1 Totally Common Shopping Habit That’s Wrecking Your Budget

tearing money
Jon Schulte—Getty Images

Why you cave instead of save

Like to take your time browsing in the store? Watch out: Time is money, as they say, and the longer you’ve spent shopping in a store, the more it could be costing you money. A new study finds that you’re more likely to spend money on unplanned splurges as your shopping trip progresses, even if you’re really just intending to buy the stuff you came for in the first place.

“The unplanned selection may cue other forgotten needs,” writes lead author and University of Notre Dame associate marketing professor Timothy Gilbride in a new Journal of Marketing study. Basically, buying one thing you weren’t planning on getting makes you remember all of the other things you might have needed but didn’t put on your list, so that first impulse item you pick up opens the floodgates.

In experiments with 400 supermarket shoppers equipped with handheld scanners to record what they put into their carts — and in what order — Gilbride and his fellow authors found that the likelihood you’ll splurge on an unintended purchase is almost 10% higher at the end of a shopping trip.

“There is support for the cumulative effect of shopping cues and/or [self-control] resource depletion toward the end of the shopping trip,” he says.

One thing that might help save your wallet is having a tighter budget. The researchers found that penny-pinchers were less susceptible to the siren song of impulse purchases. For subjects with budgets of less than $64, that first unplanned purchase helped deter them from putting an unplanned purchase into their cart next, although — be warned — Gilbride and his team find that buffer fades by the end of the shopping trip. And for freer-spending consumers — those with budgets between $64 and $109 — the action of purchasing new goodies feeds on itself, and one impulse buy is likely to be followed by more of the same.

“An unplanned selection increases the probability that the next selection will also be unplanned, and this effect grows stronger over the course of the trip,” Gilbride says.

Interestingly, shoppers who budgeted more than $109 per trip didn’t really seem to be affected, either; Gilbride theorizes this is just because they don’t really have to think and plan as much in advance when it comes to their shopping budgets, so there’s less of a distinction between what’s on their list and what they just throw in the cart when it catches their eye.

To avoid sticker shock when the cashier rings you up, try avoiding promotions for items you hadn’t planned to buy, like free samples, that are located in the back or in the more far-flung corners of the store you’re likely to visit later in the trip. Having an idea of your maximum budget in mind when you enter the store can also help. “Making and monitoring a mental budget (or using a shopping app) for unplanned purchases during a shopping trip provides the shopper flexibility… while avoiding an unexpectedly large overall expense,” Gilbride says.


This Is the Shocking Amount of Money You Throw Away Commuting

Lines of cars are pictured during a rush hour traffic jam in central Shanghai July 11, 2013.
Aly Song—Reuters Lines of cars are pictured during a rush hour traffic jam.

It's enough to give you road rage

Those thankless hours (200 a year, on average) you spend commuting aren’t just dull and frustrating: They’re expensive. A new survey finds that American workers shell out an average of $2,600 every year on their commuting costs.

Commissioned for Citi’s ThankYou Premier credit card, the survey says the average daily cost of a commute in major cities is $12. Los Angeles is the priciest place to get to work, with an average $16 daily commuting cost, but even commuters in the lowest-cost cities for commuting, Chicago and San Francisco, still have to dig into their pockets to the tune of $11 every workday.

If time is money, though, New Yorkers might have the most expensive commute: They have an average commute of an hour and 13 minutes, and 44% of workers have hour-plus trips to work. Among major cities, Miami offers the shortest average commute at 49 minutes.

In an indication of how busy the rest of our lives are, about two-thirds of respondents say their commute is the only time they get to themselves — but we still want to be productive and get work done, based on the wide variety of activities we engage in during our trips to work.

About a third of workers try to make the most of their travel time by holding conference calls, and about a quarter email during their commutes. In New York, where public transportation is extensive and popular, people are much more likely to use commuting time to read and respond to email; more than half of survey respondents say they use their commutes for these workday chores. (New Yorkers also are more likely to read or use social media during their commutes.) More than a third of Chicago commuters use this time to prepare for meetings, and almost a quarter of Los Angelenos squeeze errand-running into their commuting time.

Almost 80% of commuters say their biggest expense is gas, and even with gas prices today lower than they’ve been in years, 60% of respondents said their commute has gotten more expensive over the past five years.

Cars are, by far, the most popular commuting vehicle, with 77% driving to work. Buses ferry 21% of Americans to work, while 17% ride subways or trains. About half, though, say they’d be open to commuting via bicycle if a bike-sharing service was available in their city. Although almost 60% of commuters in sunny Los Angeles indicated they’d like the option to bike, so did a slightly larger number of respondents in blustery Chicago.



These Are America’s Biggest Productivity Killers

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You're probably doing one right now

When you get to the end of a workday and realize you just didn’t accomplish what you needed to, there are a few typical culprits: Text messaging, Facebook, cookies in the break room — the usual suspects.

A survey from CareerBuilder.com rounds up the top ways America wastes time at work. Unsurprisingly, digital distractions play a large role, but old-school goofing off hasn’t vanished entirely. More than half of workers surveyed say their cell phones or texting are a shortcut to slacking off. While 44% blame the Internet for killing their productivity, 36% say social media torches their to-do list. That’s higher than the number of workers who said these things were black holes for productivity last year.

It also seems we might be getting overwhelmed by the deluge of email we get every day (which one study estimates could cost American businesses more than half a billion dollars a year in needless busywork). While 23% of workers last year said this was a top workplace distraction, 31% blamed their inboxes this year.

When it comes to actual face-to-face interaction, about a quarter of respondents each say that meetings, snack or smoke breaks and co-workers stopping by to chat contribute to wasting time.

But career experts say it’s not inevitable that the siren song of the vending machine or a recap of Orange Is the New Black will throw a wrench into your plans for productivity. Here are their best tips for staying on track.

Don’t check everything that chimes. “Set aside specific times of the day to check things like social media,” says Peter Hirst, executive director of MIT Sloan Executive Education. Likewise, plan to check your email at regular intervals but not in between so you don’t get sidetracked and lose the momentum of what you were working on.

Associate with go-getters. “Group norms and values are very important in influencing individual behavior,” says James Craft, a professor of business administration at the Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh. In plain English, if you surround yourself with slackers, you’ll be more likely to slack off, but if your colleagues all do what it takes to get the job done, their drive can rub off on you. “These expectations… can be key in keeping the members of the group focused,” Craft says.

Take breaks, but make them deliberate. Build breaks into your day, CareerBuilder suggests, and make sure they have both a start and an end time. “Not only will you have something to look forward to after you’ve worked hard, you will also know when it’s time to get back to work,” the site advises.

Give yourself some breathing room — literally. Hirst suggests getting into a regular practice of yoga or meditation, since both can help improve productivity. “Even just five minutes of meditation a day can have a significant impact on your concentration and focus,” he says. It’s also a good way to clear your head during a hectic day when your mind is going in eight different directions.

TIME Careers & Workplace

The Ultimate Strategy to Get Off Work Early on Fridays

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Get out the door early everything single time

Summer Fridays are great — but we’re guessing that escape-at-lunchtime thing doesn’t always go as planned. Maybe you get bogged down in work and don’t leave until midafternoon (while telling yourself it still sort-of counts as a half day), or you throw caution to the wind and leave behind an unfinished pile of work that thinking about gives you pangs of anxiety by Sunday evening.

There’s a better way to have enjoy summer Fridays and get all your work done, too. Career experts and management pros say there are some simple steps you can take on Friday that will help you get out the door on time so you can enjoy those extra few hours of summertime, guilt-free.

Give co-workers a heads-up. Even if your employer offers summer Fridays, it’s likely that not everyone takes them, says Rose Ernst, national director of Genesis10’s G10 Associate Program. “Don’t assume people know,” she says. Laying the groundwork ahead of time by telling everyone when you’ll be leaving on Fridays will stop colleagues from stopping by your desk as you’re walking out the door with a question or problem they need you to deal with right away.

Use a to-do list. “Write things down and cross things off,” Michael B. Spring, associate professor of information science and telecommunications at the University of Pittsburgh. It doesn’t matter if you use your phone, a digital organization app or go old-school with a pen and notepad. “For to-dos, I still use index cards with a card for each major responsibility,” Spring says. “I write it down, see which card is most filled [and] cross it off when done.”

Get calls out of the way early. “ Make all telephone contacts or other interactions that could result in required follow-ups and commitments early on Friday morning so they can be completed before noon,” advises James Craft, professor of business administration at the Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh. There’s nothing worse than looking at the clock, waiting for the phone to ring.

Say no to meetings. “Schedule no meetings on Friday morning,” Craft says. Be honest: How many times do meetings drag on longer than you expect? Throw in a little time to linger and chat, and you’ve suddenly burned a couple of hours you could have been using to get the rest of your work done.

Plan around your mental state. “By Fridays, many people have already ‘clocked out,’” says Joseph G. Gerard, assistant professor of management at Western New England University. “Save the work that fits best with your Friday mindset for Friday,” he suggests. If you need to brainstorm for a presentation but you’re mentally tapped out, find another time to get that creative thinking done. “If you’re drained of creativity, then spend your time processing work that doesn’t require your sharpest frame of mind,” Gerard says.

Save the best for last. “Save the most engaging or interesting tasks for Friday,” says Sherry Moss, a professor of organizational studies at Wake Forest University School of Business. The half-day won’t drag if you’re actively engaged, she says. “The work will be fun — and likely more productive — and when the project is complete, it will be time for the weekend.”

Don’t bother multitasking. “An array of neuroscience research show that the brain is designed for single-tasking,” says Bahman Paul Ebrahami, a professor of management at the University of Denver’s Daniels College of Business. If you think you’ll be more productive doing three or four things at once, you’re just fooling yourself. “Pause the multitasking habit… and focus on what you have to get done now,” he says.

Stop yammering already. “Skip the water cooler talks,” Ernst says. Catching up on gossip or talking about your favorite TV show might be fun, but you’ll be kicking yourself as the afternoon ticks on if you’re still stuck at your desk.

TIME Saving & Spending

The Insane Reason You Could Pay 50% More For Car Insurance

Inside A Carmax Inc. Location Ahead Of Earnings Figures
Bloomberg/Getty Images Customers check out a vehicle on the sales lot at a CarMax Inc. dealership in Brandywine, Md., on March. 29, 2015.

It doesn’t even have anything to do with how well you drive

You probably figure that if you’re a bad driver and collect some fender-benders or speeding tickets in your DMV record, your insurance company is going to charge you accordingly. But what you might not have expected is that insurers also might slap you with penalties — sometimes hefty ones — if you’ve blown off paying a bill here or there.

Car insurance companies in all but three states — California, Hawaii and Massachusetts, where it’s illegal — use a driver’s credit history in the secret sauce of their underwriting formulas. People with bad credit are considered higher-risk customers, so insurers often charge them more, explains Jill Gonzalez, an expert at WalletHub, a personal finance site that just published a study showing what insurance companies in what states penalize drivers the most for poor credit.

WalletHub asked the five biggest car insurance companies in the country for quotes for two imaginary drivers who were identical except that one test case had excellent credit and the other had no credit history.

“There is a strong correlation between one’s credit characteristics and insurance losses,” Gonzalez says. “The insurance companies usually look at the the credit history to see how the insured can manage his or her risk exposure.”

Across the board, the difference between quotes given to the “great credit” versus the “no credit” driver varied by 49%, but some fluctuations were much, much greater.

Credit obviously isn’t the only factor insurers look at to determine premiums, and different companies assign varying degrees of importance to this characteristic. WalletHub’s study finds that Farmers Insurance seems to place the most weight on driver credit data, with a 62% difference between quotes given to WalletHub’s two hypothetical drivers. Even Geico, the insurer WalletHub says “seems to rely on credit data the least,” has a 32% fluctuation between the two driver scenarios.

The results also vary widely by state; in Connecticut, the impact of great credit versus no credit only contributes to a 15% fluctuation in premiums. In Michigan, however, it’s another story: WalletHub finds that credit status contributes to a 115% fluctuation in rates.

Gonzalez says the biggest issue consumers face is that a lot of companies aren’t up-front about their use of credit data in underwriting. “The problem we discovered is that not all of the companies are transparent in letting their customers know that credit scores impact insurance premiums to a significant extent,” she says.

WalletHub looked at the websites of the 10 biggest auto insurers to see how soon, how often and how prominently they advised customers that their credit would be a variable in the eventual premium price they were quoted. It says Progressive is the most transparent, but Gonzalez points out that a lack of transparency among many carriers means that drivers have to do a lot more homework if they have credit problems.

“Consumers with no credit have to do some serious research before deciding on an insurance company,” she says.


This Is What’s Really Killing Your Job Search

Revolving Door
ONOKY - Photononstop—Alamy

And here's the secret to fixing it

Looking for work is never fun, but a new study reveals that how successful you are depends a lot on the attitude you bring to the process. People who come into it with a know-it-all attitude are more likely to get discouraged and give up more easily than people who approach the whole job hunt saying, What can I learn from this?

“Emotions and job search intensity change during the job search process,” explains Serge da Motta Veiga, an assistant management professor at Lehigh University and the study’s lead author. “Job seekers experience ups and downs as they navigate this stressful process.” These fluctuating emotions affect your motivation and how hard you look for a job, the authors explain. A candidate who approaches their job search as an experience they can learn from — which the authors call “learning goal orientation” in the study — are better off.

While you might think that the rigors of looking for a job would be inherently demotivating, it turns out that it’s not the stress that gets you, but how you cope with it.

Taking on the potentially daunting process of landing a job with an attitude of being willing to learn from it insulates you from those emotional fluctuations that can derail you and make you more likely to slack off than send out that next batch of resumes or follow up on that promising lead. “We found that a learning orientation helped job seekers deal with the ups and downs of the job search, and maintain or even increase their job search intensity,” de Motta Veiga says. In fact, people who want to learn from their experiences — for better or for worse — actually become more motivated when facing stress.

On the flip side, the wrong attitude can leave you idling at the starting line.

“We believe that an attitude that you already know everything may be detrimental to the job search,” de Motta Veiga says. It also probably won’t do wonders for your career in general even if you manage to land a job, the authors point out, but it’s especially detrimental to the job search, which invariably involves having to shake off rejection. If you can’t see the silver lining and tell yourself, hey, at least I learned something, then you’re more likely to take that rejection personally. “Individuals who are oriented toward learning from experiences are more likely to learn and improve than those individuals who are not,” de Motta Veiga says.

So if your job search is stuck in a rut, try changing your attitude before you rewrite your resume one more time and get upset that nobody appreciates your talents. Go into each interaction with an open mind and tell yourself that, come what may, at least you’ll learn something from the experience. It just might change your luck.


Here’s a New Way the Ultra-Wealthy Are Hurting America

Mmmmmoney: Get a grip; it's just paper

They're the only ones with money. What they're doing with it is the problem

More than five years into an economic recovery, a lot of Americans still don’t feel like they’ve made up the ground lost since the last recession, never mind getting ahead. As it turns out, the wealthiest Americans feel the same way. That’s a problem for the rest of us because they’re pretty much the only ones who have any money to spend these days, and when they don’t spend, the entire economy slows to a crawl.

The math isn’t hard to figure out: Consumer spending makes up about 70% of GDP (it was 71% in 2012, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics), and the richest 20% of Americans are responsible for roughly 40% of consumer spending, according to Pam Danziger, president of Unity Marketing, a company that studies the luxury market. So when that top tier pulls back, it has outsized repercussions.

“That’s smart for them, but it’s certainly not good for the economy,” Danziger tells Bloomberg in a recent article. She calls this segment the HENRYs, which stands for “high earners, not rich yet.” These people pull down a decent paycheck, but they might not have the kind of home equity, investment portfolio or other markers of net worth to feel truly rich.

This might sound a little ridiculous; after all, we’re talking about households with incomes of around $111,000, compared to a median household income in the United States of just under $52,000 in 2013.

But as social scientists Mark Rank and Thomas Hirschl point out in an NPR article, just because you crack that top income tier in one year doesn’t mean you’ll stay in that coveted bracket. Maybe you lose your job or switch to a lower-paying but less stressful job. Maybe you or your spouse stops working for a while to raise kids or provide caregiving for an elderly parent. These are all pretty typical reasons for income to fall, but they gnaw at the confidence of these high earners. And many of these families in coastal cities like New York or San Francisco where the cost of living — especially housing — is so high that they’re still just treading water, even a six-figure income.

“The rich often think they’re poor,” chief equity strategist for Wells Fargo Funds Management John Manley tells Bloomberg.

This adds up to a dynamic that just isn’t sustainable, some economists say. “As of February 2015, core retail sales per person still stood 14 percent below their pre-recession trend, costing retailers $51 billion in February 2015 alone,” a March report by the Center for American Progress warns. Instead of focusing on the rich, it says, policymakers and companies should seek ways to shore up the struggling middle class and restore their earning power.



Why It’ll Take You Forever to Pay Off Your Car

Auto Dealerships Fate In Question As Bailout Fails In Senate Vote
Justin Sullivan—Getty Images American flags are seen on cars for sale at Santa Rosa Chevrolet December 12, 2008 in Santa Rosa, California.

It takes more than five years now, on average, to pay off a car

Get ready for an epidemic of underwater cars. No, we’re not talking about collateral damage from the recent floods in Texas — the average length of car loan terms hit a record high in the first quarter of 2015. No longer content to stretch their payments out over the once-standard five years, more drivers today are opting for financing that has them paying six or seven years into the future.

According to new data from Experian Automotive, the average new- and used-car loan terms are now at record highs of 67 and 62 months, respectively. What’s more, roughly 30% of new car loans being written today are for loan terms of between 73 and 84 months — a 19% increase over the first quarter of last year and the highest percentage recorded since Experian began publishing this figure in 2006.

“The potential with owing more than the vehicle is worth is something that could impact a future car purchase if the consumer is looking to trade-in,” says Melinda Zabritski, senior director of automotive finance for Experian Automotive.

The stats for used cars are even more alarming: 16% of used car loans were for terms between six and seven years in the first quarter. Think about it: Say you buy a car that someone traded in after a lease. That means the car is already three years old, which means there are a significant number of drivers out there who are still going to be making payments on decade-old cars — cars that are much likelier to break down or need costly repairs.

The amounts of these loans are skyrocketing, too. The average new-car loan was $28,711 in the first quarter, which isn’t — unfortunately — a new trend. Six months ago, Experian Automotive data found that the average new-car loan had shot up almost $1,100, year over year, to $27,799.

To make the math work, more drivers are stretching out financing, and a greater number are turning to leasing. Experian found that almost a third of all new vehicles financed today are leased, to the tune of $405 a month, on average.

But borrowers could have trouble getting a loan if they have negative equity, Zabritski says, or might charge more because the loan-to-value ratio is higher. “This means the consumer is going to pay more over the life of the loan, and at a higher rate [and] can create a cycle of increasing negative equity if the loan isn’t held long enough,” she warns.

“Vehicles are depreciating on average 13% annually, so to stay in a positive equity position consumers need to ensure their principal balance is always in line with the vehicle’s value,” says Paul Kirkbride, SVP at CUDirect, a company that provides car loan technology to credit unions.

If borrowers run the numbers before making a purchase, they might want to consider a higher down payment. Barring that option, they can also make extra principal payments during the life of the loan, Kirkbride says.

Without these contingency plans, “The risk is the borrower will possibly need to roll negative equity from one car loan into another when they trade in the car, or worse, should the borrower need to sell the car, they’ll have to come up with the difference to pay off the loan,” Kirkbride warns.



The Most Important Consumer Victory You Know Nothing About

Would you knowingly forfeit your right to sue?

A week ago, the FTC issued a ruling that was hailed by consumer advocates as a victory for car buyers and owners everywhere — but this is a bullet most consumers probably don’t even know they dodged.

If you have no idea what this is about, that’s not surprising. The agency’s action followed a review of the “Interpretations of Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act,” which, admittedly, sounds like a snoozer. This ruling covers a few different elements of car warranties. In brief, they need to be easily understandable and accessible to customers, and they have to let owners use parts and mechanics of their choice (rather than stipulating only “authorized” parts or technicians).

But the part that has groups like the National Consumer Law Center and the National Association of Consumer Advocates so excited pertains to binding arbitration, which is one of those phrases that tends to make people’s eyes glaze over. Technically, the rules “set standards for any informal dispute settlement provisions in a warranty.” In plain English, this means the FTC has reaffirmed — over the auto industry’s objections — that it put the kibosh on sticking fine print in warranty contracts that require an owner to sign away their right to sue if things go awry.

Binding arbitration has become an increasingly used tactic in all kinds of contracts, from telecommunications to financial services. Businesses say it saves everybody the time, expense and hassle of a lawsuit, but consumer advocates contend that the little guy tends to get the short end of the stick, since arbitrators are paid by the companies and have a strong financial incentive not to bite the hand that’s feeding them. Consumers lose arbitration proceedings a whopping 95% of the time, one study from 2007 found.

“Secret, unreviewable arbitration proceedings before arbitrators paid by industry could keep unsafe cars on the road,” National Consumer Law Center attorney David Seligman said in a statement about the rulings.

The FTC came to its conclusion by looking at previous legal language that addressed the use of arbitration. Basically, they decided the option for suing has to be preserved because the verbiage used refers to arbitration as being the first step available to a wronged consumer, not the only one. “Arbitration should precede but not preclude a subsequent court action,” the agency says.

Encouraged by this victory, these consumer groups — as well as some lawmakers — say regulators like the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau should implement a similar rule striking down the use of forced arbitration in financial services products. Nearly three dozen members of Congress also recently got involved, sending a letter to CFPB director Richard Cordray urging him to ban the practice in financial services contracts, saying, “These clauses …are designed to stack the deck against consumers.”

In a report the agency released in March, the CFPB found that the prevalence of arbitration clauses is especially high in prepaid cards and payday loans, financial products that typically target lower-income and financially unsophisticated people. Likewise, the vast majority of private student loan and prepaid cell phone contracts also demand that consumers waive their right to sue.

“Forced arbitration is simply unfair and everywhere in consumer financial services,” Christine Hines, consumer and civil justice counsel with advocacy group Public Citizen, said in a statement about the findings urging lawmakers to ban the practice.

TIME Careers & Workplace

These Are the Best Jobs You Can Do In Your Pajamas

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Here's what kinds of jobs offer this perk

Whenever the topic of flexible work arrangements or work-life balance comes up, telecommuting is one of the first ideas that comes up. Fortunately for dedicated employees who just want a job where the commute doesn’t drive them to distraction, more companies today are coming around to the idea that telecommuting is a good option to offer, according to FlexJobs.com, a job search site that focuses on flexible positions, including ones that permit telecommuting.

And it’s not just worker bees who can reap the benefits. FlexJobs found that there are executive-level options for department heads, vice presidents and even C-level bosses who are sick of battling rush-hour traffic and compiled a list of 15 of the best. Not surprisingly, jobs in consulting and technology — where much of the work is conducted remotely anyway — turn up, but there are also jobs in healthcare, education and even the nonprofit sector that extend telecommuting benefits. Positions in sales, finance or HR also can provide opportunity for telecommuting.

“I think something that will surprise job candidates looking for executive-level telecommuting jobs is the number of large and well-known employers offering them,” says Sara Sutton Fell, CEO of FlexJobs. “Companies of all sizes hire for telecommuting jobs even at the highest levels of leadership,” she says.

For instance, there’s an academic employer looking for a director of research is happy to have a full-time telecommuter step into the role, and a big national firm is looking to fill a senior vice president of managed travel position that will require logging plenty of frequent-flier miles but can otherwise be performed from home.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that only low-level positions are eligible for telecommuting. “A typical telecommuter is 49 years old, college educated, and in a management or professional role,” FlexJobs says. One vice president of consulting gig wants candidates with 15 years experience — at minimum. A VP-level sales job requires 10 years of management experience, plus another decade focusing specifically on project management. And even though working from home means saving on gas, parking and/or public transportation tickets, these jobs don’t pay peanuts. FlexJobs says three-quarters of people who work from home pull down $65,000 a year or more.

Not only does letting people work from home let companies extend their talent search beyond driving distance of the office, but there’s a growing pile of research that suggests people are both happier and more productive when they have the option to lead conference calls in a bathrobe at least part of the time.

But if you think there might be perks to working in your PJs, you might need to make your case during an interview, Fell says. If a job ad says telecommuting is limited or available on a case-by-case basis, “The job candidate should prepare him or herself to make a case as to why they’re both an excellent fit for the job, and an excellent fit for telecommuting as well,” Fell says. And if you score a job where you’re trading in your briefcase for bunny slippers, the lack of face-to-face interaction also puts the onus on you to be proactive and straightforward in their communication style, she adds. “Job candidates who are interested in working remotely need to hone their communication skills [and] their ability to set goals for themselves and their teams.”

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