MONEY Holidays

The DIY Way to Give Your Gifts a Personal Touch

Forget gift cards or store-bought knickknacks that will just get regifted. The best presents come with something money can't buy.

If you want to really wow someone over the holidays with a token of your affection, chances are it’ll take more than a trip to the mall (or Amazon.com): A survey shows nearly three-quarters of Americans will be unhappy with their gifts this year.

Distinguish yourself from ordinary gift-givers by using your skills to make a present that packs an emotional punch. Artistic? One MONEY staffer’s illustrator boyfriend once gave her a hand-drawn picture book in which she was the main character. Good on Google? Another staffer did some Internet sleuthing and tracked down her father’s long-lost war buddy and was able to give her dad a letter from the friend as a gift.

If these ideas sound too intimidating or time-consuming, there are shortcuts to memorable gifts. Consider ordering a wall calendar from a site like collage.com with your funniest family photos, organized by season. Or a shirt with an inside joke for your closest group of friends from customink.com.

If you’re short on inspiration, your best resource is the vast digital footprint we all leave behind these days (for better or worse): Comb through old texts, emails, and chats for clues as to what your intended gift recipient might really love. And—for even more creative ideas—check out the video above.

MONEY stock market

Why Nobody Should Have Believed the $72 Million High School Stock Trader Rumor

disappearing stack of cash
Walker and Walker—Getty Images

We should have just done the math.

Now that high school senior Mohammed Islam has admitted to New York Observer editor (and former MONEY columnist) Ken Kurson that he completely made up that whole stock-trading boy-genius gazillionaire story, the Twittersphere is condemning New York magazine (and writer Jessica Pressler) for what’s assumed to be sloppy fact-checking.

There’s no doubt that the situation is embarrassing, and that the still-posted article — a section of the magazine’s “Reasons to Love New York” feature that already went through a headline revision Monday (“Because a Stuyvesant Senior Made $72 Million Trading Stocks …” became “Because a Stuyvesant Senior Made Millions Picking Stocks …”) — will need to be corrected further.

It now appears that there are no millions. Not the rumored 72. None.

Still, there’s an argument that Pressler and New York are not solely culpable for yesterday’s media circus. Let’s be honest: Many in the media who covered and disseminated this story (including, albeit very skeptically, MONEY) are New York-based media types, proud of our city and its if-you-can-make-it-here-you-can-make-it-anywhere mythology.

Taken at its word, the story felt like an ode to free markets and the American Dream. From hobbyists to professionals, investors are thrilled by the idea that with enough smarts and hard work anyone can go from rags to riches, no matter where they start. If an industrious first-generation American can build a massive fortune between the age of 9 and 17, you can too, right?

There’s a term for this impulse, in fact: “confirmation bias,” which is what experts call the common human tendency to seek out only information that confirms what we already think — or want to think.

The fact is, we should have done the math, as the graph and explanation below show.

Screen Shot 2014-12-16 at 8.44.58 AM
Source: MONEY calculations

In New York and other publications, Islam claimed he started trading using money from tutoring while he was in middle school. His starting age was given as either 9 or 11. Lets assume he had started at 9, in 2006. Then let’s assume he was exceptionally industrious with his tutoring, allowing him to start with $10,000 in savings. In order to end up with $72 million dollars by his senior year, Islam would have had to post average annual returns of 168% from age 9 to 17. That’s staggeringly unlikely.

But let’s take it further: Imagine that someone had spotted Islam’s prodigious talent and given him $100,000 to play with in the markets. Even then he would have had to return an average of 108% annually. That’s more than five times Warren Buffett’s average returns of 20%. And he would have had to do it every year for nearly a decade.

In other words, Islam’s story was preposterously unlikely even if we’d given him all of the benefits of all of our doubts.

Other stories of investing prodigies have come out recently, including one about a New Jersey teen who claims he turned $10,000 into $300,000 trading penny stocks, a feat that would require a one-year return of nearly 3,000% (which is improbable though not impossible). The reporter on that story seems more confident in his fact checking.

Bottom line: $72 million is an insane amount of money to make from scratch while day trading. Pressler originally did call it “unbelievable,” and that’s what it should have been, for all of us.

MONEY Stock trading

High School Student Rumored to Have Made $72 Million Trading Stocks

Stuyvesant High School at 345 Chamers Street, Manhattan, N.Y.
17-year-old (alleged) millionaire Mohammed Islam is a senior at Stuyvesant High School in New York City. Craig Warga—NY Daily News via Getty Images

Published claims that a NYC high school student made a fortune trading securities turn out to be exaggerated.

[Editor’s note: See story update below.]

Well, here’s a creative way to make your college application stand out: Mohammed Islam, a senior at New York City’s Stuyvesant High School, has become a local celebrity with the publication of a profile in New York magazine that claims he’s made $72 million by trading stocks and other securities in between classes, homework, and extracurricular activities.

Islam, who also appeared on Business Insider‘s 20 under 20 list last year, says he has been trading stocks since he was 9, having been taught by an older cousin who now works at Goldman Sachs. Though he started off trading penny stocks, Islam says he’s made millions since then by betting on gold and crude oil futures, as well as small- and mid-cap stocks.

Depending on your perspective, this story could be read as an inspiring tale about the child of Bengali immigrants beating the odds. Or as a worrisome example of how Wolf of Wall Street-worship — along with a taste for bottle service, models, and BMWs — is corrupting our youth.

If the story is actually true — Islam told New York that his net worth is in the “high eight figures,” but it’s not clear where the $72 million figure came from and no documentation of his profits has yet appeared — it would be interesting to know a little something about his trading strategy. We’ll update if and when we hear from him; so far, Islam has not yet responded to our messages sent via Facebook.

Update: On December 15, Islam told CNBC’s Scott Wapner that he didn’t actually make $72 million trading; that he doesn’t know where the figure came from; that he in fact has made “a few million dollars” trading; and that he is uncomfortable with the way he was portrayed in New York. “The attention is not what we expected,” he told Wapner. “We never wanted the hype.” Later in the day, Islam admitted to New York Observer editor (and former MONEY columnist) Ken Kurson that he pretty much made up the whole story. In this December 16 article, I explain why nobody should have believed the story in the first place.

MONEY consumer psychology

10 Subliminal Retail Tricks You’re Probably Falling For

soda can with sprinkles and a cherry on top
William Castellana—Gallery Stock

There's a reason that salesperson is being rude. Increasingly sophisticated consumer research shows that if she disses you, you'll spend more.

Today’s marketing strategies aren’t dreamed up in smoky rooms full of Mad Men. The tools companies employ to get you to buy their stuff have grown ever more sophisticated, with marketers even using neural measurements to design product packaging and appeal to your deepest desires (to be covered in Cheetos dust, apparently).

Consumer experience these days is not simply designed; it’s engineered. Research determines the ads you see, the scents and sounds you encounter in stores, even the way a salesperson might casually touch your arm. It’s not all high-tech brain science, but here are some of the tricks companies use to entice you to spend more.

1. They make you nostalgic. Don Draper was on to something with his sentimental pitch for a Kodak campaign. But the abundance of families, puppies, and childhood ephemera in the ads you see every day is more than a simple ploy to tug on your heartstrings. Recent research shows nostalgia makes people value money less and feel willing to pay more for purchases.

2. They sic rude salespeople on you. At high-end stores like Gucci, customers are actually more inclined to buy expensive products after a salesperson has acted snottily to them, a new study found. This effect—which doesn’t work with mass-market brands, only luxury—seems to have something to do with the desire to be part of an in crowd. To paraphrase Groucho Marx, you’re more likely to want to belong to a club that doesn’t want you as a member.

3. They use smaller packaging to get you to buy bigger. You’d think that it would be easier to buy and drink less soda and beer if you stick to the cute new mini-cans that seem to be all the rage these days. But research shows buying multi-packs of those small sizes can actually lead people to consume more overall.

4. They get you lost and confused. It’s not an accident that grocery stores are often laid out unintuitively. Losing focus makes people spend more on impulse purchases, says expert Martin Lindstrom, who has conducted studies on marketing strategies. Getting interrupted during shopping also makes you less price-sensitive, according to research co-authored by marketing professor Wendy Liu at UC San Diego. That’s because when you return to look at products after a distraction, you have a false sense of having already vetted them, she says.

5. They mimic your gestures—and get women to touch you. A woman’s touch—but not a man’s—makes people of either sex looser with their money, so when that saleswoman touches your shoulder, you may unwittingly end up spending more. Additionally, research shows that if a salesperson of either sex imitates your gesticulations, you are more likely to buy what he or she is selling.

6. They get you to handle the merchandise. Consumers are willing to pay at least 40% more for mugs and DVDs—and 60% more for snacks—that are physically present than for the same products displayed in photographs or described in text, according to a Caltech study. And other research shows your willingness to pay more increases as you spend more time looking at and holding objects.

7. They create the illusion of bulk bargains. Whether you’re using a jumbo shopping cart or a small basket, you’re going to be tempted to load it up, so it pays to make sure those “deals” are actually worthwhile. Researcher Lindstrom found that adding the sentence “maximum 8 cans per customer” to the price tag of soup cans caused sales to jump, even if no true discount was offered, because it gave the illusion of one. It’s worth asking at checkout: Does that “10 for $10″ actually just mean one for $1?

8. They give you free treats. Consuming even one free chocolate increased shoppers’ desire for nonfood luxuries—including expensive watches, dressy designer shirts, and Mac laptops—right after eating it, according to a study published in the Journal of Consumer Research.

9. They drop the dollar sign. If you think the plain old “28” rather than “$28″ on the menu of your favorite fancy restaurant is simply designed to look chic and minimalist, think again. A Cornell study found that a format that leaves off dollar signs and even the word dollar gets people to spend 8% more at restaurants.

10. They carefully engineer store ambiance. Ambient sounds and smells can make you less careful with your cash. In an appliance store, researcher Lindstrom pumped in the smell of an apple pie, and the sales of ovens and fridges went up 23%. He also found that alternating German and French music in a wine shop influenced which bottles customers purchased. Even nonmusic background sounds can make you overspend: A researcher found that the distraction of noise made people more likely to buy fancier sneakers.

 

MONEY stocks

The Stupidly Simple Reason That Apple Stock Is Overrated

Studio shot of letters A, B and C
Chris Hackett—Getty Images

New research suggests we're too busy — or lazy — to get all the way through the alphabet.

It may not surprise you to learn that our investing decisions are often the result of irrational behavior. But the findings of a new study suggest that many of our stock selections are systematically wrong-headed.

It turns out that the first letter of a company’s name exerts undue influence on our investing behavior. Specifically, stocks starting with letters in the beginning of the alphabet are valued higher and traded more often than late-alphabet stocks, according to a November paper from business school researchers at Seton Hall and Yeshiva University.

“Back when people used phone books, they were more likely to choose companies with names like ‘AAA Avocados’ or ‘Acme Pest Control’ than those later in the alphabet,” says Jesse Itzkowitz, a marketing professor at Yeshiva University’s Sy Syms School of Business. “The same is true today for retail investors reading through stock information they get from brokerages like Fidelity or TIAA-CREF.”

That’s because humans have a tendency to choose the first satisfactory option available, rather than taking extra time to make an optimal choice, says Itzkowitz.

The upshot of such “satisficing”? Stocks with early-alphabet names are traded 1.7% more often and are valued 6.1% higher by investors than late-alphabet companies, according to a measure that compares the underlying value of a business to its market price.

Screen Shot 2014-12-02 at 11.49.29 AM
Source: Jesse Itzkowitz, Yeshiva University’s Sy Syms School of Business

 

Other than knowing that this tendency artificially boosts the stocks of early-ABCs companies like Apple (and presumably inflicts a penalty on Zynga, for instance), what’s the takeaway for investors who buy shares in individual companies?

For one, says Itzkowitz, be sure to sort through potential stock investments using valuation and fundamental metrics to narrow the options, rather than just reading through an alphabetical list.

“Human beings are able to expend only so much mental effort before making a decision, so it’s best to focus on a manageable quantity of information,” says Itzkowitz. (You can check out MONEY’s advice on choosing stocks and play around with a free stock screener like the one at finviz.com.)

Perhaps more importantly, recognize that we all have limitations, and can all act irrationally, when it comes to choosing stocks. That’s a case for letting professionals handle your money or—better yet—for investing in a passive index fund. That way you get you diversification without the risk of human error, since even experts make mistakes.

 

MONEY Small Business

Can Ferguson Recover? The Lasting Economic Impact of Violent Unrest

Flames illuminate the St. Louis Fish & Chicken Grill next door to where fire crews worked to douse a burning furniture store.
Riots erupted moments after it was announced Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson will not face criminal charges in the fatal shooting of unarmed teenager Mike Brown. Several buildings were looted and burned. James Cooper—Demotix/Corbis

The looting and destruction of businesses in Ferguson could have long-term effects.

A grand jury decision not to indict police officer Darren Wilson for the shooting of unarmed black teen Michael Brown has stoked anger in Ferguson, Mo., where peaceful protests have given way to looting and violence, virtually shutting down the city last night. “People don’t want to come into the area,” Jason Bryant, a local pastor, told TIME.

The events echo those in August, when the shooting first caused long-standing tensions to erupt into violence, theft — and shuttered storefronts. TIME reported last night that local retailers have seen sales slow by as much as 80%.

While the loss of local business may seem trivial next to the potential for additional violence — not to mention the civil rights and other legal issues at stake — there is a danger that rioting could disrupt the lives and livelihoods of Ferguson residents for years to come.

In the ten years after the 1992 Los Angeles riots, for example, the city lost nearly $4 billion in taxable sales, according to research conducted by Victor Matheson of College of the Holy Cross and Robert Baade of Lake Forest College.

“Social unrest can have a lasting negative impact on a local economy in a way that’s much more persistent than even a natural disaster,” says Matheson. “Though Hurricane Andrew caused more damage upfront, businesses were able to bounce back as soon as cleanup began. We didn’t see that in Los Angeles.”

Matheson and Baade found that the steps toward recovery are relatively clear after natural disasters: Communities tend to join together to build shelters, clean up, and storm-proof structures against future events. After rioting, by contrast, it’s much harder rebuild confidence and community trust among frightened business owners, or to convince new employers to move in. “It’s not as simple to just stamp out violence and anger,” Matheson says. And reluctance to rebuild is dangerous because it is self-perpetuating, he adds.

Concerns about lasting damage to business-owner confidence similarly followed riots in London in 2011 (also triggered by a police shooting), and economic aftershocks are still felt today, despite the commitment of more than $116 million in riot-recovery funding.

While there are no easy fixes that will keep Ferguson from suffering a similar fate, quelling anger is a first step. Various experts and commentators have suggested policy changes that could help rebuild trust in the police department, including a consent decree like the one that eventually helped the LAPD improve relations with residents of L.A.

No matter what path Ferguson takes, says Matheson, the sooner the violence ends, the faster the local economy can begin to heal.

 

MONEY holiday travel

5 Strategies for Surviving the Coming Thanksgiving Travel Nightmare

Travelers make their way through security lines at Denver International Airport, November 27, 2013.
RJ Sangosti—Denver Post via Getty Images

With storms threatening to put your holiday travel plans on ice, don't head to the airport unprepared. Instead, go on the defensive with these moves.

Planning to fly home for Turkey Day on Wednesday? With weather reports for Thanksgiving travel looking, well, less than ideal, smart travelers should prepare for a rough day at the airport. These tips will help you get to your destination as quickly as possible, sanity intact.

1. Check in early

During bad weather, oversold flights can be more of a problem, as stranded passengers buy up any open seats.

Your best defense against getting bumped? Checking in online as close to 24 hours ahead of time as possible, according to TripAdvisor travel advocate Wendy Perrin. Not only will you be less likely to lose your seat, but you will also have the best shot of choosing a good one.

2. Know your rights

Did everything right but still got bumped? If the airline rebooks you on a flight that will make you more than an hour late, you’re entitled to a cash or check payment of up to 400% of your one-way fare.

The rules are less clear-cut for delays and cancellations. Airlines are not required to pay for meals or other amenities for delayed passengers, though some do, so it’s worth asking (more on that below). If your flight is cancelled, the airline will typically rebook you on their next available flight. In some cases, carriers may be willing to put you on a flight with a different airline, so check out those options, too.

3. Stay informed in real-time

If you get stuck with a cancellation, don’t just let the airline automatically put you on a different flight. First, check out your options at FlightStats.com, which shows delayed and canceled flights all across the country. There may be a different itinerary that’s a better fit for your schedule.

4. Photograph your valuables

Losing expensive belongings is always upsetting, but tack on a crazy snowstorm and chaotic airport and you have the formula for a nervous breakdown.

Be prepared for the worst by keeping receipts for, and snapshots of, anything pricey in your luggage. Airlines are legally obligated to reimburse up to $3,300 for your lost possessions.

5. Turn on the charm

Whether you’re dealing with lost luggage, delays, a cancelled flight, or any other travel nightmare, it’s important to be as polite as possible when making a complaint.

“Take a deep breath. Remember that despite everything that has happened, you are still alive and, in fact, breathing. Then come talk to me and explain your situation,” writes flight attendant Cary Trey at ThePointsGuy.com.

Going a step beyond politeness and being extra kind to the person you’re dealing with—who, let’s face it, has probably been having a pretty bad day, too—can’t hurt. Trey suggests carrying mini-boxes of chocolates to show gratitude to those who go the extra mile to help you out.

If that sounds like a bit much, even a simple, “Thank you so much for your help, and happy Thanksgiving!” will be enough make you stand out from the grumbling masses.

 

MONEY first jobs

Millennials, the Best Time to Quit Your Terrible Job is Now

141104_FF_WhyToQuit
If you're not on the right career path, act quickly. Oscar Wong—Getty Images/Flickr Select

Hating a first job out of college can make anyone feel like a failure. But your early twenties are the best time to take a mulligan.

An irony in my career, given that I write about money, is that my first job at age 22 paid more than my current job, at 29.

Yet I love my job today, just as I am certain that quitting that first job—a financial management consultant position I grew to hate after only a couple of months—was one of the best decisions I’ve ever made.

I was lucky: The reason I disliked my job wasn’t an unsafe workplace, unkind boss, or unfair pay. I was simply bored by a position that turned out to be less interesting and meaningful than advertised.

But the thing about boredom is it can really eat away at you—at your sense of worth and your enthusiasm to get up in the morning. When I found myself constantly looking at the clock, daydreaming about the weekend, and, eventually, crying in the bathroom at the very thought of coming in the next day, I knew I needed a change. So I lined up a teaching job in China and gave my notice, after only two months at the consultancy.

As short a stint as that was, recent research suggests that an increasing number of millennials are in the same boat. That is, they are spending less time at their first jobs after graduation than young people have in the past. That trend has accelerated even within the last year, with fewer graduates staying at jobs past the one-year mark—and a growing number leaving after three months (or less):

image-1
Source: Express Employment Professionals survey of employer estimates.

Why might that be? Well, for one, research shows that only 38% of young adults under age 30 express deep satisfaction with their jobs—compared with 63% for people age 65 and up. This might seem unsurprising at first glance, since older people have had more time to build confidence and get established in their careers.

But millennials aren’t just feeling unfulfilled because they are low on the totem pole; the current job market is also to blame. More than 40% of recent college graduates say they weren’t able to find a job in their desired field, according to a recent McKinsey study. The survey also found that almost half of graduates from four-year colleges report being in jobs that don’t require a four-year degree.

“Many in the millennial generation are taking jobs that they are over-qualified for and thus are eager to move on when something better appears,” says Bob Funk, CEO of Express, the firm that conducted the job duration survey. Plus, he adds, “we’ve seen a decrease in employees’ commitment to employers as a higher value is placed on personal advancement.”

All of this is to say that if you’re unhappy at your first job and are contemplating quitting, you’re not alone.

Still, figuring out when and how to make a move is tricky. Here are three tips on making a smooth switch, from former hiring manager Alison Green, author of askamanager.org.

1. Be honest with yourself. Green has spoken with workers who have stuck around in bad jobs, despite serious problems at work like sexual harassment, because of fears about money, security, and student loans. “If you are truly miserable, you should trust your gut and not be too afraid to lean on savings, a spouse, family, or part-time work instead,” says Green. “For those who don’t have that luxury, keep your eye on the light at the end of the tunnel and direct your energy into finding a better job in the meantime.”

Accurate, real-time salaries for thousands of careers.

It’s also worth doing a little soul searching as soon as you start to feel unhappy, to see whether the problem truly lies with your boss or the position—or if the real culprit is your attitude. One litmus test is to try to behave differently for a week and figure out if that makes you happier. For example, if you normally sit back and wait for assignments, speak up and volunteer. Conversely, if you’re typically too willing to please, try to dial back on how much responsibility you’re taking on at once.

2. Line up another job before you quit—but not just any job. When you quit a first job out of college, says Green, very few future employers are going to hold that against you, especially if you’re able to articulate what you learned from the experience. The danger, however, is that when you’re desperate to leave a job, you might be tempted to take the first new offer you get, even if it’s wrong for you, too.

“It’s okay to quit once, ” Green says. “You kind of get one freebie. But you can’t let it become a pattern.”

3. Leave gracefully. It’s important to be upfront with your employer and give the company time to prepare for your departure. If you are respectful and help out with the transition, you should be fine. “A good employer shouldn’t want you to stay if you’re unhappy with the fit,” says Green.

As for questions from future prospective bosses, post-college jobs of six months or less need not to be added to your resume, says Green. More than that and employers might wonder about the gap.

Watch real people talk about their best and worst bosses in the video below:

 

MONEY funds

George Soros Bets $500 Million On Bill Gross

George Soros
Billionaire George Soros, 84, is giving Bill Gross $500 million to invest for him. Rex Features via AP Images

Hedge fund titan George Soros is wagering half a billion dollars that bond king Bill Gross will excel in his new role at Janus.

Things are looking rosy for star bond fund manager Bill Gross, whose September departure from PIMCO—the fund company he founded—was accompanied by reports of tensions between Gross and other executives at the firm.

Now that Gross has moved to Janus Capital, where he manages the $440 million Global Unconstrained Bond Fund, it seems he’s getting a fresh start—plus some.

Not only did Janus see more than a billion dollars of new investments flow in last month, following Gross’s arrival, but the company also announced Thursday that hedge fund titan George Soros would be investing $500 million with Gross.

Quantum Partners, a vehicle for Soros’s investment, will see its money managed in an account that’s run parallel to but separate from the Unconstrained Bond Fund. That’s so Soros will be protected from sudden inflows or outflows caused by other investors, S&P Capital IQ mutual-fund research director Todd Rosenbluth told the Wall Street Journal.

Gross tweeted: “I & my team will manage your new unconstrained strategic acct. 24h/day. An honor to be chosen & an honor to be earned as well.”

Watch this video to learn more about what bond fund managers do:

MONEY stocks

Virtual Reality Makes Investing — Yes, Investing — Dangerously Fun

StockCity
StockCity from FidelityLabs

A new virtual reality tool from Fidelity makes navigating the stock market feel like a game—for better or worse.

There’s no question: Strapping on an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset and exploring StockCity, Fidelity’s new tool for investors, is oddly thrilling.

Admittedly, the fun may have more to do with the immersive experience of this 3D technology—with goggles that seamlessly shift your perspective as you tilt your head—than with the subject matter.

But I found it surprisingly easy to buy into the metaphor: As you glide through the virtual city that you’ve designed, buildings represent the stocks or ETFs in your portfolio, the weather represents the day’s market performance, and red and green rooftops tell you whether a stock is down or up for the day. Who wants to be a measly portfolio owner when you can instead be the ruler of a dynamic metropolis—a living, breathing personal economy?

Of course, there are serious limits to the tool in its current form. The height of a building represents its closing price on the previous day and the width the trading volume, which tell you nothing about, say, the stock’s historical performance or valuation—let alone whether it’s actually a good investment.

And, unless you’re a reporter like me or one of the 50,000 developers currently in possession of an Oculus Rift, you’re limited to playing with the less exciting 2D version of the program on your monitor (see a video preview below)—at least until a consumer version of the headset comes out in a few months, priced between $200 and $400.

Those flaws notwithstanding, if this technology makes the “gamification” of investing genuinely fun and appealing, that could be big deal. It could be used to better educate the public about the stock market and investing in general.

But it also raises a big question: Should investing be turned into a game, like fantasy sports?

There are dangers inherent in ostensibly educational games like Fidelity’s existing Beat the Benchmark tool, which teaches investing terms and demonstrates how different asset allocations have performed over various time periods. If you beat your benchmark, after all, what have you learned? A lot of research suggests that winning at investing tends to teach people the wrong lesson.

“Investors think that good returns originate from their investment skills, while for bad returns they blame the market,” writes Thomas Post, a finance professor at Maastricht University in the Netherlands and author of one recent study on the subject.

In reality, great performance in the stock market tends to depend more on luck than skill, even for the most expert investors. That’s why most people are best off putting their money into passive index funds and seldom trading. It also means there’s not a lot of value in watching the real-time performance of your stocks—in any number of dimensions.

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