TIME World War II

This Is How TIME Explained the Atomic Bomb in 1945

Graphic from TIME Aug. 20, 1945

Looking back at TIME's coverage of the atomic bombings

This week marks the 69th anniversary of the atomic bombings that ended World War II: the Aug. 6, 1945 bombing of Hiroshima and the one of Nagasaki three days later. The two attacks may have claimed over 250,000 lives — around 100,000 victims were immediately incinerated, and many others died later from radiation poisoning and other injuries. Entire neighborhoods vanished into thin air.

World War II had already ended in Europe by August 1945, after Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 7. But the war unfolding in East Asia and the Pacific raged on. When Japan showed no signs of surrendering, U.S. President Harry Truman decided to drop the bomb—an act whose necessity and ethical ramifications are being debated to this day.

“I realize the tragic significance of the atomic bomb,” President Truman said in a radio address on Aug. 9 that year. “Its production and its use were not lightly undertaken by this Government. But we knew that our enemies were on the search for it. We know now how close they were to finding it. And we knew the disaster which would come to this nation, and to all peaceful nations, to all civilizations, if they had found it first.”

TIME covered the end of the war in Japan in its Aug.20, 1945 issue, five days after Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced the country’s surrender. Among the generally celebratory coverage of the end of WWII, the magazine’s editors published the infographic above breaking down the chain reaction behind an atomic bomb explosion.

TIME Art

Tracey Emin’s ‘My Bed’ Returns to the Tate on Long-Term Loan

Tracey Emin's 'My Bed' To Be Auctioned At Christie's
Tracy Emin's 1998 piece My Bed on display at Christie's in London on June 27, 2014 Rob Stothard—Getty Images

The piece will be displayed there for at least 10 years

Contemporary art’s most well-known bed is returning to the site where it first gained notoriety.

Artist Tracey Emin’s controversial installation My Bed — consisting of an unmade bed surrounded by piles of discarded condoms, old liquor bottles and pregnancy tests — will be exhibited at Tate Gallery on a long-term loan from its most recent owner, the Tate said in a statement on Monday.

The 1998 work, which grapples with the aftermath of a difficult breakup, has been included in discussions about what qualifies as art. It gained renewed prominence in the past month when it was slated to be sold at a Christie’s auction in London. On July 1, the piece was sold to German collector and businessman Count Christian Duerckheim for approximately $3.77 million — more than 18 times the amount collector Charles Saatchi paid for it in 2000.

My Bed was exhibited at Tate Britain in 1999, the same year it was shortlisted for the prestigious Turner Prize. Now, new owner Duerckheim will loan the work to the Tate for a period of at least 10 years. Tate director Nicholas Serota expressed gratitude for Duerckheim’s gift, which will allow museum visitors to see “a work that now has iconic status.”

Emin, the artist herself, told the BBC, “I have always felt My Bed belongs at Tate. And now it will be.”

TIME Ukraine

The Lives Lost in the MH17 Disaster

Local people pray during a special mass in Saint Vitus Church in memory of the victims of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 on July 20, 2014 in Hilversum, Netherlands.
Local people pray during a special mass in Saint Vitus Church in memory of the victims of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 on July 20, 2014 in Hilversum, Netherlands. Christopher Furlong—Getty Images

Here are some of the stories of the almost 300 who perished when their airplane was shot down in the skies over Ukraine

A total of 298 lives—including over 20 families and as many as 80 children—were lost when flight MH17 was apparently downed by a surface-to-air missile on Jul. 17. A German aerospace engineer, a leading Dutch AIDS researcher, an Australian nun, and a Malaysian actress were among the passengers on board when the flight crashed over eastern Ukraine, near the settlement of Grabovo. Malaysia Airlines released the passenger manifest on Saturday, revealing that nationals of 12 countries were traveling on the Kuala Lumpur-bound plane.

Here is a breakdown of the victims’ nationalities:

193 from the Netherlands, with one passenger carrying a dual Dutch-U.S. citizenship

43 from Malaysia, including all crew members

27 from Australia

12 from Indonesia

10 from the United Kingdom, with one passenger carrying a dual U.K.-South African citizenship

4 from Germany

4 from Belgium

3 from the Philippines

1 from Canada

1 from New Zealand

Here are just some of the individuals who lost their lives in Thursday’s incident:

Wals family, the Netherlands

Father Jeroen, mother Nicole, 17-year-old Brett, 15-year-old Jinte, 12-year-old Amèl, and 9-year-old Solenn were from the small town of Neerkant. Before Thursday’s flight, Jinte tweeted her excitement about flying to Malaysia: Over uurtje in t vliegtuig naar Maleisië! (In an hour, I will be in the air to Malaysia!) The father, Jeroen, had been a fan of cycling. Neighbors of the family told Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad that they could not believe they would “never again … see Jeroen bring out the bicycle for his daughter.” Solenn, the family’s youngest member, had been allowed to skip a year in St Willibrord primary school, which all four children attended, due to her extraordinary abilities.

Cor Schilder and Neeltje Tol, the Netherlands

A portrait of Neeltje Tol and Cor Schilder is placed with flowers and candles in front of their flower shop in Volendam, Netherlands,July 19, 2014.
A portrait of Neeltje Tol and Cor Schilder is placed with flowers and candles in front of their flower shop in Volendam, Netherlands,July 19, 2014. Phil Nijhuis—AP

The couple owned a flower shop in the town of Volendam, where locals have been laying flowers in their honor since the crash. They were on their way to a vacation in Bali, Indonesia, Channel 4 News reports. Shortly before take-off, Schilder posted a photo of the plane on his Facebook wall, commenting in Dutch that “in case it goes missing, this is what it looks like”—he was referring to the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in March. In May, he wrote of the couple’s upcoming trip: “We will stay in a villa with a private pool with rose petals floating in it. We won’t leave before all those petals have withered away.”

Quinn Lucas Schansman, The Netherlands and USA

The 19-year-old had been studying business in Amsterdam and playing football for a local club, Olympia ’25. He was born in New York, but his family moved to Europe soon afterward, and Schansman spent the rest of his life there. A fan of the Dutch soccer team Ajax, he was on his way to meet his family for a three-week vacation in Indonesia, the birthplace of his grandfather, according to a relative. His social media accounts show that he had a girlfriend and was adventurous and fun-loving.

Cameron Dalziel, South Africa and the UK

Dalziel, reportedly in his mid-40s, was a helicopter pilot who lived in Malaysia with his wife and two children, aged 4 and 14. A South African citizen born in Zimbabwe, he was traveling on a British passport. His brother-in-law Shane Hattingh has said that Dalziel took a position with CHC Helicopters in Malaysia last year in order to spend more time with his wife and kids, as he had previously been flying around the world, unable to see them for extended periods of time. One of his former colleagues posted on Twitter that Dalziel was “one of [the] world’s best rescue helicopter pilots” and a “great man, father, [and] husband.”

Jane Adi Soetjipto, Indonesia

Adi Soejipto, an Indonesian of Dutch descent, had been planning to celebrate her 74th birthday in Jakarta, where she lived with her adopted son, after visiting relatives in the Netherlands. She and her late husband, who passed away two years ago, did not have any children of their own. They stayed in Indonesia when her parents and six siblings moved to the Netherlands in 1963. She spent the last months of her life in the Netherlands with her sick mother, who died during the visit.

Allen family, the UK and the Netherlands

A bunch of flowers with a picture and a message for John Allen, a British lawyer who died with his Dutch wife and three sons on flight MH17, is placed at Schiphol airport, in Amsterdam, July 20, 2014. Patrick Post—AP

John Allen, his wife Sandra Martens and their three sons Christopher, Julian and Ian—whose ages ranged from 8 to 14—lived in Amsterdam and were headed to Indonesia for a vacation. Allen, a British lawyer, worked at the Dutch law firm Nauta-Dutilh, which in a statement on its website said that “all … who had the privilege of working with John during his 18 years at NautaDutilh came to know him as a kind, down-to-earth and humorous man.” Sandra Martens, who was Dutch, worked as an elementary school teacher.

Philomene Tiernan, Australia

77-year-old Tiernan was a Roman Catholic nun returning to Sydney from a retreat in France. She worked at the Kincoppal-Rose Bay School of the Sacred Heart near Sydney, where she had taught for over 30 years. In a statement, the school’s principal said that sister Tiernan—known as “Phil”—had visited St. Francis Xavier Church in Paris, the burial site of the Society of the Sacred Heart’s founder Saint Madeleine Sophie Barat, adding that the visit was “a special moment” for Tiernan. “Phil was a very much loved staff member and friend. We are devastated by the loss of such a wonderfully kind, wise and compassionate woman who was greatly loved by us all,” principal Hilary Johnston-Croke said.

Tambi Jiee, his wife Ariza Ghazalee, and their four children, Malaysia

The family of six—Tambi Jiee, 49; Ariza Ghazalee, 46; Afif, 19; Afzal, 17; Azmeena, 15; and Afruz, 13—was returning to Malaysia after spending three years in Kazakhstan, where Tambi Jiee had been working for the energy company Shell. The three youngest children, Afruz, Azmeena, and Afzal, had attended school in Kazakhstan, while the eldest, Afif, had been attending Taylor University in Kuala Lumpur, and had joined his family for a vacation in Europe prior to their trip home, according to the Wall Street Journal. Ariza’s final Facebook post on July 17 was a photo of the family’s suitcases.

Joep Lange and Jaqueline van Tongeren, the Netherlands

Joep Lange and Jacqueline van Tongeren Jean Ayissi—AFP/Getty Images; EPA

The leading Dutch AIDS researcher, along with five other passengers on board, was en route to the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia—the largest AIDS conference in the world. During the opening ceremony on Sunday, speakers commemorated the lives of their lost colleagues. Lange, 59 and his partner van Tongeren, 64, had both worked at the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development—he as its executive scientific director and she as a communications director. Lange was also a professor of Medicine at the University of Amsterdam, where he had recently been working on a paper about medical research in Africa, according to the AIGHD’s website.

John Alder and Liam Sweeney, the UK

Alder and Sweeney were ardent Newcastle United fans on their way to New Zealand to watch their favorite team’s preseason tour. Sweeney, 28, had previously volunteered as a steward on fan buses to Newcastle’s away games, and was thus well-known among the teams’ supporters. His father, Barry, told the BBC that “football was his life,” adding that he’d “rather it was [him] sitting on that plane … because he was only 28.” Alder, 63, had reportedly seen all but one of Newcastle’s matches in 50 years. Newcastle’s managing director expressed his condolences to Alder’s and Sweeney’s families and said that “both men were dedicated supporters of our club and were known to thousands of fans and staff alike.”

 

TIME Art

10 Art Exhibits to Discover This Summer

US-ART-WHITNEY MUSEUM-JEFF KOONS
Artist Jeff Koons poses next to one of his sculptures during a press preview of "Jeff Koons: A Retrospective" a exhibition of his work at the Whitney Museum of American Art June 24, 2014. TIMOTHY A. CLARY—AFP/Getty Images

In New York, Paris, Tokyo and beyond

The summer season is the perfect time to catch up on art: gallery and museum openings are slow, which gives art aficionados a chance to visit all the shows they might have missed.

Here are 10 exhibits throughout the U.S. and beyond worth seeing:

1. Jeff Koons: A Retrospective, the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Through Oct. 19

Koons’ first full scale retrospective in a New York City museum features almost 150 works from over three decades, including his vacuum cleaners in lucite vitrines, his oversize renditions of gift shop kitsch and his stainless steel balloon animals. The exhibition, the last to open in the Whitney’s Marcel Breuer-designed building on Madison Ave. before the museum moves to its new location in Manhattan’s Meatpacking district, will also travel to the Centre Pompidou in Paris (Nov. 26, 2014–Apr. 27, 2015) and to the Guggenheim Bilbao (Jun. 5–Sep. 27, 2015).

2. Jim Hodges: Give More Than You Take, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston

Through Sept. 1

An exploration of 25 years in the career of a multi-faceted American artist who has worked in drawing, photography and objects made from mirrors, light bulbs and glass.

3. Looking at Buddhist Statues: Statues of the Kamakura Period, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo

Through Aug. 31

The Tokyo National Museum is hosting a show that rounds up Buddhist sculpture from the Kamakura period (1192–1333) — statues whose expressions make them look almost alive, a feature not found in examples from earlier periods. “Please look closely at each statue, or compare two statues standing next to each other, while paying attention to their facial expressions, postures, colors and overall mood,” the museum advises.

4. Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs, Tate Modern, London

Through Sept. 7
This exhibit focuses on Matisse’s last works—the cut-outs he produced when ill health prevented him from painting. By cutting into painted paper, the artist created forms such as dancers, snails, and snowflakes. The show, which features 120 works, will also travel to the Museum of Modern Art in New York in the fall.

112 x 112 7/8” (284.4 x 286.4 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Mrs Simon Guggenheim Fund, 1968. © 2014 Succession H. Matisse / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Henri Matisse (French, 1869-1954). Memory of Oceania (Souvenir d’Océanie), summer 1952–early 1953. Gouache on paper, cut and pasted, and charcoal on paper, mounted on canvas. Jonathan Muzikar—Digital Image 2013 (c) MOMA, New York/Scala, Florence

5. Treasures from Korea: Arts and Culture of the Joseon Dynasty, 1392–1910, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles

Through Sept. 28

The exhibit, comprising over 150 works produced during the world’s longest ruling Confucian dynasty, features many Korean national treasures that have never before been displayed in the U.S. It’s organized around five themes: the role of the king and his royal court; the hierarchies of class and gender; the production of metal and ceramic objects used in ancestor worship; the religions of the era and the influence of western civilizations.

6. Garry Winogrand, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Through Sept. 21

Garry Winogrand, the renowned rambling chronicler of postwar New York City and American life, and pioneer of the “snapshot aesthetic”, is considered one of the greatest photographers of the 20th century. The Met show is the first retrospective of his work in 25 years, featuring over 175 images, including many that were never printed in his lifetime. His subjects included politicians, anti-war demonstrators, construction workers and the ordinary man and woman in the street.

7. Unsettled Landscapes, SITE Santa Fe

Through Jan. 11, 2015

This group exhibition is the first installment of what will be a biennial examination of work by contemporary artists from across North and South America. By focusing on themes of landscape, territory, and trade, the show aims to highlight the connections among artists from different parts of the two continents.

8. Carpeaux (1827-1875), a Sculptor for the Empire, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Through Sept. 28

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, an important figure in French sculpture in the second half of the 19th century, was the son of a stonemason and a lace maker from Valenciennes. His career as an artist spanned sculpture, painting and illustration. The show is the first retrospective of his works in all three fields since 1975.

9. Patrick Kelly: Runway of Love, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia

Through Dec. 7

The exhibition showcases around 80 ensembles created by the late African-American fashion designer Patrick Kelly, whose used his career in the fashion industry to challenge racial and cultural boundaries. Alongside his designs, it features videos of his fashion shows and photographs by artists such as Pierre et Gilles and Oliviero Toscani.

10. Cairo Under Wraps: Early Islamic Textiles, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto

Through Jan. 25, 2015

A show featuring textiles from the Early Islamic period, dating from the 7th to the 14th century. Many were meant to be used by the royal household, some bearing inscriptions in Arabic that invoke Allah.

TIME remembrance

Mia Farrow, Lena Dunham and Others Remember Elaine Stritch

Elaine Stritch performs at the Kennedy Center Honors on October 29, 1994.
Elaine Stritch performs at the Kennedy Center Honors on October 29, 1994. CBS Photo Archive/Getty Images

Celebrities in disbelief about her death

Elaine Stritch, the Broadway extraordinaire whose career spanned theatre, cinema and television, died Thursday at 89 in her home in Birmingham, Mich. A slew of Twitter reactions to Stritch’s death speak to her influence on the current generation of artists.

Here is what members of the communities she was a part of tweeted in her memory:

TIME Coffee

Starbucks Unveils First Location in Colombia

Inside A Starbucks Store And The "Returning Moms" Program Ahead Of International Women's Day
Bloomberg/Getty Images

And will open 50 more within the next 5 years

Starbucks is spreading its corporate empire to a country already known for the strength of its coffee.

After 43 years of roasting and selling Colombian coffee, Starbucks opened its first store in Bogota, fully aware that it will have to compete with a number of domestic chains in a country with one of the world’s most vibrant coffee cultures. The new coffeehouse is bigger and more fancy than your typical Starbucks—the three-floored café has comfortable armchairs and elaborate wall art. The new branch will be the first anywhere to sell exclusively locally-sourced Starbucks coffee, the company said in a statement.

Starbucks “is looking to achieve a leadership position in the [Colombian] market,” said a statement by Nutresa, one of the two Latin American companies Starbucks is partnering with in the new venture.

The U.S. company’s main competitor will be Juan Valdez, a multinational chain that also sells 100% Colombian coffee. Juan Valdez seems to welcome the competition, though; Alejadra Londono, head of international sales, told the New York Daily News that “there’s room in the market for us both.”

Yet with Starbucks planning to open 50 stores in the market within the next five years, it remains to be seen whether Londono’s assured words will stick.

TIME Art

New Museum Puts Spotlight on Art From the Arab World

"Here and Elsewhere" opens on July 16 and will be on view through Sept. 28

Syrian artist Hrair Sarkissian was only 12 years old when he saw three hanged bodies dangling in the middle of a public square while on a bus to school in his native Damascus. Years later, he says, the image of the dead still haunted him — and in the hopes of overcoming the memory’s hold on him, he decided to photograph the place where it all started.

Sarkissian, who is currently based in London, took a series of photographs called Execution Squares, shooting spaces in the Syrian cities of Aleppo, Lattakia and Damascus where criminals had been routinely hanged before the uprising against Bashar al-Assad began in 2011. The photographs show locations one would expect to find in urban environments, yet the apartment buildings, billboards, and empty streets depicted feel heavy with the presence of death — the corpses are long gone, but viewers are left to imagine where they might have hung. Each image juxtaposes the constancy of the physical location where it was taken with the fluidity of real life events — in this case, capital punishment — situated within shifting social, political and ethical contexts.

Sarkissian’s work is now being displayed at the New Museum in New York as part of an exhibition that celebrates the work of 45 artists of Arab origin. The exhibit, titled Here and Elsewhere, is the first museum-wide show in New York City to exclusively feature art from and about the Arab-speaking world, showcasing layers of Arab identities often imperceptible to or simplified by Western audiences. Some of the questions posed are ones Sarkissian himself is trying to answer: Can artists use their work to chronicle real-life events, positioning themselves as witnesses to historical changes? Or should they be asking themselves and their audience whether images can accurately capture reality in the first place?

“I was relying on photography to show me the truth — that these bodies don’t exist anymore in these squares, to convince me they are all erased,” Sarkissian tells TIME. “But it didn’t convince me. I still see the hanged bodies in these empty squares.”

Massimiliano Gioni, Associate Director and Director of Exhibitions at the New Museum, explains that the show examines the act of representation, of experiences both individual and collective, with an eye to “what is at stake” when images are created and disseminated. While some artists in the show use their work to oppose the existence of a single historical truth, others aim to showcase the process behind constructing a point of view, and a few revise narratives that dominate in the public sphere. The exhibit’s title comes from a 1976 film by French directors Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Pierre Gorin, and Anne-Marie Miéville, which Gioni noted was originally meant as a propaganda tool about the Palestinian struggle for independence, but was eventually transformed into “a reflection on how images are constructed and used to convey ideologies.”

One artist, Iranian-born Rokni Haerizadeh, transforms documentary footage into allegory by printing stills from YouTube videos of media broadcasts, then painting over them, molding the subjects — including policemen, politicians, protestors, and bystanders — into distorted Orwellian hybrids: half-human, half-animal. Another contributor, an anonymous Syrian collective of filmmakers called Abounaddara, creates short films that document events currently unraveling in their home country — ranging from intimate human interactions to violent fights in the streets — in the hopes of distributing an account different from the one common in mainstream media. “We associate photos and videos with transparency and the truth,” Gioni says, “yet these images… are much different from what we see on TV.”

The poignancy of Abounaddara’s work is derived partly from the group’s modest means of creation. Whereas artists in New York usually spend a lot on art supplies, Gioni explains, this exhibit showcases art that “[was] made with a pen, pencil, paper, a camera… but is equally intense.” Beirut-based Rheims Alkadhi, for instance, found artistic value in items impoverished residents have been forced to sell in street markets — a polyester jacket thus became the subject of The smell of an urban people in the lining of a jacket, and pieces of hair from the hairbrushes of Palestinians constitute part of her project Collective Knotting Together of Hairs.

“A lot of this work is maybe less appealing from a commercial point of view, and perhaps not [the kind of art] that is fashionable in New York — a lot of it is more content-driven, which makes it fascinating,” Gioni says. “What sets apart this type of work is that it’s vested in issues that are bigger than the price of an artwork and whether an artwork looks good on the wall. It is instead vested in issues of life and death, in important social and historical transformations.”

But Gioni and Curatorial Associate Natalie Bell were careful to point out that the show was not conceived as a vehicle for documenting current unrest in Arab countries. Sarkissian, too, emphasized that his photographs “have nothing to do with what is happening now in Syria; executions happened everywhere, and it’s more about humans and how we perceive that act.” Gioni notes that even Cairo-born Anna Boghiguian’s drawings created in the midst of the 2011 uprisings in the Egyptian capital that led to the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak are a blend of “the world out there and the internal, psychological world of the artist.” There is no pretense of objectivity in her work, he says, resulting in a “sincere” representation.

Ultimately, the exhibit attempts to deny the existence of a particular style connected to the region — and it succeeds in that aim, as curators’ attitudes in choosing and placing the artworks haven’t been simplistic or colonial: organizers have instead insisted on preserving the multiplicity of views that exist within the Arab-speaking world. An additional reason the museum has taken extensive care to avoid stereotypes is that some American viewers may be encountering contemporary art from the Arab world for the first time. With many of the exhibition’s artists living in international locations and never before having shown in New York, its nod to art’s global ramifications is clear.

“A lot of this kind of work was not being shown in New York, and it was time to show it [here], in a more institutional context.” he says. “I hope the exhibit will remind us to train ourselves to keep our minds and our eyes open, so that we are not preoccupied with only our ‘here’ but also with ‘elsewhere.’”

TIME Germany

U.S. and Germany Make Nice Amid Espionage Claims

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, left and German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier during a press conference, after talks between the foreign ministers of the six powers negotiating with Tehran on its nuclear program, in Vienna, Austria on July 13, 2014.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, left and German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier during a press conference, after talks between the foreign ministers of the six powers negotiating with Tehran on its nuclear program, in Vienna, Austria on July 13, 2014. Jim Bourg—AP

"We have enormous political cooperation and we are great friends," says Secretary of State John Kerry

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry called the U.S. and Germany “great friends” on Sunday, playing down the tensions surrounding recent allegations that the U.S. has been spying on Berlin.

Kerry and German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier met in Vienna to discuss Iran’s nuclear program, but used the occasion to reiterate their commitment to the U.S-German alliance as the espionage scandal that has battered the relationship between the two countries in recent weeks continues to reverberate.

Germany ordered the CIA’s station chief in Berlin to leave the country last week, after the arrest of a German man earlier in July on suspicion of spying on behalf of the U.S. government.

Although Kerry did not explicitly address the espionage claims, he stressed the importance of the U.S.-German partnership after noting that he and Steinmeier discussed ongoing conflicts in Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and the Middle East.

“Let me emphasize the relationship between the United States and Germany is a strategic one,” Kerry said in a statement alongside Steinmeier. “We have enormous political cooperation and we are great friends. And we will continue to work together in the kind of spirit that we exhibited today in a very thorough discussion.”

Steinmeier said the two countries “want to work on reviving this relationship, on a foundation of trust and mutual respect,” Reuters reports. He mentioned that the effort applies to “all the difficulties that have arisen in our bilateral relations in recent weeks,” adding that the U.S.-German alliance will strengthen attempts to resolve issues in Afghanistan, the Middle East and Iran.

Both Steinmeier and German Chancellor Angela Merkel have highlighted the necessity of continuing Germany’s partnership with the U.S. despite recent setbacks, but Merkel said in a Saturday interview with public German broadcaster ZDF that the two countries have completely different notions of the role of intelligence.

The Chancellor expressed hope that the reaction in Germany would persuade the U.S. not to spy on its allies. “We want this cooperation based on partnership,” she said in the interview. “But we have different ideas, and part of this is that we don’t spy on each other.”

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