in the right (or wrong, as the case may be) doses. A study published in the Chemistry Central Journal indicated that some wines have showed concerning levels of heavy metals such as copper and manganese. However, according to Harbertson, “the FDA has been monitoring heavy metals in wine and has indicated that concentrations are lower than would require regulation.” Cheers to that!

Organic and biodynamic

What they mean: Organic winemakers refrain from using pesticides and other chemicals in their growing and production methods, and they don’t add sulfites as preservatives. Biodynamic vintners start with these same organic practices, but they also consider the whole ecosystem of the vineyard in growing their grapes, including more obscure factors such as lunar cycles. While Harbertson says he’s all for producing wine that’s environmentally sustainable, he also notes, “there’s not enough information at this point on the human health impacts of biodynamic and organic grapes and wine” to say that the practice is actually good for us.

Low-alcohol

What it means: This hot phrase has been all over wine labels lately. The benefits of low-alcohol wine include getting less drunk with each glass, lower cost per bottle, and a lighter taste. It’s lighter on calories, too: Though the relationship between booze and calorie intake is complex—“alcohol is not converted to energy like other things you consume and, therefore, doesn’t get stored as other calories will,” says Harbertson—alcohol is the primary source of calories in wine, so low-alcohol wine will have fewer of them than bottles with a higher content.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

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TIME Drugs

Autistic Adults Could Take Ecstasy to Reduce Anxiety

The drug has also been tested as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder

Researchers are interested in seeing whether taking ecstasy could reduce social anxiety in autistic adults.

A team laid out their proposed study in Science Direct, saying that MDMA, the medical name for Ecstasy, could increase social adaptability in autistic adults and that clinical use of the drug would be far safer than street use of Ecstasy or Molly.

The abstract talks about “MDMA’s capacity to help people talk openly and honestly about themselves and their relationships, without defensive conditioning intervening,” as well as its ability to decrease fear and anxiety in people on the drug. It is a popular party or rave drug because it is known to increase energy and euphoria in the user.

The study would examine whether MDMA could be used to reduce anxiety in autistic adults, not used as a treatment for autism itself. The drug is also studied as a treatment for other anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder.

MDMA has been illegal in the United States since the 1980s.

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