Even before the COVID-19 pandemic took hold of the U.S economy, many Americans were overstretched with credit card debt. Delinquent credit card debt (payments late by more than 90 days) rose 5.32% in late 2019, and the average credit card debt per household was $8,398 heading into spring 2020.
By recommendation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Commission (FDIC), most credit card companies did work with customers to provide relief options through the pandemic, such as temporarily deferring payments, lowering payments, waiving late fees, interest-rate reduction, and payment plans.
But many companies also responded to the pandemic by pulling back on some balance transfer deals and decreasing spending limits — and the tightened lending standards used over the past year are largely still in place.
When you’re dealing with debt on multiple credit cards, you need to make a plan for tackling it in the most efficient way possible. Here are a few methods you can use to start paying down your high-interest debt:
- Debt avalanche
- Debt snowball
- Debt landslide
- Credit counseling services
- Balance transfer credit cards
- Build an emergency fund
Best Strategies for Paying Off Credit Card Debt
There are three main methods of debt payoff you can consider: debt avalanche, debt snowball, and debt landslide.
Experts like Todd Christensen, author of “Everyday Money for Everyday People” and accredited financial counselor, recommend making the bare minimum payment on every account — except one.
Using the debt avalanche method will save you the most money, because it gets rid of higher-interest debt first.
In the avalanche strategy, you’ll put all your focus on the account with the highest APR, or interest rate. Once that card is paid off, move onto the next highest-interest account. This method will save you the most money in interest charges over time.
In this method, you’ll choose the account with the lowest balance and make higher payments only on that one (while paying the minimum on your other accounts), Christensen says. Once paid in full, the money you were putting toward that account can be used toward the next lowest balance. For each account you close, you can get a motivational boost to keep going toward your bigger targets.
Figure out which account you most recently opened and focus on paying that one down first. This system will focus on paying off debt while also rebuilding your credit rating, since most credit scoring models give weight to payment activity on newer accounts.
Other Ways to Pay Off Credit Card Debt
Credit counseling services
Certified counseling services are available through the National Foundation for Credit Counseling (NFCC). Counselors will help you teach you how to reach a debt-free lifestyle by offering strategies for current credit card balances and avoiding future debt pitfalls.
Balance transfer credit cards
Taking the balance owed from one credit card and moving to another is one way to assist in paying down your credit card debt. Many balance transfer cards offer zero-interest on balance transfers for a set period of time. After the promotional period, you will incur interest on your balance — unless you’re debt free by then. Be aware, though: Many balance transfer deals are “drying up,” according to Ted Rossman, industry analyst at CreditCards.com. Due to COVID-19 and the economic recession, “card issuers are nervous” and discontinuing certain cards such as balance transfer cards. They are concerned “people won’t be able to pay them back, so they are not looking to take on new customers,” Rossman says.
Through periods of financial hardship, racking up credit card balances might be your last resort when expenses are due. While you pay down your current debt, start building an emergency savings safety net, so you’re not caught in a debt cycle after your balances are paid.
Experts typically recommend saving at least 6 months’ worth of expenses for an emergency fund. Even a few dollars each month will grow over time, and help protect your financial health from future income losses and unexpected expenses. Begin with a $1,000 goal, and simplify the saving process with automatic transfers. Then, when you’re debt free, start directing the money you save on monthly payments toward building your emergency fund to an amount that feels secure.
Pitfalls to Watch Out For
Credit repair services
Not to be confused with credit counseling mentioned above, credit repair services offer to repair your credit in exchange for a fee. They will review your credit report and dispute errors and negative marks. However, you can access your credit report for free. You can also make disputes yourself for free using this dispute letter template.
Avoid missing payments
Late payments on your credit accounts can cost you more than you know. Payment history makes up 35% of your credit score, by far the most significant influence on your credit health. Always make at least the minimum payments or take advantage of deferment options to protect your credit score.
Low credit scores will affect many aspects of your life from insurance rates to the apartment of your dreams to the interest rate you’ll get down the road on your home or auto purchase.
Prioritizing Your Budget
A budget that fits your income and spending habits can help you pay down debt more strategically, and develop the habits to stay out of debt long-term. Determine the amount you can reliably allocate toward your debt each month — while still meeting your other financial necessities — to ensure that you’ll stay on course and become debt-free more quickly, . Then, revisit your budget regularly, so you can adjust it as needed based on your debt payoff strategy and goals.
How Much Credit Card Interest Costs You
Credit card interest isn’t just costly because of the high rates; it also accrues incredibly quickly. Card issuers calculate these charges using your daily periodic rate (your card’s APR divided by 365) and average daily account balance (your average debt throughout a billing cycle). You can calculate an estimate of your daily interest charges by multiplying these two figures. When you carry a balance on a credit card, daily compounding interest can really add up — and fast. So the sooner you can pay off any existing debt, the better. And once you are debt-free, continue paying your balance in full and on time each month to avoid interest charges.