It's clear that planning for later-life health care costs is essential for a secure retirement—but figuring out what to do about them is a lot less clear. Out-of-pocket health expenses are not only a big-ticket item but are not predictable or controllable. No wonder few of us build financial strategies for future health needs, preferring the ever-popular ostrich plan: Place head in sand and hope for the best.
“Less than one out of six pre-retirees has ever attempted to estimate how much money they might need for health care and long-term care in retirement,” according to a report by Merrill Lynch and Age Wave, a consulting firm. Knowledge about Medicare is abysmal, the survey found, even among those already enrolled in the program.
And a recent health benefits survey by the Employee Benefits Research Institute, a non-profit retirement industry think tank, found that while nearly half of workers were confident about their ability to get the treatments they need today, only 30% were confident about that ability during the next 10 years, and just 19% are confident once they are eligible for Medicare.
Having a plan is a good way to build confidence. So start by taking a look at the mirror and asking yourself: How long do you think you’ll live and how healthy will you be in your later years?
“A 65-year-old male in excellent health can expect to live to age 87, while the same male in poor health has a life expectancy at age 65 of approximately 81 years,” said a recent study from the Insured Retirement Institute, a trade group that pushes annuity investments. A 65-year-old female in excellent health has a life expectancy of 89, or 84 in poor health. An average couple age 65 has a 40% chance that one or both will live to age 95.
While living to an old age may be better than what’s behind Door Number Two, it may prove costly. Old-age health expenses tend to be loaded into the last few years of life, often to deal with chronic illnesses, especially Alzheimer’s.
Average out-of-pocket health care expenses for that 65-year-old male will be an estimated $246,000 for the rest of his life if he is in poor health and dies at 81, the IRI study said. The lifetime bill rises to $345,000 for the healthy man who survives to an average age of 87.
Adopting healthy lifestyle habits may significantly reduce older-age health expenses. Just as important, it's the best investment you can make in a higher quality of life during your later years.
The Merrill Lynch-Age Wave study recommends these proactive planning steps:
- Map out future out-of-pocket health expenses, including estimating future Medicare premiums and co-pays.
- Learn how Medicare and long-term insurance work.
- Develop contingency plans, for you and other family members, should illness cause lost income from an extended work disability.
- Broaden your planning to include those family members most likely to comprise your caregiving and financial support network.
The IRI report, not surprisingly, sings the virtues of using annuities to provide guaranteed lifetime streams of income to deal with long-running health care expenses. Many financial advisers prefer other investments. But you should at least look at annuity options as part of your long-term financial planning anyway.
If you’re especially worried about running out of money in your 80s— and, God willing, your 90s—then you should explore deferred annuities. Often called longevity insurance, a deferred annuity can be designed to not begin payouts until old age. If you buy one of these products in your 50s or 60s, the insurance company will provide very attractive payment terms. And it should, of course, because it will have the use of your annuity purchase money for 20 or even 30 years, with a good chance you’ll die before they have to pay you a cent.
The other insurance product worth a close look is long-term care insurance. Increasingly, this product is being linked with annuities to provide purchasers with choices—receive annuity payments or use the money for a qualifying long-term care needs. Generally, such hybrid products provide less bang for the buck than a pure annuity or long-term care policy. Also, keep in mind that your goal here should be to protect you and your family from ruinous health care bills. This is primarily an insurance product, not an investment.
Finally, the best annuity around is Social Security. It offers lifetime payments, annual inflation protection and government payment guarantees. That’s why I pound the drum of deferring Social Security until age 70, if it makes sense for your financial, family and longevity profile.
Philip Moeller is an expert on retirement, aging, and health. He is an award-winning business journalist and a research fellow at the Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. Reach him at email@example.com or @PhilMoeller on Twitter.