MONEY 401(k)s

How the New-Model 401(k) Can Help Boost Your Retirement Savings

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Betsie Van Der Meer—Getty Images

As old-style pensions disappear, today's hands-off 401(k)s are starting to look more like them. And that's working for millennials.

If you want evidence that the 401(k) plan has been a failed experiment, consider how they’re starting to resemble the traditional pensions they’ve largely replaced. Plan by plan, employers are moving away from the do-it-yourself free-for-all of the early 401(k)s toward a focus on secure retirement income, with investment pros back in charge of making that happen.

We haven’t come full circle—and likely never will. The days of employer-funded, defined-benefit plans with guaranteed lifetime income will continue their three-decade fade to black. But the latest 401(k) plan innovations have all been geared at restoring the best of what traditional pensions offered.

Wall Street wizards are hard at work on the lifetime income question. Nearly all workers believe their 401(k) plan should have a guaranteed income option and three-in-four employers believe it is their responsibility to provide one, according to a BlackRock survey. So annuities are creeping into the investment mix, and plan sponsors are exploring ways to help workers seamlessly convert some 401(k) assets to an income stream upon retiring.

Meanwhile, like old-style pensions, today’s 401(k) plans are often a no-decision benefit with age-appropriate asset allocation and professionally managed investment diversification to get you to the promised land of retirement. Gone are confusing sign-up forms and weighty decisions about where to invest and how much to defer. Enrollment is automatic at a new job, where you may also automatically escalate contributions (unless you prefer to handle things yourself and opt out).

More than anything, the break-neck growth of target-date funds has brought about the change. Some $500 billion is invested in these funds, up from $71 billion a decade ago. Much of that money has poured in through 401(k) accounts, especially among our newest workers—millennials. They want to invest and generally know they don’t know how to go about it. Simplicity on this front appeals to them. Partly because of this appeal, 40% of millennials are saving a higher percentage of their income this year than they did last year—the highest rate of improvement of any generation, according to a T. Rowe Price study.

With a single target-date fund a saver can get an appropriate portfolio for their age, and it will adjust as they near retirement and may keep adjusting through retirement. About 70% of 401(k) plans offer target-date funds and 75% of plan participants invest in them, according to T. Rowe Price. The vast majority of investors in target-date funds have all their retirement assets in just one fund.

“This is a good thing,” says Jerome Clark, who oversees target funds for T. Rowe Price. Keeping it simple is what attracts workers and leads them to defer more pay. “Don’t worry about the other stuff,” Clark says. “We’ve got that. All you need do is focus on your savings rate.”

Even as 401(k) plans add features like auto enrollment and annuities to better replace traditional pensions, target-date funds are morphing too and speeding the makeover of the 401(k). These funds began life as simple balanced funds with a basic mix of stocks, bonds and cash. Since then, they have widened their mix to include alternative assets like gold and commodities.

The next wave of target-date funds will incorporate a small dose of illiquid assets like private equity, hedge funds, and currencies, Clark says. They will further diversify with complicated long-short strategies and merger arbitrage—thus looking even more like the portfolios that stand behind traditional pensions.

This is not to say that target-date funds are perfect. These funds invest robotically, based on your age not market conditions, so your fund might move money at an inopportune moment. Target-date funds may backfire on millennials, who have taken to them in the highest numbers. Because of their age, millennials have the greatest exposure to stocks in their target-date funds and yet this generation is most likely to tap their retirement savings in an emergency. What if that happens when stock prices are down? Among still more concerns, one size does not fit all when it comes to investing. You may still be working at age 65 while others are not. That calls for two different portfolios.

But the overriding issue is that Americans just don’t save enough and a reasonably inexpensive and relatively safe investment product that boosts savings must be seen as a positive. With far less income, millennials are stashing away about the same percentage of their earnings as Gen X and boomers, according to T. Rowe Price. That’s at least partly thanks to new-look 401(k)s and the target-date funds they offer.

Read next: 3 Ways to Build a $1 Million Nest Egg Despite Lower Investment Returns

MONEY Love + Money

The Single Most Important Money Talk for Couples

The Voorhes

A new MONEY poll of millennial and boomer couples suggests that getting on the same page about your biggest money goal —retirement— leads to a happier and stronger union.

Married for 38 years, San Jose couple Carol and Ron Beck started getting serious about retirement in their mid-thirties. By that time, they had two kids and realized they needed to be thinking about their family’s future. So they set some savings goals, and continued talking about their plans in the years and decades that followed. Ron planned to retire around 65, and did. Carol is expecting to quit in the next two years. “We’re still deciding where we’d like to retire to,” Ron says. But even on that they have a good idea: a home near their daughter in Monterey, Calif.

There’s no question that couples need to plan together for retirement. In fact, since amassing the requisite amount of money will take time, retirement should typically be first on the list of priorities. “When it comes to goals, everything else comes next,” says Elizabeth Grahsl, a financial planner in Dallas.

A new MONEY poll of boomer and millennial couples suggests that we may need a little more help with this goal then we think. Some 79% of millennials and 91% of boomers surveyed say they are in agreement with their partners on saving for retirement. But MONEY also found that, among people who are married or living with a significant other, one in 10 boomers and four in 10 millennials don’t know their partner’s retirement account balance, while 14% of boomers and 40% of millennials don’t know when their partner plans to retire. That backs up a 2013 Fidelity poll that found that 38% of couples disagree on the lifestyle they expect, 36% on where they will live, and 32% on whether they will work. The costs of not being aligned are substantial: You could end up with less than you need at the finish line.

Here’s how you can avoid such a fate while strengthening your union and your finances.

Know your retirement wish lists. Since the amount of savings you need depends on your wants, create a “vision plan” together, says Brad Klontz, a financial psychologist and the author of Mind Over Money. Both of you should write down at what age you want to retire, where you want to live, and what you expect your life to look like. Do you want to stay put, downsize … sail around the world? “Come to the table with your dreams,” Klontz says. “Where you agree, it will be easy to adjust your finances because you are excited.”

Do a reality check. First, are you saving enough for the life you want? Check what your nest egg is on track to produce in annual income with T. Rowe Price’s Retirement Income Calculator, and see if that squares with your vision.

Second, keep in mind that retiring at the same time as your spouse typically isn’t the best move. Wives are often younger than their husbands, and women have longer life spans, so if a wife retires with her hubby, she’ll probably need to draw from their retirement savings for longer.

Also figuring into the equation are Social Security benefits, which make up 38% of income for the average retiree and which you’ll also want to coordinate with your spouse. One way to maximize benefits is to “file and suspend.” The higher earner files, then immediately defers benefits to let them grow (they rise 8% for every year you delay between full retirement age and 70). Assuming the lower earner is at full retirement age, he or she can then claim a spousal benefit, deferring his or her own benefit, which will also rise in the meantime. As you near retirement, run this and other basic scenarios using the benefits planner at ssa.gov or more detailed ones at maximizemysocialsecurity.com ($40).

Create a holistic plan. Make sure you’re acting as a team when it comes to saving and investing. If you’re a two-income household, you probably have access to two 401(k)s, for total annual tax-deferred savings of $36,000, or $48,000 if you’re both 50-plus. Stash at least enough in each to get the full company matches. If you can’t max out, sign up for automatic increases as your pay rises. “This is so basic it’s like breathing,” says O’Kurley, “yet a lot of couples don’t talk about it.”

You also want to think of your portfolio as one, and make sure you don’t have overlap or overexposure in your overall mix. The Instant X-Ray tool at Morningstar.com can help you figure this out. As a general rule, the percentage of your portfolio in stocks should be equal to 110 minus your age; the rest should be primarily in bonds. But if one or both of you have a traditional pension, you could adjust the bond allocation lower, since the guaranteed income allows you to take more risk.

Got several years between you or different tastes for risk? A UBS survey found that half of couples have divergent risk tolerances, but among them, those who choose an allocation between their preferences tended to be most satisfied. It’s also okay for the more risk-averse partner’s plan to be tilted toward bonds and the other’s to serve as a counterbalance in stocks, if that keeps the nervous one from overreacting to volatility. Another reason to split the baby: If your plan has lousy bond fund options, say, you could use your spouse’s plan to fulfill that allocation while using your 401(k) for stocks.

More from Love & Money:
Poll: How Boomer and Millennial Couples Feel About Love and Money
Why Couples Need to Get Financially Naked
This Is the Magic Number That Can Help Couples Avoid Money Fights

 

MONEY Love + Money

Why Couples Need to Get Financially Naked

The Voorhes

A new MONEY poll of millennial and boomer couples suggests that baring it all when it comes to money leads to a happier—and richer—relationship.

Katy Klein and her fiancé, Charles Hagman, both 30, began opening up about salaries, savings, and student loans just nine months into dating. The topics came up naturally as the Seattle couple figured out their plans for attending a pal’s wedding.

“Some of our friends were going early and renting a home by the beach,” says Klein, who works in PR. “So we had a conversation about whether that was in our budget … which spurred other conversations.”

Hagman, a software engineer, had intended to dig into those issues anyway. “I wanted someone who had similar savings goals,” he says. But for Klein, it was new terrain: “I’d never laid it all out.” Now that she’s done so, however, she says that financial transparency has set a solid foundation for their marriage.

Experts would agree. “Couples have less conflict about money when they share information,” says Terri Orbuch, a Detroit family therapist and the author of 5 Simple Steps to Take Your Marriage From Good to Great. Knowing where you stand and what you want to accomplish builds trust and a sense of teamwork. Plus, getting on the same page gives you a better shot at hitting your goals and less risk you’ll unwittingly work against each other, she says. Thus, it’s crucial for married couples—and those headed to the altar—to open their books.

A new MONEY poll of boomer and millennial couples suggests that both generations are on board with baring all. When it comes to what partners should discuss before marriage, boomers and millennials both say the docket should include debt (78% of both groups), savings goals (69% and 74%, respectively), and amount saved (63% and 56%).

And yet other research suggests that few married couples truly practice transparency in their daily lives. A few years back, an American Express poll found that 91% of people avoid money talks with their partners; another from last year revealed that only 52% have financial conversations at least weekly. Worse, one in three adults in relationships say they lie to their partner about money, the National Endowment for Financial Education found.

As part of a monthlong series on Love and Money, we’ll be digging into our survey data and suggesting ways that couples can strengthen their unions and their finances. First step: Get financially naked. Here’s how to do it.

Choose a happy moment. Start the transparency conversation around the time of a positive event, like a promotion or a wedding, or at least when there’s an absence of major problems. “Finances are much easier to talk about when you are flush and happy,” says Mary Claire Allvine, a financial planner in Atlanta and the author of The Family CFO. “And opening up in good times makes it easier to talk about money when life changes for the worse.”

If you’re starting in a void, point to an article you’ve read, like this one. Say something like, “It made me realize I don’t know where we stand. Maybe we could take a look some night this week?”

Go full frontal. Crack open a bottle of wine and start opening your books. Begin by making a net-worth statement. This summary of assets and liabilities gives you a framework toward your common goals. It can also help you uncover flaws in your strategy, like debt growing as fast as savings. Use an online net-worth calculator like the one at Bankrate.com or an Excel spreadsheet. Plan to update your numbers quarterly.

If you have the energy, make a list of monthly expenses—review the last few months of bank and credit card statements—so you know where money is going. Or upload your accounts to an online money-management tool like Quicken or Mint, says Miami financial planner Ashley O’Kurley.

Find out your mate’s musts. Setting goals together begins with understanding your partner, says Patrick Wallace, a financial planner with Higher Strata Wealth Management in Hurst, Texas. He suggests you both answer these questions: What are the three most important money lessons you learned growing up? What are your three biggest money worries? What are your three biggest goals? What are the three most important ways you want to use money to leave a legacy? The answers will help your spouse understand what is important to you. “Your goals may still be in conflict,” says Wallace, “but it will be easier to compromise.”

 

MONEY Kids and Money

How New College Grads Can Beat the Tough Job Market

Paul Bradbury/Getty Images

The career expectations of college grads may be overoptimistic. But these strategies can boost their odds of landing a job.

As another crop of college graduates frame their diplomas, another dose of reality is about to set in. The financial crisis may be ancient history for this group, most of whom were still in middle school when the market began to plunge. But the effects linger—and new entrants to the job market may be surprised at how difficult it is, even now, to move ahead in this economy.

Eight in 10 new graduates expect to have a job in their field within a year, with more than half expecting to land one within two months, according to an analysis from Upromise.com, a college savings website. That jibes with research from Accenture, which found that 80% of the Class of 2015 say their education prepared them well for the workforce. Yet here’s the reality: 49% of graduates from 2014 and 41% from 2013 report being underemployed (having no job or one that does not require a college degree), Accenture found.

Meanwhile, just 15% of this year’s graduates expect to earn $25,000 or less in their first job. But almost three times that many from the classes of 2013 and 2014 report that level of income. So for entry-level job seekers, it’s still surprisingly tough out there.

Despite their upbeat expectations, most new grads do have a fallback plan: Mom and Dad. About half expect to be financially dependent on their parents for two years after graduation, and they are prepared to move back home and pay rent, Upromise found. This won’t surprise their parents. Nearly a quarter of 25- to 34-year-olds lives with parents or grandparents, up from 11% in 1980, Pew found. This failure to launch is so widespread psychologists have given it a name: emerging adulthood. The share of parents that expect to support their college graduates for two years or more doubled to 36% this year, according to the Upromise analysis.

Why, then, is this class of graduates so optimistic? First, optimism is rightfully a trait for the young, and Millennials possess it in staggering proportions—probably because they were raised by helicopter parents who constantly extolled their greatness and rewarded them with trophies for showing up. But more is at work here. The economy has been growing since 2009, when this class was taking the SATs. In their college years, this group has known only rising stock prices and an improving jobs and housing market. Consider: through four years of higher education the S&P 500 rose 2%, 16%, 32% and 13%. Even for the uninvested, that’s an encouraging backdrop.

This optimism may also spring from the Class of 2015’s improved career preparation. Accenture found that 82% considered the availability of jobs in their field before choosing a major. That’s up from 75% in the Class of 2014. To minimize student debt, more from this class also started at a community college. And—a crucial step—some 72% of this year’s class had an internship or apprenticeship while in school, up from 65% of graduates the year before.

This is all smart planning. More than half who took part in an internship said it led to a job, Accenture found. At the Intern Group, 88% of those who take part in an internship find work at a graduate level job within three months and 95% say the program was good for their career, says David Lloyd, the firm’s founder. Still, it seems we’ll be talking about the Great Recession a while longer.

Read next: The Costly Career Mistake Millennials Are Making

MONEY Personal Finance

Oh No! Needing a Fridge, Rubio Raids Retirement Account

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Dipping into retirement savings to fund an everyday expense is a common but costly error.

If Florida Sen. Marco Rubio intends to lead by example, he’s off to a rocky start. The Republican presidential hopeful raided his retirement account last September, in part to buy a new refrigerator and air conditioner, according to a recent financial disclosure and comments on Fox News Sunday.

In liquidating his $68,000 American Bar Association retirement account, Rubio showed he’s no Mitt Romney, whose IRA valued at as much a $102 million set tongues wagging coast to coast during the last presidential cycle. Rubio clearly has more modest means, which is why—like most households—if he doesn’t already have an emergency fund equal to six months of fixed living expenses he should set one up right away.

He told Fox host Chris Wallace: “It was just one specific account that we wanted to have access to cash in the coming year, both because I’m running for president, but, also, you know, my refrigerator broke down. That was $3,000. I had to replace the air conditioning unit in our home.”

Millions of Americans treat their retirement savings the same way Rubio did in this instance, raiding a 401(k) or IRA when things get tight. Sometimes you have no other option. But most of the time this is a mistake. Cash-outs, early withdrawals, and plan loans that never get repaid reduce retirement wealth by an average of 25%, reports the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College. Money leaking out of retirement accounts in this manner totals as much as $70 billion a year, equal to nearly a quarter of annual contributions, according to a HelloWallet survey.

Rubio’s brush with financial stress from two failed appliances probably won’t set him too far back. He has federal and state retirement accounts and other savings. And let’s face it: The whole episode has an appealing and potentially vote-getting Everyman quality to it. Still, it is not a personal financial strategy you want to emulate.

 

 

MONEY caregiving

Why Family Caregivers Won’t Do What’s Best for Aging Parents

Technology and online communities can enrich the lives of older people and make them more independent. But who's got time to teach them?

For all their good intentions, family members caring for an aging parent may be stifling their parent’s independence and enrichment by failing to expose them to online communities and other technology, new research shows.

Older people want to learn. About half of those needing care already email, text, and share photos online, according to a study by the Global Social Enterprise Initiative at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business and Philips. Some 82% of caregivers believe technology can make aging a better experience, and 63% agree that the person in their care is ready to learn.

So what’s the hangup? Simply that most family caregivers are stretched for time. About three-quarters either have full-time jobs or small kids in the house; they are too tired or don’t have another minute to spend on their care-giving duties, the study shows.

This borders on tragic, because 74% of caregivers say teaching older adults about online communities would be fun and 72% feel qualified to do so. What’s more, 44% of family caregivers are concerned that their parent is lonely or depressed, but 67% say the older adult in their care has not started any new enrichment activities in the past two years and most often resorts to watching TV and talking on the phone.

To a degree, this is a pocketbook issue. Long-term care is costly and choosing how to pay for it is a difficult calculation. Two-thirds of those past age 65 and receiving care at home get it exclusively from a family member, for free. About a third get some family care and some paid care. Family caregivers provide an average of 75 hours of support per month, according to the federal government. The Georgetown study estimated average service at 88 hours per month. This free care has an annual value of $234 billion, according to government estimates.

Some of that value could be recovered at the family level if older people were savvier about technology in a way that kept them occupied, safe, and made them more self-sufficient. Family caregivers could spend more time earning income—and that’s what most likely would choose to do. Caregivers say if they had more time they’d spend only 17% of it on care giving, the Georgetown study shows.

Perhaps with that in mind, family caregivers are high on the agenda at this year’s White House Conference on Aging; a forum convened just once a decade and which Monday holds a full-day event focusing entirely on caregivers. According to the conference materials, a promising development is the growth of publicly financed professional care through Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act. In some states, resources are also available through the Veterans Health Administration. Older adults report high levels of satisfaction with professional care through these channels, which can give family caregivers a break.

The Georgetown study suggests that more professional care would lead to more technology training—not so much by the professionals, many of whom make just $10 an hour and are fighting for a raise, but by family members who found a little more time in their schedule and have the most incentive to help an older family member get the most from exploring online enrichment.

MONEY Financial Education

The Surprising New Company Benefit That’s Helping Americans Retire Richer

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Oleg Prikhodko—Getty Images

Financial education at the office is booming—and none too soon.

Like it or not, the job of educating Americans about how to manage their money is falling to the corporations they work for—and new research suggests that many of those employers are responding.

Some 83% of companies feel a sense of responsibility for employees’ financial wellness, according to a Bank of America Merrill Lynch Workplace Benefits Report, which found the vast majority of large companies are investing in financial education programs. Among other things, companies are using the annual fall benefits re-enrollment period to talk about things like 401(k) deferral rates and asset allocation, and enjoying impressive results.

Workers are responding to other programs too. Another Merrill report found that retirement advice group sessions in the workplace rose 14% last year and that just about all of those sessions resulted in a positive outcome: employees enrolling in a 401(k) plan, increasing contributions, or signing up for more advice. Calls to employer-sponsored retirement education centers rose 17.6% and requests for one-on-one sessions more than doubled.

So a broad effort to educate Americans about money management is under way, including in government and schools—and none too soon. This year, Millennials became the largest share of the workforce. This is a huge generation coming of age with almost no social safety net. These 80 million strong must start saving early if they are going to retire. Given this generation’s love of mobile technology, it’s notable that Merrill found a 46% increase in visits to its mobile financial education platform. That means employers are reaching young workers, who as a group have shown enormous interest in saving.

“There is not a single good reason—none—that should prevent any American from gaining the knowledge and skills needed to build a healthy financial future,” writes Richard Cordray, director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, in a guest blog for the Council for Economic Education. His agency and dozens of nonprofits are pushing for financial education in grades K-12 but have had limited success. Just 17 states require a student to pass a personal finance course to graduate high school.

That’s why it’s critical that corporations take up the battle. Even college graduates entering the workplace generally lack basic personal money management skills. This often translates into lost time and productivity among workers trying to stay afloat in their personal financial affairs. So companies helping employees with financial advice is self serving, as well as beneficial to employees. Some argue it helps the economy as a whole, too, as it lessens the likelihood of another financial crisis linked to poor individual money decisions.

 

 

 

 

MONEY Retirement

These Simple Moves By Your Employer Can Dramatically Improve Your Retirement

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Sarina Finkelstein (photo illustration)—iStock (2)

Easy enrollment procedures and automatic escalation of contributions dramatically increase 401(k) participation rates and savings.

Nearly four decades into the 401(k) experiment, employers and policymakers may finally understand how to get the most from these retirement accounts—and it all boils down to a principle that Warren Buffett has long espoused: Keep it simple.

Nothing promotes participation and sound investment practices in 401(k) plans more than simple plan choices, according to a report from Bank of America Merrill Lynch. Last year, 79% of workers offered Express Enrollment in Merrill-administered plans followed through and began contributing to their plan. That compares to just 55% who enrolled after being offered a more traditional experience requiring choices about investment options and deferral amounts, Merrill found.

These findings jibe with other research that has found that inertia is most workers’ biggest obstacle to saving for retirement. A TIAA-CREF survey found that Americans spend more time choosing a flat-panel TV or a restaurant than they do setting up a retirement account. The Merrill report underscores the inertia factor, noting that, when considering how much of each paycheck to contribute, workers typically just choose the first rate listed.

Features like automatic enrollment and automatic escalation of contributions, with an opt-out provision, turn inertia into an asset. These features are now broadly employed and have greatly boosted both participation and deferral rates. Among companies with a 401(k) plan, 70% have some kind of auto feature, reports benefits consultant Aon Hewitt. Merrill found that plans with auto enrollment had 32% more participants, and those with an auto escalation feature had 46% more participants increasing their contributions.

Merrill oversees $138 billion in plan assets for 2.5 million participants and credits simplified enrollment for big gains in the number joining a plan or contributing more. The number of employers adopting Merrill’s simplified Express Enrollment more than doubled last year. Meanwhile, the number of participants raising their contribution rate jumped 18%.

A key feature of any simplified enrollment system is that workers are put into a diversified and age-appropriate target-date mutual fund, or some other option with similar characteristics, and that they begin deferring 5% or more of pay—generally enough to fully capture any employer match. Many employers also add auto escalation of contributions to keep up with raises and inflation—or to catch up if the initial deferral rate was lower. In many plans, the default rate is just 3% of pay.

Merrill found that 64% of employers now have plans with both auto enrollment and auto escalation. One in four employers who did not have both plan features in 2013 did last year.

Taking simplification further, more employers are now using the annual health benefits enrollment period to educate workers about 401(k) plans, Merrill found. As a result, twice as many workers enrolled in a plan or raised their contribution rate the second half of 2014 vs. the first half—a trend that Merrill says has been in place for several years.

 

 

 

 

MONEY Kids and Money

Why Mothers Know Best About Money

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Jamie Grill—Getty Images

Eight in 10 Americans say they learned something about money from Mom. That's good, because Dad may have been a tad overconfident.

Moms deserve a lot of credit for the things they teach kids about money, and with Mother’s Day this weekend what better time to celebrate their financial tutelage? More than eight in 10 Americans say they learned something about money from their mother, a new survey shows.

The chief overall lesson: live within your means. That motherly wisdom was cited by 55% in the survey from BeFrugal.com. The same percentage said she taught them the difference between a want and a need. Some 44% said Mom emphasized the importance of being self-sufficient. Mom also taught them how to shop wisely: 67% said she taught them about sales, and 57% said she taught them about coupons.

These findings jibe with other research on the subject. A few years ago, TD Bank found that in many families Dad doles out allowance and oversees big purchases, and that Dad tends to be the most confident about money and most interested in results. Meanwhile, Mom is most interested in the kids’ money learning process and the day-to-day aspects of financial management.

Mom’s softer approach to money lessons probably stems from motherly wisdom in many areas. Life lessons like “don’t be late” and “practice, practice, practice” and “don’t be afraid to ask for help” and many others have direct application to the money world. After all, it’s sage advice indeed to never make a late payment and to seek advice on complicated money matters.

Given the financial mistakes that many parents have made—poorly managing credit cards, for example—some argue that young adults would do better to skip parental advice altogether and find a financial adviser or third-party online advice. But the best advice is probably to listen to both Mom and Dad. They often see financial matters differently. That’s natural—opposites attract. And through discussion and compromise, your parents probably run the household finances better together than either one would alone.

That’s good since kids—and even young adults—seem to depend on both Mom and Dad for financial advice. Two surveys last fall, one by Fidelity Investments and the other by TIAA-CREF, show that Millennials seek out their parents more than anyone else for financial guidance. Fidelity identified parents as their top choice for trusted money advice. TIAA-CREF found that 47% view their parents as especially influential in money matters.

So here’s to all the moms out there, imparting financial wisdom in ways only they seem able—and for being an important counter balance to all the fathers with misplaced confidence in their own money skills. Several studies have shown that women make better investors. But let’s give a nod to dads too. Embracing risk and a focus on results have their place, and the balance that both parents produce may be the best lesson of all.

Read next: What Dads Can Do to Really Help Mom This Mother’s Day

MONEY retirement planning

1 out of 3 of Workers Expect Their Living Standard to Fall in Retirement

skinny piggy bank
Getty Images

But you don't have to be among the disappointed. Here's how to get retirement saving right.

One third of workers expect their standard of living to decline in retirement—and the closer you are to retiring, the more likely you are to feel that way, new research shows.

That’s not too surprising, given the relatively modest amounts savers have stashed away. The median household savings for workers of all ages is just $63,000, according to the 16th Annual Transamerica Retirement Survey of Workers. The savings breakdown by age looks like this: for workers in their 20s, a median $16,000; 30s, $45,000; 40s, $63,000; 50s, $117,000; and 60s, $172,000.

Those on the cusp of retirement, workers ages 50 and older, have the most reason to feel dour—after all, they took the biggest hits to their account balances and have less time to make up for it. If you managed to hang on, you probably at least recovered your losses. But many had to sell, or were scared into doing so, while asset prices were depressed. And even you did not sell, you gave up half a decade of growth at a critical moment.

Despite holding student loans and having the least amount of faith in Social Security, workers under 40 are most optimistic, according to the survey. That’s probably because they began saving early. Among those in their 20s, 67% have begun saving—at a median age of 22. Among those in their 30s, 76% have begun saving at a median age of 25. Nearly a third are saving more than 10% of their income.

Workers in their 50s and 60s are also saving aggressively, the survey found. But they started later—at age 35. And with such a short period before retiring they are also more likely to say they will rely on Social Security and expect to work past age 65 or never stop working.

Interestingly, the younger you are the more likely you are to believe that you will need to support a family member (other than your spouse) in retirement. You are also more likely to believe you will require such financial support yourself. Some 40% of workers in their 20s expect to provide such support.

By contrast, that expectation was shared by only 34% of those in their 30s, 21% of those in their 40s, 16% of those in their 50s and 14% of those in their 60s. A similar pattern exists for those who expect to need support themselves—19% of workers in their 20s, but only 5% of those in their 60s.

Workers are also looking beyond the traditional three-legged stool of retirement security, which was based on the combination of Social Security, pension and personal savings. Those three resources are still ranked as the most important sources of retirement income, but workers now are also counting on continued employment (37%), home equity (13%), and an inheritance (11%), the survey found.

Asked how much they need save to retire comfortably, the median response was $1 million—a goal that’s out of reach for most, given current savings levels. Strikingly, though, more than half said that $1 million figure was just a guess. About a third said they’d need $2 million. Just one in 10 said they used a retirement calculator to come up with their number.

As those answers suggest, most workers (67%) say they don’t know as much as they should about investing. Indeed, only 26% have a basic understanding and 30% have no understanding of asset allocation principles—the right mix of stocks and bonds that will give you diversification across countries and industry sectors. Meanwhile, the youngest workers are the most likely to invest in conservative securities like bonds and money market accounts, even though they have the most time to ride out the bumps of the stock market and capture better long-term gains.

Across age groups, the most frequently cited retirement aspiration by a wide margin is travel, followed by spending time with family and pursuing hobbies. Among older workers, one in 10 say they love their work so much that their dream is to be able stay with it even in their retirement years. That’s twice the rate of younger workers who feel that way. Among workers of all ages, the most frequently cited fear is outliving savings, followed closely by declining health that requires expensive long-term care.

To boost your chances of retiring comfortably and achieving your goals, Transamerica suggests:

  • Start saving as early as possible and save consistently over time. Avoid taking loans and early withdrawals from retirement accounts.
  • In choosing a job, consider retirement benefits as part of total compensation.
  • Enroll in your employer-sponsored retirement plan. Take full advantage of the match and defer as much as possible.
  • Calculate retirement savings needs. Factor in living expenses, healthcare, government benefits and long-term care.
  • Make catch-up contributions to your 401(k) or IRA if you are past 50

Read next: Answer These 10 Questions to See If You’re on Track for Retirement

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