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Known as the E.U.’s digital czar, Margrethe Vestager has taken on tech giants Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, and Meta since becoming European Commissioner for Competition in 2014. Operating far from Silicon Valley, Vestager is leading the global crackdown on the market power of Big Tech companies. Her investigations have resulted in large fines for some, as well as stricter rules. In September, Vestager and the European Commission won a historic battle with Alphabet-owned Google, resulting in a record €4.125 billion ($4.5 billion) fine relating to abuses in the mobile market, which ended up in the E.U. General Court. Now she faces resistance from some of the biggest U.S. companies as the E.U. pushes through rules for reporting foreign subsidies. She may also soon have some new targets in her sight—she has her eye on competition in the metaverse and has urged an agreement on setting guardrails for artificial intelligence.

Javed is a TIME senior editor

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