TIME

These Maps Show Changing Marijuana Laws Across America

Nearly two decades of major change

With April 20, the unofficial holiday celebrating marijuana upon us, here’s a look at the drastically changing American legal landscape for pot users. Data provided by the Marijuana Policy Project and the National Conference of State Legislatures shows just how much of the country’s laws have altered since California legalized medical marijuana in 1996.

 

 

 

 

TIME Taxes

Is Your Tax Rate Higher Than Walmart’s?

Use this calculator to find out

It’s April 15, Tax Day. And while dubious business expenses and home offices might help you save a few dollars, most people pay something near what the government sets as the tax rate for their income.

The same is not always true of corporations. While the United States has the highest statutory corporate tax among industrialized nations (39.1 percent), corporations have a greater number of ways to bring that tax bill down. Use the calculator below to see how your tax rate compares to the average effective federal rates paid by 10 major corporates between 2008 to 2012, according to Citizens for Tax Justice, a non-profit organization that advocates for corporate tax reform. The group’s board of directors includes a number of top labor leaders.

Calculations on how much companies pay in taxes vary considerably. A recent report by Citizens for Tax Justice found that profitable Fortune 500 companies paid an average effective federal tax rate of 19.4 percent from 2008 to 2012. The Tax Foundation, a think tank that studies the effect of taxation on the private sector and advocates for decreasing tax burdens, estimates that the nationwide rate is considerably higher–between 26.7 percent and 39.3 depending on the industry. The organization’s board members include two former Republican House members and Douglas Holtz-Eakin, the chief economic adviser to Republican Sen. John McCain’s 2008 presidential campaign.

While different researchers and organizations typically find different numbers for the exact amount individual companies pay in taxes, Citizens for Tax Justice maintains one of the most comprehensive comparisons of individual businesses.

Multinational corporations leverage tax exemptions to lower their tax bill and return value to shareholders. Tech companies like Apple and Microsoft were criticized after a 2013 Senate investigation into a tax arrangement known as the Double Irish, which allocates profits of intellectual property to tax-haven countries like Ireland.

A new report from the Citizens for Tax Justice highlighted 15 Fortune 500 companies, including JetBlue and General Electric, that the group said either received a rebate or were taxed less than 1 percent of their income in 2014. GE has said that its decision last week to cut loose its financial business GE Capital could lead the company’s effective tax rate to rise to 20 percent in the future, the Wall Street Journal reports.

A February Pew Research survey found that 82 percent of respondents expressed at least some concern that “corporations didn’t pay their fair share,” compared with 53 percent who expressed concern over their own tax burden.

Methodology

The effective federal tax rates are drawn from the Center for Tax Justice’s analysis of top Fortune 500 companies, taken from the research group’s corporate tax explorer.

State and local taxes are not included in these calculations.

Read next: How April 15 Became Tax Day

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TIME politics

This Map Shows Every State With Religious-Freedom Laws

See when each law was passed

The national outcry over Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) has turned attention towards the 19 states with their own versions of the law and the others that are considering similar measures. The timeline below shows when each state passed legislation, starting with Connecticut in 1993. Click on a state for links to the laws or pending bills.

The fight over RFRAs dates to 1990, when the Supreme Court ruled against an Oregonian named Al Smith, who was a quarter American Indian. He had argued that his use of peyote in a Native American Church ritual—an act that cost him his job—should be protected by the First Amendment. He lost, and the ruling made it easier for the government to place restrictions on the freedom of religion.

That precedent didn’t sit well with state or federal governments. In the fall of 1993, Bill Clinton signed the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act, which restored the standard the Court had overruled. “Those whose religion forbids autopsies have been subjected to mandatory autopsies,” Vice President Al Gore said at the signing ceremony outside the White House. This legislation, he said, was something “all Americans” could be behind. And many of them did, including Republicans, Democrats, evangelicals and progressive civil rights advocates.

MORE: The Battle of Indiana

The new law demanded that the government have a “compelling interest” before infringing on religious freedom and that the government must use the “least restrictive” means of doing so. If, for example, a state law required that all vehicles have electric lights, the government might have a compelling interest in making sure Amish buggies were as visible as cars on the highway. But the least restrictive means of compelling them to follow the law could be to make sure they used reflective silver tape, rather than force them to embrace technology.

In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal law applied only to the federal government. So more states quickly passed their own RFRAs to restore similar provisions at state levels.

But the political context has changed drastically since then, and many social conservatives are now championing religious freedom bills as a way to protect them from having to provide service to LGBT people. Critics worry that states will use such laws to combat existing non-discrimination measures in court, providing legal cover for stores that refuse to serve gay customers or businesses to fire LGBT employees.

Read next: Arkansas Governor Asks for Changes to Controversial Religious Freedom Bill

TIME

How Popular is Your Fraternity?

Alpha Phi Alpha has more active fraternity chapters than any other, according to a survey of 794 colleges

Fraternities have existed on American college campuses since the nation’s founding. By mapping thousands of chapters across 794 campuses, we determined which fraternities are most common in each state. Alpha Phi Alpha, which was founded at Cornell in 1906, has at least 290 active chapters, more than any other fraternity, according to data available on GreekRank.com.

Kappa Sigma dominates the South and Northwest. It is the most common fraternity in nine states. Tau Kappa Epsilon and Alpha Phi Alpha–a historically African-American fraternity–tie for second place, each taking six states across the eastern U.S. Sigma Alpha Epsilon’s dominance in the West comes into sharper focus when searching for the fraternity’s chapters.

GreekRank–a site that ranks fraternities and sororities–provides active chapter locations for 80 social and professional fraternities across 794 colleges. No other aggregated data is publicly available on fraternities. Chapter locations published on fraternity websites report suspended and inactive chapters inconsistently, and membership numbers are even harder to locate, making anything beyond a geographic comparison difficult.

Methodology
Active chapters are aggregated by state to determine winners. When fraternities tie for chapter numbers, like in Alaska with fewer campuses to extend influence, the most senior fraternity takes first place.

Read next: Before You Pick a College, Decide If You Want to Go Greek

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TIME

Here’s Who Wins March Madness in the Classroom

A complete ranking of the NCAA basketball tournament field by academic success and graduation rates instead of wins and losses

Davidson’s men’s basketball team has won accolades this year for defying expectations on the court, finishing in first place in their inaugural season in the Atlantic 10 after being picked 12th, out of 14 teams, in the preseason poll. The Wildcats run an efficient, aesthetically pleasing offense, a welcome contrast to an otherwise rough college basketball season, where scoring was near all-time lows.

Basketball success is not new to the 1,850 student liberal arts college in North Carolina: Golden State Warriors star Stephen Curry is a former Wildcat. Nor is academic achievement: Woodrow Wilson is another prominent alum. Now, the two have come together: Davidson is the academic champion of the 2015 NCAA tournament.

According to new rankings generated by the New America, a non-partisan Washington, D.C. think tank, for all 68 teams in the tournament–and shared exclusively with TIME — Davidson cuts down the proverbial nets. Here’s how: we matched teams up in the classroom, using the tournament brackets to determine the games. If the on-court bracket results mimicked academic performance, the Final Four would look like this: Davidson wins the South, Maryland comes out of the Midwest, Baylor takes the West and Dayton wins the East. Davidson knocks off Baylor in one national semifinal. Maryland knocks off Dayton in the other semi, with Davidson taking the title game.

The full bracket is below.

 

The formula for New America’s March Madness mimics that of its College Football Playoff rankings released in December (TCU won that title). The base measure is a school’s most recent men’s basketball “Graduation Success Rate,” a figure measured by the NCAA that doesn’t dock schools for having players who transfer or go pro before graduating–as long as those players leave in good academic standing. The higher the school’s graduation success rate, the higher they start out in New America’s rankings. New America, however, did subtract points from schools that graduate men’s basketball players at a much different rate than the overall men’s graduation rate at the school. To compare students to athletes, New America used federal graduation rates, which take a cohort of students from 2004-2007, and measured if they graduated within six years. Even if a school graduated basketball players at higher rates than the overall male student population, the difference was counted as a penalty against schools that have low overall male graduation rates.

One important note: Harvard, the Ivy League champion, was excluded from the rankings because the Ivy League does not report federal graduation rates for athletes. So the University of North Carolina, Harvard’s first round opponent, moves on. Harvard was one of 13 schools, including Davidson, Maryland, Notre Dame, Butler and Dayton, that reported a perfect graduation success rate for basketball players.

Indiana was the easiest out, finishing last in New America’s rankings. Hoosier basketball players graduated at an 8% federal rate, according to the most recent numbers, fare below the overall male student graduation rate of 72%. That discrepancy killed their score. Indiana basketball spokesman J.D. Campbell points out that current coach Tom Crean was hired in April 2008, after the 2004-2007 cohort captured by the federal rate enrolled in the school. Indiana’s men’s basketball team does have a perfect Academic Progress Rate, an NCAA metric that measures the academic eligibility of current players, and Campbell says that every Crean recruit that hasn’t transferred or left early for the NBA has graduated (one of Indiana’s three early entries to the NBA, Victor Oladipo of the Orlando Magic, graduated in three years).

To see how the whole field stacks up, check out these rankings.

Read next: The Simple Free Hack to Watch NCAA March Madness Without a Cable Bill

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TIME

Here’s How Much the Home of the Next President Is Worth

We don’t know who will replace Barack Obama in the White House, but we do know what kind of home he or she will be leaving behind. We’ve charted them below, using data from real estate sales tracker Zillow. Not surprisingly, the only former Fortune 500 executive on the list, Carly Fiorina, tops it with her $6.7 million mansion in Virginia.

Next up is the presumptive candidate from Chappaqua, N.Y., Hillary Clinton, with her $5.6 million Washington, D.C. home —a long way from Hope but just a hair above the former Arkansas governor turned commentator Mike Huckabee, whose Santa Rosa Beach house in Florida is valued at $5.5 million. Scott Walker, the Wisconsin governor, lives in the least expensive home among those whose information is available on Zillow.

To compare the homesteads of presidential timber, click a column header in the chart below to sort by category. Scroll right to see them all.

 

The median home of the more than a dozen likeliest presidential candidates is worth $1.5 million. That’s more than eight times the value of the median American home, worth $178,500 today, according to Zillow. (The average candidate home is worth $2.3 million.) But it’s still a long way off from the address many have their eye on: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Zillow estimates the White House would be worth $385 million were it to ever go on the market.

Candidates’ homes have a way of becoming campaign fodder during presidential campaigns. John McCain was lampooned for being unable to say how many homes he owned in 2008. In 2012, Mitt Romney was mocked for building a car elevator in his La Jolla, Calif., residence. And this past June, Hillary Clinton drew guffaws when she said she and President Bill Clinton left the White House in 2000 “dead broke” and had to increase their earnings to “pay off the debts and get us houses.” As the 2016 campaign heats up, you’ll likely be hearing more about one or two of these homes.

This article has been updated to include Clinton’s residence in Washington, D.C.

Methodology

The listings above reflect only the candidates’ residences available in public records. Some own multiple homes. All estimated home values are from Zillow.

TIME

Here’s How Drugs and Screening Can Stop HIV’s Spread

Getting someone diagnosed reduced the chance of transmission by 19%

The vast majority of new HIV infections are transmitted by people who are not receiving care for their condition, according to a new study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, found that of the 1.1 million people with HIV in 2009, 700,000 were not receiving care, and accounted for 91.5 percent of new HIV infections.

The following interactive shows the study’s findings. Click or tap the arrows to explore.

*Viral suppression indicates a very low level of HIV remains in the blood.

TIME

The Definitive Saturday Night Live Sketch Rankings

NBC's legendary comedy show turns 40 this month. See which actors, celebrities and hosts have appeared on the show most often

Saturday Night Live celebrates 40 years old this Sunday with a reunion of cast members and perennial hosts from Steve Martin to Tina Fey. Drawing on a meticulous archive of the show compiled by superfan Joel Navaroli, TIME crunched the numbers behind the show’s history to see which actors, celebrities and politicians truly belong in the SNL hall of fame.

Explore Saturday Night Live history here.

Thompson overtook Darrell Hammond last season to become the most versatile impersonator of all time. Across his 12 seasons on SNL, he has impersonated Al Sharpton, Al Roker, Aretha Franklin and 111 other people.

While most U.S. Presidents fade from SNL after their years in office, Bill Clinton has continued to appear regularly as a character in sketches, often alongside Hillary. Five cast members have impersonated Bill over the years, but Darrell Hammond was the long-time master making 84 appearances as Bill during the Clinton presidency.

Nothing like having a television show to draw the attention of SNL‘s writers. News anchors and personalities dominate the list of top celebrity impersonation rankings.

In 2013, SNL mocked its own lack of African-American female cast members when Scandal‘s Kerry Washington played Michelle Obama, Beyoncé and Oprah in the same sketch. To drive home the point, six white males appear at the end as Matthew McConaughey. Hillary Clinton, who takes second prize, has been impersonated by nine different actresses since 1992.

Thompson surged into the lead last year, his 12th season on the show.

Charles Rocket made the most of his one season on SNL in 1980-1981 by appearing in nearly every sketch. With the exception of Wiig and Ferrell, runners-up are likewise from early seasons of SNL, when smaller casts made for more appearances.

Though SNL alumni often return to host, celebrities still hold down much of the list, with the “Five-Timers” Club lead by Alec Baldwin, who’s hosted 16 times since 1990.

The Muppets appeared most often as guests in SNL’s first season, but they’ve since returned for musical numbers and “Weekend Update,” where Kermit took Amy Poehler’s spot for “‘Really?’ with Seth and Kermit.” (One-time cast members’ appearances count as “cameos” if they appeared on the show after leaving the cast.)

All images by NBC/Getty Images

TIME

40 Years of Saturday Night Live in 1 Chart

Search for videos of your favorite sketches

As Saturday Night Live celebrates its 40th season this month, here’s a way to find when every character, actor, sketch and guest appeared on the show, based on the meticulous archives compiled by SNL superfan Joel Navaroli. Search for your favorites, and click on episodes outlined in grey to watch sketches for that date.

Need some inspiration? Check out this definitive ranking of Saturday Night Live history.

 

 

TIME

The State of Obama’s Plate

US President Barack Obama eats a "median
SAUL LOEB—AFP/Getty Images US President Barack Obama eats a "medianoche" sandwich while eating lunch at Kasalta Bakery during a visit to San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 14, 2011. The visit marks the first by a US President to the island territory since former US President John F. Kennedy's visit in 1961. AFP PHOTO / Saul LOEB (Photo credit should read SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images)

Inside the burger joints, steakhouses and date night destinations where you can find America's Eater-in-Chief

Since Barack Obama is preparing to deliver the State of the Union Tuesday, we decided, naturally, to check on the state of the President’s plate. Obama is our first foodie President, and his eating habits say a great deal about what tops America’s tables.

After reviewing more than 12,400 reports filed by the White House press pool since Obama took office six years ago, we were able to uncover nearly every one of his dining choices, from enchiladas with chorizo in Colorado to the best sushi he’s ever had in Tokyo. Our tally shows Obama has left the White House at least 120 times for breakfast, lunch, a snack or dinner, clogging restaurant parking lots with Presidential motorcades everywhere from Honolulu to Martha’s Vineyard.

And the results are in: Alan Wong’s of Honolulu is Obama’s favorite restaurant. The First Couple has picked at least 15 places for Date Night. And Obama, who’s eaten in at least 30 states since taking office, is nearly three times as likely to find himself wielding a fork and knife in a place that voted for him than against him.

Look below to see just what’s been on the Presidential menu since Obama’s 2009 inauguration. Tap or hover over each picture to see when Obama visited. Starred ratings and images are provided by Yelp.

All of Obama’s Burgers

Despite the Administration’s efforts to make America eat healthier, when our President goes out for lunch, his go-to meal is a burger. (Not for nothing did the Washington Post call Obama’s relationship with cheeseburgers a “love story.”)

The Obama-Approved Steakhouses

When the chef Bobby Flay dropped by the White House to show Obama his grilling tricks in 2009, Obama spilled the beans on how he likes his meat. “I’m a medium-well guy. People always complain about that but that’s just how I like it.” Here’s where the President is getting his overcooked meat.

Obama’s Favorite Restaurant

“Every time, it’s a chicken-skin moment,” says chef Alan Wong about the multiple visits from his most famous customer. Wong was talking about his goosebump-inducing nerves—not his menu. Most winters, the Obamas vacation in Hawaii. And when they do, they visit Alan Wong’s restaurant, the place where Obama has eaten more than any other during his presidency. While at the Asian-fusion restaurant, Obama eats soy-braised short ribs, Wong told Honolulu magazine.

Date Night Destinations

Early in his presidency, Obama discovered that taking his wife out for a date could become a political hot potato. The world’s most powerful man somehow manages to secure some of the country’s most coveted tables, including seats at Blue Hill and Estela in New York City and Komi in Washington, D.C. Rumor has it family friend and senior adviser Valerie Jarrett scouts out restaurants before the Obamas give them a try.

State by State

Want to find a place near you where Obama’s broken bread? The President’s dined in at least 30 states.

Who’s Coming to Dinner?

Obama’s taken out presidents and pastors. Even Joe Biden. Here’s the breakdown of who’s most often filling out his table.

Obama’s Political Plate

Thanks to campaign schedules and the heavily Democratic District of Columbia, Obama’s most often eating among folks who have voted for him. Here’s the political breakdown of each Congressional district where he’s had a meal. Districts outlined in black have changed representatives since Obama’s visit.

Every Meal Eaten Outside the White House

From Inauguration Day in 2009 to today, here’s every single meal eaten outside the White House as captured by the White House pool reports.

Did we miss something? Perhaps! We limited the survey to places where the President was observed eating or buying food (swinging by a diner to shake hands doesn’t cut it). If Obama came to your favorite place and grabbed a bite, send us an e-mail at david.johnson@time.com, and we’ll be sure to update the list.

Reporting contributed by Giri Nathan.

Last updated Jan. 23, 2015

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