TIME

Find Out How Much Less Sleep You’re Getting Than Everyone Else

The average American sleeps 7 hours and 50 minutes each night, see how you do.

See this full story at Time Labs.

 

Americans may not be so bleary-eyed after all. According to Withings, a maker of health tracking devices, Americans are falling asleep these days at 11:32PM and waking up at 7:22AM—nearly a solid eight hours.

Not all states are equal when it comes to getting rest. New York, home to the city that never sleeps, does in fact turn in the latest on average, at 11:54 PM. But the state doesn’t rise until 7:36 AM — sleeping in past every state except North Dakota, according to new sleep data provided by Withings exclusively to TIME. Colorado is the first to rise, at 7:07AM, followed closely by Rhode Island and South Dakota. As a region, midwestern states likewise goes to bed the earliest, with South Dakota turning the lights out first.

So which state is getting the least sleep? Residents of Delaware, on average, are sleeping less than the rest of the country, at 7 hours and 36 minutes each night. Rhode Island, New York, Massachusetts and Washington, D.C. all follow closely behind. Which Americans are getting the most rest? Montanans, with 8 hours and 20 minutes each night. Other places with heavy sleepers include: South Dakota, Wyoming and Maine. The chart below shows where all states plus Washington, D.C., rank.

 

To see where Americans are sleeping the least—and the most–Withings recorded fifteen million nights of rest among more than 10,000 device users in 2014. Those users are sleeping on average 7 hours and 50 minutes each night. While that’s nearly an hour less than findings from 2013 American Time Use Survey undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), wearable technology could provide a more accurate picture of what’s happening in America’s beds. The BLS survey asks respondents when they sleep and rise, without taking into account the time it takes to fall asleep or other activities in bed. Sleep-tracking devices detect body movement and heart rate, producing what may be a more accurate measure of time slept.

Caution, sleep-seekers! Note that Withings users, according to the company, are often men aged between 35 and 40 years old who are interested in technology. (In the 2013 Labor survey, men aged 35 to 54 reported less sleep than any other age or gender group.) Though Auríele De Cooman, a data specialist with Withings, says that the company’s users do range across gender, geography and age.

See this full story at Time Labs.

TIME Television

See Don Draper’s Complicated Relationship History in 1 Chart

With the series over, here's a visual guide to the many women in Jon Hamm's television life

Don Draper’s decade-long identity crisis has finally come to a close. There’s perhaps no place Don seemed to exercise his existential dread more than in his pursuit of relationships with women. Some of his relationships with women were great love affairs, others one-night stands. By charting his many partners, we can take measure of the path of one of television’s most troubled leading men.

Click to see full-sized image

In counting his partners, you’ll note a few women are missing. For our purposes, to make the definitive list, there needed to be an on-screen depiction of a liaison, not just heavy implication that one had occurred. This eliminates most of the women on Don’s answering service in the second half of season seven; Audrey, his date at the diner when Don meets Diana; the woman at the bar in the last moments of season five; and Andrea, the woman he meets in the elevator with Megan who comes to him in a fever dream and sleeps with him. It seems likely they got together at some point in the past, but we can’t know for sure so she, like the other maybe partners, is out.

Some noteworthy observations: Some noteworthy observations: The few episodes before the finale constituted a rare stretch of celibacy for Don. And as the gray dots on the right-hand Y-axis show, his most faithful stretch was in season five—the longest period he went without cheating.

TIME

See the Effects of Climate Change in 3 Birds

Most North American birds head further north for winter as climate warms

Looking for signs of climate change? You can check the temperatures of the oceans or the density of polar ice caps. Or you can see which birds are gathering outside your window.

A Birds & Climate Change report released this week by the Audubon Society predicts that global warming will severely threaten nearly half of U.S. birds by the year 2100. And birds are already on the move, according to the society’s research. By mapping the historical data used in Audubon’s climate study, we see can that birds have migrated further north by an average of 40 miles in the past 48 years as temperatures increase. The map above highlights three species whose center of abundance has moved by over 200 miles.

The winter migration data is the fruit of the longest citizen science project in existence, called the Christmas Bird Count. Thousands of volunteers across North America head out every winter to track bird locations in over 2,300 designated areas. Audubon scientists aggregate data along conservation regions and state lines and then they account for the varying effort of bird watchers (watch out slackers) to produce an “abundance index” for each species.

The maps reflect this index for three birds that highlight how warmer winters are influencing species differently. Sixty one percent of the 305 Christmas Bird Count species are moving north — some by more than 200 miles, like the Pine Siskin and American Black Duck. Fewer species are going south, as their winter ranges are shrinking on the whole, with the remaining suitable climates now left further south. This pattern is observed in the Peregrine Falcon, though its increased abundance is also due to pesticide bans.

The “all birds” map shows the abundance index of all observed species relative to other areas. Light green areas show where fewer than the average number birds was observed, while darker areas exceed the average. Over time, areas further north illustrate increasing abundance relative to other areas.

Methodology

Data was provided by the Aududon Society, with calculations by Candan Soykan, an ecologist for Audubon. The “abundance index” for the three species shown on the map is based on the number of birds observed, by species, for each survey in the Christmas Bird Count, adjusted for variation in bird watching effort, among other factors.

The relative abundance for the map of bird density standardizes each species’ abundance index to a common scale before combining across species to provide an overall estimate. Standardization prevents abundant or more detectable species from dominating patterns in the map. To accommodate some species dramatically changing in abundance over the 48-year interval, median values are used. These median values for each year are averaged by decade (except in the case of 1966 to 1973) to be used on the time slider and map.

Photos: Getty Images (2);mdc

TIME Hillary Clinton

How Hillary and Bill Clinton Raised $1.4 Billion

Together, the Clintons have become two of the most impressive fundraisers in American history. Use the interactive graphic to see the many ways their supporters' money has been collected over the years.

There are great American political fundraisers. And then there are Hillary and Bill Clinton, the first couple of American political fundraising. Few in American history have collected and benefited from so much money in so many ways over such a long period of time. Since they arrived on the national political scene 32 years ago, the Clintons have attracted at least $1.4 billion in contributions, according to a review of public records by TIME and the Center for Responsive Politics.

That sum helps illustrate Hillary Clinton’s enormous advantage should she decide to run for President in 2016. Much of the money, raised through two Senate and three Presidential campaigns, was gathered together in small checks by an extensive network of donors and fundraisers. Other donations came in the form of six-figure “soft money” donations from wealthy individuals during Bill Clinton’s presidency. A third category includes money the couple has raised for the Clinton Foundation, the family’s global non-profit, through speaking engagements for Bill Clinton, and through outside political spending that benefitted the Clinton efforts.

The records also show a select group of top donors who have given in multiple ways to the Clintons over the years. Many of these same donors, including people like S. Daniel Abraham, founder of diet supplement company Slim Fast, and Susie Tompkins Buell, founding of the clothing company Espirit, have formed personal friendships with the Clintons, even as they have continued to pursue public policy campaigns around issues like U.S. relations with Israel and the Keystone XL pipeline.

Through the years, the Clintons have adjusted over time to the changing rules that govern political contributions. Craig Smith, a longtime adviser to the Clintons who is now helping to organize the Ready for Hillary PAC, estimates that a Hillary 2016 candidacy could cost as much as $1.7 billion, including the money raised and spent on her behalf by outside groups. That would make the effort about 150% more expensive than the 2012 Obama effort, an increase in line with historical norms.

[See profiles of the top donors.]

The data for this analysis is drawn from three broad categories.

Campaign contributions: Direct giving to Hillary and Bill Clinton’s campaigns for the Senate and the Presidency going back to 1992, as reported to the Federal Election Commission. It includes both individual contributions and money from other PACs given to either the leadership committees or joint fundraising committees of the Clintons. These figures also include “soft money” contributions to the Democratic National Committee during Bill Clinton’s 1992 campaign and his presidency. Those donations were later eliminated by the 2002 campaign finance reform law.

Non-political contributions: Speaking fees collected by Bill Clinton up to 2008, and contributions to the Bill, Hillary, and Chelsea Clinton Foundation. Figures for Bill Clinton’s speaking fees are based on filings from Hillary Clinton’s tenure in the Senate. The foundation has only released a list of donors grouped by the contribution ranges, so in all cases the interactive assumes that each donor gave the smallest amount possible in that category. The range of contribution, from all foundation donors, as reported by the foundation, could go as high as $1.3 billion.

Outside spending: Independent expenditures on behalf of the Clintons, as well as contributions to Ready for Hillary PAC, an independent super PAC created to support Clinton in 2016, which she has told friends she grateful to have organized on her behalf.

Additional reporting by Becca Stanek.

TIME Follow Friday

#LightBoxFF: David Schwen’s Eternal Sunshine for the Creative Mind

David Schwen might not be a photographer, but his creative and quirky Instagram feed has quickly become an inspiration to many.

Welcome to this week’s edition of TIME’s LightBox Follow Friday, a series where we feature the work of photographers who are using Instagram in new and engaging ways. Each week we will introduce you to the person behind the feed through his or her pictures and share an interview with the photographer.

This week on #LightBoxFF, TIME speaks with David Schwen (@dschwen), a Minneapolis-based Creative Director and owner of Dschwen LLC. Schwen creates conceptual photo and video illustrations with a lighthearted, witty flair. Continually experimenting with media and new ways to create illustrations, Schwen frequently taps into Instagram to share his work.


Lightbox: Why did you start using Instagram, and how has your use of it and understanding of it changed since your first post?

Schwen: When I started, I used Instagram just as a photo app like everybody else. If you look at my first posts, the photos use a lot of filters, [they are] pictures of what I’m eating and such. I used to post my illustrations on Flickr, and once I started to realize that Instagram was a place where you could share with a big community of creative people, I started to skew more towards making stuff other than selfies. Some of the images on my feed are from client work, but there are also a lot of self-initiated projects from a long list of ideas that I’m always keeping track of. When I have some downtime, I work on these ideas. I have a lot of fun.

Recharging my banana phone... #dschwenllc

A video posted by Dschwen LLC. (@dschwen) on

Lightbox: Which post inspired the most audience feedback and engagement through likes and comments? Why do you think that photo got people’s attention?

Schwen: I think the most liked image is of the rechargeable banana [see video above]. People really enjoy things that aren’t branded, and aren’t an ad. The video has a pretty funny story. I was headed to work one day and my fiancé told me to bring a banana with me. It was a little bit beat up. (I’m kind of a banana snob: if it gets too ripe I don’t eat it.) While I was sitting at my desk and wishing the banana was a bit more ripe, I noticed it was lying next to my phone charger, and the idea came to make a video. Instead of waiting days for the banana to get blacker, I would microwave the banana in between each picture. Slowly the banana just got more and more disgusting until it exploded. The studio reeked of banana for two days.

#interactivegrams

A video posted by Dschwen LLC. (@dschwen) on

Lightbox: What are some other ways you’re getting your creative work out there and disseminating it to the public?

Schwen: I use Twitter — but I’m not too active there, and I’m often reposting Instagram work. I spend some time on Facebook, but I find that I get a lot more responses from Instagram. Not too many sites get quite the amount of traction that Instagram does. People ask me what would I do if Instagram went away, and I’d move on and find other ways to get my work in front of people— not that I foresee Instagram going away any time soon.

Lightbox: What are some of your favorite Instagram feeds? Who is doing interesting things with the platform?

Schwen: There are quite a few people who I think are doing great things, and I’ve met some of them through Instagram. @rachelryle makes stop motions of hand drawn illustrations; @pauloctavious has an innate way of being able to express emotions through his still images; @thiswildidea: one word = Maddie; @fatandfuriousburger — with a burger addiction myself, I can’t get enough of these creative burger masterpieces; @timelapsechicago — this account is run by the Creative Director at Threadless, Craig Shimala (@cshimala), and is filled with amazing timelapse videos of life in Chicago.


David Schwen is a Minneapolis-based Creative Director and owner of Dschwen LLC. Follow him on Instagram: @dschwen

Alexander Ho is the Digital Art Director of TIME. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram @alexandermanho


TIME

Through Don Draper’s Eyes: A Tour of the Time & Life Building of the 1960s

TIME brings to you a rare insider’s tour of the Time & Life Building in the 1960s

In anticipation of the Mad Men season 6 premiere on AMC this Sunday night, TIME brings to you a rare insider’s tour of the Time & Life Building in the 1960s—the setting of everyone’s favorite mid-century ad agency, Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce. The Time & Life Building, designed by the Rockefeller family’s architects, Harrison & Abramowitz & Harris, opened in 1959, meaning that Don Draper et al. were some of its earliest (fictional) occupants. Time Inc. magazines like TIME, Fortune, People and Sports Illustrated still call the building home—but it must be said that, six decades later, hardly anything seen there today can match the sleek, ambitious style that defined the place, and the people who worked there, when 1271 Avenue of the Americas first opened its doors.

TIME Out There

A Summertime Christmas Down Under: Trent Parke’s Family Photo Album

Parke's latest book capture an ideal of Christmas somehow familiar and foreign -- BBQ and sunburns and tinsel and pine trees.

Whether in the real world, the movies or in great works of fiction, most people experience Christmas as a winter holiday. We are surrounded with season-appropriate images of Santa donning a heavy coat and boots, pine trees flourishing in the cold and, whether it be natural or machine-made, lots and lots of snow. It’s a time of the year that is understood, and remembered, as bitterly cold.

In another part of the world, however, lies Australia—a place where fewer people live than in the northern climes and where Christmas is spent not sledding but grilling, often on the beach. Because Down Under’s in the southern hemisphere, Christmas falls in the summer.

Born and raised in Newcastle, Australia, Trent Parke, a World Press Photo-award winning photographer and a member of Magnum, began photographing at age 12. “When I was younger,” he recalls, “I was actually a Santa Claus photographer while working at a Kodak store after school, and shot pictures of people with Santa at the mall.”

In 2004, Parke had just completed a two-year road trip with his partner and fellow photographer, Narelle Autio, documenting the full spectrum of life around Australia. The photographs taken during this road trip resulted in his acclaimed series, Minutes to Midnight.

The Christmas Tree Bucket, his next work, started at the close of this journey, when Parke and Autio had their first son, Jem. “Wanting more space, family support and a change of scenery, we moved from Sydney to Adelaide, where Narelle grew up,” Parke tells TIME.

“One afternoon, I decided to venture to the local mega mall — specifically to the hairdresser. After removing all of my very long hair, the very young hairdresser said: ‘There you go, a new hair cut for a new start’.

On returning to the in-laws that evening, I started to feel very odd and a little queasy. I started vomiting violently and uncontrollably and grabbed the nearest thing I could throw up into.

“And it was there, while staring into that bright red bucket,” says Parke, referring to red buckets which act as the base of Christmas trees (slide 1), “vomiting every hour on the hour for fifteen hours straight, that I started to think how strange families, suburbia, life, vomit and in particular, Christmas really was.”

At this exact moment (captured on film in slide 12 above), Parke decided to continue photographing the holidays as they unfolded in his home.

parke_coverThe Christmas Tree Bucket: Trent Parke’s Family Album, recently published by Steidl, captures the uncanny and surreal air of the holiday season. Perhaps amplified by the oddness of seeing sunburned Aussies barbequing next to tinsel and pine, Parke’s images capture an ideal of Christmas somehow familiar and foreign.

“I’m always documenting life in the moment, but I try to photograph and compile it so that the pictures can be looked and felt by different people. At the time, my children became my life 24/7, just as photography had been. I became a sort of alien, where everything was new and I saw the kids as something totally new. It’s a whole new experience and I totally immersed myself and my photography in the moment — because that’s the closest point you can get to something. That’s where this project came about.”


Alexander Ho is the Digital Art Director of TIME.com. Follow him on Twitter @alexandermanho.


TIME Out There

Revisiting the Mastery of Mexican Photographer Manuel Álvarez Bravo

A new exhibition, which includes rare and unseen images, celebrates the career of the experimental fine art photographer, who relentlessly captured the history of Mexico's evolving social and geopolitical atmosphere.

Often cited as Mexico’s most celebrated fine art photographer, Manuel Álvarez Bravo, whose life almost spanned the entire 20th century, relentlessly captured the history of the country’s evolving social and geopolitical atmosphere. A Photographer on the Watch, a new show organized by the Jeu de Paume in Paris, features previously unpublished and unseen images from the master alongside Álvarez Bravo’s most recognizable images, such as The Daughter of the Dancers (slide 6) and The Crouched Ones (slide 9). Together, they bring new attention and reconsideration of the work of the photographer—who died in 2002—whose prolific output has not only been thoroughly scrutinized by critics, but also published in more than a hundred books and exhibited internationally (The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles staged a major retrospective in 2001).

After the Mexican Revolution that began in 1910, Álvarez Bravo’s career emerged during a creative renaissance that was a reaction to the resulting paradigm shift in the political environment. Alongside the major uprisings against then-Mexican president, Porfirio Díaz, brought forth by political revolutionaries, such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa, significant artists including Diego Rivera also came to prominence. Álvarez Bravo’s work, which evolved during this period, addressed what curators Laura Gonzáles Flores and Gerardo Mosquera identify as the country’s “gradual abandonment of rural life and traditional customs, the rise of a post-revolutionary culture with international influences, and the espousal of a modern culture related to the urban maelstrom.”

Perhaps the most noticeable part of Álvarez Bravo’s career is his breadth of approaches, coursing through modernism (like Edward Weston, his personal friend) with formalist photographs of abstract paper forms, before moving on to address recognizable motifs. People, things and objects—for example, a sheep fallen down against a sidewalk curb—are shown in real habitats, but captured in a perspective which elevate the purpose and meaning of the photograph, beyond that of pure documentation (like Eugène Atget).

Although considered to be a part of the Surrealist movement, Alvarez Bravo’s images aren’t exclusively Surrealist in its denotative meaning; his lens captured the uncanny and mythic qualities of things that tangibly existed, such as an optical store plastered with eye illustrations, as seen on Optical Parable (slide 10), that evoke the work of pure Surrealists.

Álvarez Bravo’s career is one which can be easily seen as a story of tireless work— full of laborious attempts and devout experimentation—leading to iconic masterpieces. As Gerardo Mosquera states in an essay inside the exhibition’s catalog: “while [Henri] Cartier-Bresson seized the “decisive moment,” Álvarez Bravo laid a trap for “decisive moments”—a statement which both captures not only Álvarez Bravo’s dedication to his practice, but his ability to compose and very purposefully create photographs saturated with poetic complexity.

Manuel Álvarez Bravo: A Photographer on the Watch is on view from Oct. 16 through Jan. 20 at Jeu de Paume in Paris. See more info here.

TIME Out There

Martin Parr: Picturing the American South

The High Museum of Art commissioned Martin Parr to document Atlanta as part of its Picturing the South project—a series of artist commissions that engage with the American South. Channeling his unparalleled ability to collate humor, wit, and curiosity into his heavily socio-cultural photographs, Parr captured the oddities and eccentricities of contemporary Americana.

The High Museum of Art commissioned Martin Parr to document Atlanta as part of its Picturing the South project—a series of artist commissions that engage with the American South. Channeling his unparalleled ability to collate humor, wit, and curiosity into his heavily socio-cultural photographs, Parr captured the oddities and eccentricities of contemporary Americana.

British-born Parr, whose photography career spans over 30 years, is known for his provocative documentary style by using cultural criticism through an exaggerated and humorous light. His analysis of how we live is not simply satire, as Parr offers his audience an approach to seeing which acts not to denounce, but to highlight (both aesthetically and thematically) patterns between people, the things we consume and the milieus in which we live.

The outcome of the museum’s commission offers a vivid, comedic and touching perspective on the diversity that lies in Atlanta. Parr covers a large body of subject matter in his findings, which ranges from the high and low—juxtaposing images from a gallery opening to an oddly lengthy corn dog on a stick. Parr’s images offer insight which would only be found through the lens of a meticulous and curious outsider.

Beyond the exhibition at the High Museum of Art, Italian publisher Contrasto released a book, Up and Down Peachtree: Photographs of Atlanta, and a documetary, Hot Spots: Martin Parr in the American South. The book, a meticulously edited and impeccably designed object in its own right, is printed without text beyond the book’s title and colophon—which, undeniably, is a testament to Parr’s talent for storytelling. The documentary is a 60-minute lens behind the lens where documentarian Neal Broffman followed Parr photographing around Atlanta. The documentary includes interviews with noted curators, writers, critics and photographers, and offers a look into at Parr’s real-life affable personality and interactions with his subjects. Below, Contrasto has given LightBox an exclusive clip on the documentary:

Martin Parr’s photographs are on view now through September 9, 2012, as part of Picturing the South: New Commissions from the High Museum of Art. Up and Down Peachtree and Hot Spots: Martin Parr in the American South are both available for purchase online.

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