TIME work

U.N. Report: Women May Need ‘Different Treatment’ to Achieve Economic Equality

2015 International Women's Day March
Mark Sagliocco—Getty Images Assistant Secretary General Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka attends the 2015 International Women's Day March at Dag Hammarskjold Plaza in New York City on March 8, 2015.

It's just like Sheryl Sandberg said: paid leave and affordable child care would help achieve gender equality on a global level

Equal opportunity is not enough to ensure gender equality, according to a groundbreaking new report from U.N. Women. Instead, governments must commit to social policies that treat women differently in order to help them achieve economic parity with men.

“We must go beyond creating equal opportunities to ensure equal outcomes,” the report says. “‘Different treatment’ may be required to achieve real equality in practice.” This report, called Progress of the World’s Women 2015–2016, is one of the first major international reports to acknowledge that legal equality for women does not translate into actual equality, and that governments must make substantial social-policy changes that enable the redistribution of domestic duties in order for women to play a truly equal role in society.

It’s the global version of what Sheryl Sandberg has been saying all along with Lean In — women will never be equal unless workplace policies adjust to fit their needs, and men need to step up to help at home. The report highlights the gap between the laws that protect equal rights for women and the realities of inequality in most of the world. The way to close that gap, according to the report, is by implementing social policies that provide paid work opportunities for women, protect domestic workers, provide affordable child care and establish paid leave for working mothers. Removing legal barriers to female employment is not enough, the report says, noting that “we also need measures that free up women’s time.”

“Governments should take actionable steps to reduce the burden of unpaid care work — which is carried by women — and create an industry of jobs and employment for services,” U.N. Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka tells TIME. “Child care is an issue in every country, but more often than not borne by mothers. Government policy should work to professionalize this industry as much as possible, and make it affordable and accessible to all.”

Lack of resources like these may explain why 77% of working-age men are in the global workforce, compared with only half of working-age women. Globally, women earn 24% less than men, yet do 2.5 times as much child care and domestic labor as men. In developing regions, 75% of women’s employment is insecure, unprotected and poorly paid, if they’re employed at all. Only 5% of women in South Asia have formal work, and only 11% in sub-Saharan Africa.

The U.N. is calling for more “decent work” for women, which they define as a job that is well paid, secure and “compatible with women’s and men’s shared responsibility” for children and housework. The report also says redistributing household duties is “critical” for achieving substantive equality worldwide.

Child care is the thorny problem that’s hampering women’s economic advancement, both at the individual level and on a global scale. Forty-four percent of mothers in poor countries raise their young children almost entirely on their own, compared with only 29% of mothers in rich countries. In poor countries, 18% of mothers entrust child care to a female child, while in rich countries, 15% of moms have hired help and 10% have access to organized child care or a nursery. The study found that in every country, women were less likely to work when they had small children, which helps contribute to the global pay gap.

And the income women lose can have repercussions throughout their lifetimes. Lack of money often translates into lack of control over their own health decisions: 69% of women in Senegal, 48% in Pakistan and 27% in Haiti say they do not make the final decisions about their own health care. And in most countries, women are less likely to receive pensions — in Egypt, 62% of men get pensions, compared with 8% of women. That’s partly because of legal constraints, but also because women have different labor patterns then men (i.e., they’re more likely to work in informal settings), they contribute less (because they’re paid less) and they live longer. That means women make up the majority of the 73% of the world’s population with little or no social protection in old age.

And all that income women are losing to child care or domestic work adds up to a lot of money. The time women spend on unpaid work amounts to 39% of India’s GDP, 31% of Nicaragua’s GDP and 10% of Argentina’s GDP. Gender equality and economic growth are like squares and rectangles: gender equality leads to economic growth, but growth doesn’t always lead to equality.

The need for paid leave and affordable child care is well-trod ground in North America and Europe, leading to charges that those kinds of social policies are more for rich women than for poor ones. But this report is one of the first to link female-friendly workplace policies like those to gender equality in the developing world. Rich or poor, policies that help working mothers help elevate all women.

TIME

Cleveland Kidnap Victims Recount How Ariel Castro Could Have Been Stopped

Charlotte Alter covers women, culture, politics and breaking news for TIME in New York City.

New book by Amanda Berry and Gina DeJesus reveals Castro's close calls with the law and other details of the ordeal, including their abuse, struggles with depression and a hopeful interest in Jaycee Dugard's release

Hope: A Memoir of Survival in Cleveland, Amanda Berry and Gina DeJesus’s account of the years they spent trapped in kidnapper-rapist Ariel Castro’s house of horrors, hits shelves today. The book, written with Washington Post reporters Mary Jordan and Kevin Sullivan, is a terrifying portrait of a man who seems to hate women, and who has no understanding of his own crimes.

Over the course of several years, Castro lured victims into his car and then chained them up in his house, where he kept them until he was caught in 2013. Berry was kidnapped in 2003, while walking home from her job at Burger King, the day before her seventeenth birthday. DeJesus was taken in 2004, while she was walking home from seventh grade. A third, Michelle Knight, was taken in 2002 after leaving the home of a family member.

Hope goes into detail about what was reported after after the women escaped in May, 2013 — the atrocious rapes and beatings and the psychological torture that they endured are unimaginable on any level. Their understanding of Stockholm syndrome comes through episodes of Oprah; they cling, hopeful and helpless, to news of Jaycee Dugard’s release from a different kidnapper. They battle depression, sickness and bedbugs. They dream of killing their captor with rat poison. They see the disaster of Hurricane Katrina unfold on television. They also watch the 2008 presidential election returns, elated by Obama’s victory but fearful of Castro, who had banned television shows with black stars. But what is as striking as the sheer passage of time, and the incredible will of the women, are the number of times and ways Castro could have been stopped, and wasn’t.

Castro had a history of abuse long before he lured Knight into his car with the promise of a puppy. He beat his common-law wife Grimilda Figueroa so brutally that she grew a brain tumor from all the head injuries she suffered. One night in 1989, after Figueroa called the police on Castro, he threatened to kill her and take their kids if she pressed charges. Later, he stomped on her head with his boots on in front of their children, Figueroa decided to lodge a formal complaint. Castro’s case was brought before a grand jury in 1994, but he staked out the entrance to the courthouse and told Figueroa he would kill her and their kids if she testified. She never went to the stand, and the grand jury declined to indict him, citing insufficient evidence. Like many domestic abusers, Castro never served time for beating Figueroa.

Castro had many close calls during the decade-plus he kept prisoners in his home. He had guests in and out of his home, including his family, who apparently never suspected anything. In 2004, Angie Castro, Ariel’s daughter (and the older sister of Arlene Castro, who was friends with DeJesus and was the last person to see her before she disappeared), got a strange message on her answering machine. The message, an apparent pocket-dial, included the voice of a terrified young woman screaming, “Get away from me!” Angie reported the call to the police, but the FBI traced it to a different phone; DeJesus’s mother believes there may have been a mistake in the call tracing, and that the call actually came from inside Castro’s house.

The friendship between DeJesus and Arlene Castro also led to another close call for Castro. The police started looking into Arlene’s stepfather, Fernando Colon, as a suspect in Gina’s disappearance. Colon says he told the police they should look into Castro — he said that he told them Castro was violent and knew Gina, but that the police never followed up.

In 2008, Castro was pulled over on his motorcycle for having a loose license plate; the conversation with the officer was a cascade of lies, any of which could have been been picked apart, scrutinized, and a clue to more trouble. But the police officer, known as one of Cleveland’s toughest, wrote Castro two tickets and went on his way.

In 2010, the police raided the house next door to Castro’s, but the imprisoned women were too afraid to yell for help. In 2012, a man in prison falsely told authorities he had killed Berry, and that they could find the body at a site near where Berry was actually being held captive. As police began an excavation for the body, news crews filmed. One report actually featured Castro’s brother Pedro, who pointed to the dig site and said, “That’s a waste of money.”

Later, after Castro was finally arrested in 2013, he said the police could have gotten him right away if they’d been able to see surveillance footage from Wilbur Wright Middle School, where DeJesus was taken. “If they would have questioned me… it’s possible that it would have ended right there,” Castro said in court. “I feel that the FBI let those girls down.”

One of the most unnerving chapters of the book details how the women — and Castro — eagerly followed the news of Jaycee Dugard’s release from a similar captive existence in California. Of Dugard’s kidnapper, Castro said, “That guy was crazy.” Berry writes:

“We read more about Jaycee and I say, ‘This is just like what happened to me.’

‘It is similar, because she had the kids,’ [Castro] agrees. Then he looks at me and asks, ‘Are you going to write a book about this?'”

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME White House

Watch Obama Perfectly Nail a Key and Peele Skit at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner

He got some help from Luther, his anger translator

The highlight of President Obama’s speech at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner on Saturday was when Keegan-Michael Key of Comedy Central’s Key & Peele made a surprise appearance as Luther, the President’s anger translator.

Playing a character he originated on the sketch comedy show, Key “translated” Obama’s mild-mannered speech into an angry rant, warning the audience to “hold on to your lily-white butts.”

At one point, when Obama was discussing Hillary Clinton’s 2016 candidacy, Key interjected, “Khaleesi is coming to Westeros.”

But by the time he started talking about climate change, Obama let himself get riled up. That was Luther’s cue: “With all due respect sir, you don’t need an anger translator, you need counseling.”

On his way out, he shared a moment with Michelle Obama, during which they seemed to agree the President was “crazy.”

TIME White House

Watch the Funniest Jokes From the White House Correspondents’ Dinner

President Obama and Cecily Strong crack wise in Washington

For 364 days of the year, Washington, D.C. is about as funny as daytime C-SPAN.

But for just one night, the White House and the journalists who cover it put aside their differences, put on their tuxes and gowns, and come together for the White House Correspondent’s Dinner.

Celebrities, journalists, and politicians gathered Saturday night for the annual dinner sometimes known as “nerd prom”—an event so popular there’s even a documentary on Washington’s biggest night.

It’s a chance for the President to relax and crack a few jokes of his own. And in case they fall flat, he is followed by a bit from an actual comedian (this year it was Saturday Night Live cast member Cecily Strong, in the past it’s been other big names like Stephen Colbert and Seth Meyers.) And Keegan-Michael Key made a surprise appearance as Luther, Obama’s anger translator, a character from his Comedy Central show Key & Peele.

Here are the funniest moments from the night.

Obama’s best jokes:

1) On Joe Biden: “The fact is, I feel more loose and relaxed than ever. Those Joe Biden shoulder massages are like magic. You should try one. … Oh, you have?”

2) “Advisers asked me, ‘do you have a bucket list?’ And I said, well, I have something that rhymes with ‘bucket list.’ … Take executive action on immigration? Bucket. New Climate regulations? Bucket.”

3) On how tough it is to be president: “It’s no wonder people keep pointing out how the presidency has aged me… John Boehner’s already invited Netanyahu to speak at my funeral.”

4) On Obamacare: “Today, thanks to Obamacare, you no longer have to worry about losing your insurance if you lose your job. You’re welcome, Senate Democrats.”

5) On the Republicans: “Dick Cheney says I’m the worst president of his life time. Which is interesting, because I think Dick Cheney is the worst president of my lifetime. What a coincidence.”

6) On Hillary Clinton: “I have one friend—just a few weeks ago, she was making millions of dollars a year, and now she’s living out of a van in Iowa.”

7) On his bro-mance with Biden: “We’ve gotten so close that in some places in Indiana they won’t serve us pizza anymore”

8) On the weather and the media: “The polar vortex caused so many record lows they named it MSNBC.”

9) On the possibility of a Bernie Sanders campaign: “Apparently some people want to see a pot-smoking socialist in the White House. We could get a third Obama term after all.”

10) Luther, Obama’s anger translator (played by Keegan-Michael Key) on Hillary Clinton’s campaign: “Khaleesi is coming to Westeros”

Cecily Strong’s best jokes:

1) On the mood in the room: This is “a chance for all of you to unwind, relax, and laugh as soon as you notice someone slightly more powerful than you is laughing.”

2) On C-SPAN: “To some viewers watching at home on C-SPAN, hello! To most viewers watching at home on c-span: meow!”

3) On the location: “‘It is great to be here at the Washington Hilton’—is something a prostitute might say to a congressman.”

4) On the media guest list: “BuzzFeed is here, but I can give you a listicle of 17 reasons why they shouldn’t be.”

5) On Brian Williams: “What can I say about Brian Williams? Nothing, because I work for NBC.”

6) On Serial and The Jinx: “Sarah Koenig must be so pissed about the Jinx—its like Serial, but with an ending.”

7) On the President’s absence from Paris after the Charlie Hebdo attack: “Paris is so beautiful—Mr. President, you should really think about going there sometime.”

8) On Sen. Tom Cotton: “Tom Cotton is a Senator, and not a rabbit from an old racist Disney cartoon.”

9) On the 2016 Republican race: “Marco Rubio makes Mitt Romney seem relaxed on the air. I just hope he gets comfortable in front of a camera before he has to go on to endorse Jeb Bush.”

10) On Rand Paul: “Rand Paul announced he’s taking over the family’s not-being-president business.”

11) On Obama’s graying hair: “Your hair is so white now, it can talk back to the police.”

12) On what Obama and Madonna have in common: “You’ve both given this country so much, but in a year-and-a-half you gotta stop.”

TIME health

Sheryl Sandberg Explains Why Facebook Covers Egg-Freezing

The Davos World Economic Forum 2015
Chris Ratcliffe—Bloomberg/Getty Images Sheryl Sandberg, billionaire and chief operating officer of Facebook Inc., speaks during a session on day two of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, Switzerland, on Thursday, Jan. 22, 2015.

"I talked about it with our head of HR, and said, 'God we should cover this'"

A Facebook employee with cancer inspired COO Sheryl Sandberg to create the company’s controversial egg-freezing policy, Sandberg said in an interview released Friday.

In a Bloomberg Television interview with Emily Chang, Sandberg explained the genesis of the policy that gives employees money to get their eggs frozen in order to delay childbirth.

“There’s a young woman working at Facebook who had got cancer, and I knew her and she came to me and said, ‘I’m going to go through the treatment, and that means I won’t be able to have children unless I can freeze my eggs, and I can’t afford it, but our medical care doesn’t cover it,'” Sandberg explained. “I talked about it with our head of HR, and said, ‘God we should cover this.’ And then we looked at each other and said, ‘Why would we only cover this for women with cancer, why wouldn’t we cover this more broadly?'”

Egg-freezing has been widely used to help women with cancer preserve their fertility after chemotherapy, but it’s increasingly being used by women who want to delay motherhood for non-medical reasons, like if they haven’t found the right partner or they want to focus on work. When Facebook and Apple announced in November that they would cover elective egg-freezing for their employees, some critics attacked the policies, saying the companies were essentially encouraging women to delay motherhood until it’s convenient for the company.

Virgin CEO Richard Branson doesn’t agree. “We at Virgin want to steal the idea and offer it to our women,” he told Bloomberg in the same interview. “Somebody said to me they got criticism…and I said, ‘How can anybody criticize them for doing that? It’s women’s choice.”

He has a personal reason for supporting egg-freezing policies. “My daughter just had two wonderful twins from eggs, and they wouldn’t be here today if it weren’t for the eggs,” he said.

[h/t Bloomberg]

TIME Culture

Now There’s a Barbie of Ava DuVernay

Ava DuVernay barbie doll

As part of Mattel's "Sheroes" collection

Now there’s Barbie doll of Selma director Ava DuVernay as part of Mattel’s new “Sheroes” collection.

The collection, which was unveiled at Variety’s “Power of Women” luncheon Friday, includes Barbie version of other famous women like Broadway star Kirsten Chenoweth, actress Emmy Rossum and country singer Trisha Yearwood.

“Barbie has always represented that girls have choices, and this spring we are proud to honor six Sheroes who through their trade and philanthropic efforts are an inspiration to girls,” said Evelyn Mazzocco, general manager of Barbie, in a statement. “Started by a female entrepreneur and mother, this brand has a responsibility to continue to honor and encourage powerful female role models who are leaving a legacy for the next generation of glass ceiling breakers.”

DuVernay said on Twitter that she loves her Barbie, which comes complete with her trademark braids and sits in a director’s chair:

TIME

Anita Sarkeesian: Don’t Give Twitter ‘a Cookie’ For Their New Harassment Policy

"They're actually starting to do their jobs"

Anita Sarkeesian thinks Twitter’s improved harassment policy is a step in the right direction, but she’s not ready to give them a round of applause just yet.
“They’re actually starting to do their jobs,” Sarkeesian said at a panel at Tina Brown’s Women in the World conference Thursday. “They don’t need a cookie for that.”
She was joined by actress Ashley Judd, California Attorney General Kamala Harris, and New York Times Magazine staff writer Emily Bazelon in a panel called “Taming the Trolls,” moderated by Katie Couric.
Sarkeesian said she was “impressed” with the recent steps Twitter has taken to stop harassment, noting that a response that would have taken 6 months last year now takes about 20 minutes. Still, she noted, “I’ll probably be harassed during this live-stream.”
“The method to report is staggeringly inadequate,” said actress and anti-harassment activist Ashley Judd, adding that she’d like to help solve the problem. “I’m aggravated they haven’t reached out to me, I’m low hanging fruit.”
California Attorney General Kamala Harris has been proactive about prosecuting cyber crimes, but she thinks that tech companies also have to be more responsive. “When [a victim] contacts the social media site, she thinks there’s no-one to talk to,” she said, adding that law enforcement also need to be taking these crimes more seriously. “We have to let victims know that if they report, something’s going to happen.”
Harris also emphasized that when it comes to cyber crimes and revenge porn, victim blaming is alive and well. Too often, she says, who’ve had private photos posted by a former flame without their permission are asked why they allowed the photos to be taken, as if the exposure were their fault. “It’s normal” to take intimate photos, Harris said, comparing nude selfies to racy Polaroids from the ’70s. There needs to be a conversation about prevention, Harris says, but we should be “doing it in a way that does not blame the victim.”
TIME TIME 100 Gala

Kanye West Warns Lee Daniels Not to Steal His Act for Empire

The hip hop superstar joked that his TIME 100 gala performance would turn up on the Fox show

During his performance at the TIME 100 gala Tuesday night, Kanye West jokingly warned fellow honoree Lee Daniels not to steal any of his act for the characters on his TV show Empire.

“Lee don’t try to take this on your next season, though man– trying to have one of the brothers pulling my sh-t man,” Kanye said in between songs, an apparent reference to the sons of Lucius Lyon on the hit Fox show. “If you see this on Empire, you just know where he got it from.”

The hit Fox show tells the story of a terminally ill hip hop magnate whose family members—and ex-wife—are fighting for control of his entertainment empire.

West performed hits like “New Slaves,” “Blood on the Leaves,” and “Gold Digger” while bathed in golden light in front of several shirtless men covered in white chalk. So keep your eyes peeled for some topless chalk-covered guys backing up Jamal or Hakeem on Empire.

TIME TIME 100 Gala

The 8 Best Things That Happened at the TIME 100 Gala

Good selfies were taken by all

What do you get when you put Kim Kardashian, Martha Stewart, David Koch and Amy Schumer in a room with a bunch of journalists and a ton of alcohol? A list of greatest hits, of course. Here’s a list of the 9 most jaw-dropping moment’s from Tuesday night’s TIME 100 Gala.

When Amy Schumer pretended to fall in front of Kim and Kanye on the red carpet

She later answered “Malala Yousafzai” when asked who she thought was the “most bangable” person on the TIME 100.

TIME 100 Gala, TIME's 100 Most Influential People In The World - Red Carpet
Kevin Mazur—Getty Images for TIME

When Julianne Moore danced

She’s still got it.

NY: 2015 Time 100 Gala - Inside
Clint Spaulding—Patrick McMullan/Sipa USA

When three power women hugged it out

Sister Rosemary Nyirumbe said meeting U.S Ambassador to the U.N. Samantha Power and Nigerian activist Obiageli Ezekwesili reminded her of “the power of women.” The trio discussed the best ways to beat Boko Haram and bring back the kidnapped Chibok schoolgirls.

Larry Busacca—Getty Images for TIME

When one Nolan interviewed another

TIME’s very own Nolan Feeney asked Christopher Nolan about how he avoids writers block (hint: he walks).

TIME 100 Gala, TIME's 100 Most Influential People In The World - Cocktails
Jemal Countess—Getty Images for TIME

When Martha Stewart became everybody’s best friend

She got selfies with Kim Kardashian and Karlie Kloss.

Larry Busacca—Getty Images for TIME
TIME 100 Gala, TIME's 100 Most Influential People In The World - Cocktails
Andrew Hinderaker for TIME

When Kanye performed

TIME 100 Gala, TIME's 100 Most Influential People In The World - Dinner
Kevin Mazur—Getty Images for TIME

When the Frozen songwriters tweeted that they were lonely, and John Green came to keep them company

“If you are at the TIME 100 event and don’t know anyone, come find us in the corner and we will sing showtunes,” Kristen Anderson-Lopez tweeted.

NY: 2015 Time 100 Gala - Inside
Clint Spaulding—Patrick McMullan/Sipa USA

When Laverne Cox finally got to meet Lee Daniels

Jemal Countess—Getty Images for TIME

TIME TIME 100 Gala

Here’s What Planned Parenthood President Cecile Richards Had to Say to David Koch

NY: 2015 Time 100 Gala - Inside
Clint Spaulding—Patrick McMullan/Sipa USA Cecile Richards attends the Time 100 Gala held at Jazz at Lincoln Center in New York City on April 21, 2015.

Not what you might expect

When Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards met well-known donor to conservative causes David Koch at the Time 100 gala Tuesday night, she didn’t bring up their divergent views on social issues — instead, she praised him for his commitment to criminal justice reform.

Richards told the billionaire industrialist during a conversation with TIME that she was “grateful for what you’re doing in criminal justice,” and Koch answered that reform was “well-needed.”

As well as pledging to spend nearly a billion dollars to elect conservative candidates in the 2016 elections, Koch and his brother Charles have recently stepped up their efforts to lobby for prison reform. Mark Holden, senior vice president and general counsel at Koch Industries, told TIME in January that the issue was “sweeping in a lot of unusual, non-traditional allies, and I think it’s a good thing.”

Koch also told Richards the story of how he got involved with philanthropy. After surviving a plane crash, he said, he realized that “this is a spiritual experience and I’m going to spend the rest of my life doing philanthropic projects.”

The 2015 TIME 100 honoree also told TIME why he likes Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker, reinforcing the notion that the Republican presidential hopeful might be the favored candidate of the influential brothers.

Your browser is out of date. Please update your browser at http://update.microsoft.com