The Pros and Cons of a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)

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For homeowners looking to tap into their home equity, a home equity line of credit, or HELOC, is one of the best options on the market right now. Elevated home prices for the past year mean that many homeowners have increased home equity to tap into, while high mortgage rates have pushed cash-out refinancing — formerly the more popular option for turning home equity into cash — out of the spotlight. 

A HELOC is a type of loan that is secured by your house and works much like a credit card. It lets you access a revolving line of credit you can continuously draw upon for virtually any purpose, from home improvements to debt consolidation. Their flexibility and relatively low interest rates compared to other debt products make them a popular option for homeowners needing funding, but they carry some risks and potential drawbacks as well.

Before you take out a HELOC, here’s what you need to know about the pros and cons. 

What Is a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)?

A home equity line of credit (HELOC) is a line of credit secured by your home that you can use for anything. A HELOC works similar to a credit card in that you can continuously tap into the line of credit, up to the credit limit, during the draw period. You have access to the entire credit line and can spend as much or as little as you want, and you’ll only pay interest on the amount you spend. This makes it different from an installment loan — such as a home equity loan or personal loan — where you receive the full loan amount in a lump sum upfront.

HELOCs traditionally work on a 30-year model. You’ll have a 10-year draw period where you can draw money from your HELOC. Then you’ll have 20 years to pay off whatever you spent. However, other lengths of draw periods and repayment periods also exist. 

If you have an interest-only HELOC, you’ll only be required to make payments that cover the interest, not the principal, during the draw period. You’ll begin full principal and interest payments during the repayment period. However, experts recommend making payments toward your principal during the draw period if you can, to avoid larger monthly payments during the repayment period. 

Pros and Cons of a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)

Pros

  • Lower interest rates compared to credit cards and personal loans

  • You may have the option to lock in, or fix, your rate

  • Only pay for what you spend

  • Use the money for anything

  • Some HELOCs come with special introductory interest rates or waived upfront costs

  • You can borrow more money than with a credit card or personal loan

Cons

  • Variable interest rates could increase in the future

  • There may be minimum withdrawal requirements

  • There is a set draw period

  • Possible fees and closing costs

  • You risk losing your house if you default

  • The application process for a HELOC is longer and more complicated than that of a personal loan or credit card

Pros

Comparatively lower interest rates

While the exact rate you’ll get depends on your credit score, a HELOC will typically have a lower interest rate than a credit card or personal loan. The average interest rate for a HELOC is below 5% right now. Credit cards have an average APR of 14.56%, according to the Federal Reserve, while the current average rate for a personal loan is 9.41%.

HELOCs are variable-rate products, meaning that the rate will fluctuate over time, but even when HELOC rates rise they are still typically lower than most credit cards and personal loans. 

Option to lock in your rate

Some lenders offer the option to lock in, or fix, your interest rate on your outstanding balance so you’re not exposed to rising interest rates after you’ve piled up a balance, says Greg McBride, chief financial analyst at Bankrate.

While this option isn’t always available and may come with certain fees or a higher initial interest rate, it can provide more stability to borrowers in a rising rate environment like the one we’re currently in. 

Pro Tip

Shop around with multiple lenders to find the best interest rate. Don’t forget to factor fees and other upfront costs into the calculation.

Only pay for what you spend

Like a credit card, you’ll only have to pay for what you spend on the HELOC, plus interest. This is different from other home equity financing options, like home equity loans, where you would have to take out and pay back the entire loan amount regardless of whether or not you used it. 

This flexibility makes HELOCs good for projects where you don’t know the full cost at the onset. This way, the ability to tap into a large amount of funding is there if you need it, but you won’t be stuck paying interest on any money you don’t use, either. 

Use the money for anything

Just like a credit card or a personal loan, you can use the funds from your HELOC for whatever you want. Common uses include debt consolidation, funding home improvements, starting a business, or paying for medical expenses.

If you use a HELOC for home improvements, you may get a tax benefit. You can deduct any interest paid on a home equity loan or a HELOC if it is used to buy, build, or improve the home that secures the loan. You’ll also get the same benefit if you use a home equity loan for home improvements. 

Introductory offers

Some HELOC lenders will have introductory offers, such as waived fees or a lower interest rate for a certain amount of time, in order to attract customers. While you shouldn’t let the presence or absence of special offers be the sole deciding factor when choosing a HELOC lender, these offers can be a good way to save some cash upfront. Just be sure to shop around with multiple lenders and compare their rates and fees before making a decision.  

Larger loan amount

Because HELOCs are secured debt products where your home acts as collateral —  meaning the lender can seize it if you default on your debts — HELOCs tend to offer larger home amounts than typical credit cards or personal loans. How much you can borrow with a HELOC depends on how much equity you currently have in your home. Most lenders will require a loan-to-value ratio of 80% or less, meaning that all the debts secured by your home — including your primary mortgage, the HELOC you plan on taking, and any other debts secured by your home — must not exceed 80% of your home’s value. The exact borrowing limits can vary by lender and may also depend on your credit score and income. 

For example, if your home is worth $500,000 and your remaining mortgage balance is $300,000, you have $200,000 equity in your home. If your lender requires a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 80%, you can take a HELOC worth up to $100,000. 

Cons

Variable interest rate

Most HELOCs carry variable interest rates, unless you specifically choose a rate-lock option offered by some lenders. This means that your interest rate will be based on the prime rate plus a margin, and could change in the future as market conditions cause the prime rate to fluctuate. Most HELOCs come with an interest rate cap to prevent crazy rate swings, but there’s still the risk that your monthly payment could become unaffordable in the future if your interest rate suddenly changes. 

Right now, rates are trending upward, so make sure that you fully understand the terms of your HELOC and that you’re prepared to handle any potential rate hikes. If you want the stability of a fixed interest rate, consider getting a rate-lock option on your HELOC (if your lender allows) or a home equity loan instead. 

Minimum withdrawal requirements

Unlike credit cards and personal loans, which are good for smaller loan amounts, HELOCs may have minimum withdrawal amounts that require you to borrow a certain amount of money. HELOCs may also come with rules that require you to keep your line of credit open for a certain amount of time.

There is a set draw period

You will only be able to access your HELOC for a set amount of time. Most HELOCs use a 30-year model, where you have a 10-year draw period and a 20-year repayment period. After your draw period ends, you won’t be able to access your HELOC anymore and you’ll have to start paying back the funds you used. 

Experts recommend that you start making payments on your HELOC principal balance even during the draw period, that way you’re not surprised by a sudden spike in monthly payments once the repayment period begins. 

Fees and closing costs

HELOCs can be fee-heavy. Annual fees, application fees, appraisal fees, attorney fees, and transaction fees can add up. Not every HELOC lender will charge all of these fees, but make sure you know what fees could apply to you. Some lenders may waive these fees altogether, while others may waive them under certain conditions — such as if you keep your account open for a certain amount of time. 

You risk losing your house if you default

It’s important to remember that a HELOC is secured by your home, which means if you default on your payments, the lender can seize your house. And, like any other loan, late or missed payments will damage your credit score. 

Longer application process

Because HELOCs offer larger loan amounts than personal loans and credit cards, you’ll typically have to go through a lengthier and more complicated process to get approved for one. From application to closing, it can take a few weeks to two months to get a HELOC, experts say. 

In addition, since a HELOC is secured by your house, your lender may require you to undergo a home appraisal, adding an additional step and extra cost. 

Alternatives to a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)

A HELOC is a good way to borrow money at a comparatively low interest rate, but it’s not the only option. Here are some other popular ways to tap into your home equity or secure the funding you need:

Cash-out mortgage refinance

A cash-out mortgage refinance involves taking out a home loan that’s larger than what you owe on your current mortgage and getting the difference in cash. A cash-out refinance is a good option when interest rates are low or if you’re already planning to refinance for other reasons, but they’re less advantageous right now as mortgage rates have risen dramatically over the past few months and are projected to keep rising. 

Home equity loan

A home equity loan is an installment loan that’s secured by your house. You’ll get a lump sum payment upfront that you can use for whatever you want, and then you’ll have set monthly payments until you pay back what you owe. 

Unlike a HELOC, a home equity loan has a fixed interest rate. This means that your interest rate and monthly payment won’t change, even if market interest rates increase. 

Personal loan

A personal loan is an installment loan that lets you borrow a lump sum of money upfront, at a fixed interest rate, and pay it back in monthly installments. Unlike a HELOC, home equity loan, or cash-out refinance, a personal loan is typically unsecured and requires no collateral. This makes them riskier for the lender, which is why personal loans tend to have higher interest rates and require a good credit score for approval. Some lenders will issue personal loans to lenders with fair or poor credit, but that comes with a higher interest rate. 

Bottom Line

If you have home equity to tap into, a HELOC can be a good option to fund larger projects like home renovations or consolidating debt. But HELOCs are not without risk, and you could seriously damage your credit and even lose your home if you default. 

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