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A GUIDE TO THE CONGRESSIONAL RACES: TEXAS

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TEXAS

Population (1994): 18,378,000 (up 8.2% from 1990), 7.1% of U.S.

Voting-age population: 13,166,000; 1994 turnout, 33%

Median age: 30.8 years

Median household income: $30,755 ($1,509 below U.S. median)

Unemployment: 6.0% (0.4% above U.S. average, March 1996)

Last presidential election: Clinton (D): 37% Bush (R): 41% Perot (I): 22%

Congressional delegation: 19 Democrats, 13 Republicans

As a result of a June Supreme Court decision, nearly half of Texas’ districts will have new primaries on Nov. 5 and runoff elections–if no candidate receives a majority–in December. Thus the outcome of the battle for control of the U.S. House could have to wait a month, while Texans finish their wild political hoedown.

REDISTRICTING: Though three districts (18, 29 and 30) were found to be unconstitutional, 10 others (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 22, 24, 25 and 26) also had to be redrawn, affecting voters mostly in the Houston and Dallas areas. The candidate profiles on the following pages for these districts are shaded.

PHIL GRAMM (R) Senior Senator

BORN: July 8, 1942, Fort Benning, Ga. EDUCATION: U of Georgia, B.B.A., 1964, Ph.D., 1967 FAMILY: Wife, Wendy; two children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Professor POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate, 1976; U.S. House, 1978-84; U.S. Senate, 1984- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 565087, Dallas 75356. Tel.: 214-360-3700 As a member of Congress for 18 years–four of them as a House Democrat–Gramm has become a sophisticated political power broker with a firm conservative base and a reputation as a top fund raiser. Though little of the power and prestige translated into presidential votes this year, Gramm is the Goliath in this campaign.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare NO* National Service NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I did not come to Washington to be loved, and I have not been disappointed.”

VICTOR MORALES (D) Senate Challenger

BORN: Nov. 15, 1949, Racine, Wis. EDUCATION: Texas A&I, B.S., 1976 FAMILY: Wife, Dani; three children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: Navy, 1970-72 OCCUPATION: Teacher POLITICAL CAREER: Crandall City Council, 1994-96; Democratic precinct chair, 1994-96 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 870789, Mesquite 75187. Tel.: 214-329-3010

Being voted “Most Spirited Teacher” may not be the most compelling credential for the Senate, but after entering the race on a dare from his students, Morales logged 60,000 campaign miles in his pickup, using $8,000 in family savings and small contributions, and won the primary. Pundits give him little chance on Nov. 5, but improbability seems to be Morales’ unofficial campaign slogan.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion NR Guns YES Gays NR Bosnia NO NAFTA NR Welfare YES National Service YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I don’t have any hobbies. I don’t hunt and fish. I don’t spend money on golf. I’m going to take some of our savings and try this.”

ED MERRITT (R) District 1 (Northeast–Texarkana; Marshall)

BORN: April 17, 1957, Minneapolis, Minn. EDUCATION: Texas Tech, B.A., 1978; Baylor U, J.D., 1981 FAMILY: Wife, Suzanne; two children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 6, Longview 75606. Tel.: 903-236-4028

A lawyer with no political experience, Merritt says he has had enough of politics as usual. Committed to family values, he hopes to convince religious conservatives that he is one of them. But to win in this district, he’ll need more voters than the 8,000 who turned out for the G.O.P. primary runoff.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Like the legs of a stool, the Republican Party has three main constituencies; those interested in balancing the budget, those focused on government reform and those concerned with morals, character, the family. These are the three legs of the conservative movement. One leg is no more important than the other, but without each it cannot stand.”

MAX SANDLIN (D) District 1

BORN: Sept. 29, 1952, Texarkana EDUCATION: Baylor, B.A., 1975, J.D., 1978 FAMILY: Wife, Leslie; four children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer; county judge; fuel-company executive POLITICAL CAREER: Harrison County Democratic party chair, 1984-86; Harrison County judge, 1986-89; Harrison County Court at law judge, 1989-95 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1281, Marshall 75671. Tel.: 903-938-2228

Though the district is equal parts Republican and Democrat, Sandlin is better known than his G.O.P. opponent. He wants more money for children and senior citizens and would force countries such as Germany, Japan and Korea to pay for their own defense in order to help fund social programs. As a judge, Sandlin says he can bring a problem-solving fair-mindedness to Washington.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NR Abortion NR Guns NO Gays NR Bosnia NO NAFTA NR Welfare NR Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I will not be Newt Gingrich’s Congressman, or Clinton’s Congressman. I will be your Congressman.”

BRIAN BABIN (R) District 2 (East–Lufkin; Orange)

BORN: March 23, 1948, Port Arthur EDUCATION: Lamar U, B.S., 1973; U of Texas, D.D.S., 1976 FAMILY: Wife, Roxanne Richardson; five children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Texas Army National Guard, 1969-75; Air Force, 1975-79 OCCUPATION: Dentist POLITICAL CAREER: Texas State Board of Dental Examiners, 1981-87; mayor of Woodville, 1982-84; Tyler County Republican chairman, 1990-95; Woodville School Board, 1992-95 ADDRESS: 1203 West Dogwood, Woodville 75979. Tel.: 409-283-6895

A former disc jockey and lounge musician, this veteran Republican wants the Federal Government downsized and an end to affirmative action, gun control and most federal taxes. Vying for an open seat in this Democratic–though conservative–district, Babin has a chance.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I’m running for Congress for five reasons–my kids, Marit, Leif, Kirsten, Lucas and Laura.”

JIM TURNER (D) District 2

BORN: Feb. 6, 1946, Fort Lewis, Wash. EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.B.A., 1968, M.B.A., 1971, J.D., 1971 FAMILY: Wife, Ginny; two children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Army, 1970-78 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1981-84; mayor of Crockett, 1989-90; Texas Senate, 1990- ADDRESS: 603 East Goliad Avenue, P.O. Box 780, Crockett 75835. Tel.: 409-546-2000

With an endorsement from retiring Representative Charles Wilson, Turner claims the advantage of political heritage. The former mayor, who opposes regulation of small business, also claims a stellar career in the state legislature, with kudos as “Outstanding Legislator” and “Texas Crimefighter of the Year.”

THE ISSUES

Budget NR Medicare NR Defense NR Abortion NR Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia NR NAFTA NR Welfare NR Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “You have my word, irrespective of who serves as our President, now or in the future, Democrat or Republican: I will vote with our President when the President is right, and against the President when I believe the President is wrong.”

LEE COLE (D) District 3 (North Dallas suburbs)

BORN: Nov. 1, 1933, Dallas EDUCATION: Southern Methodist U, B.A., 1971 FAMILY: Wife Doris; four children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Navy, 1953-57 OCCUPATION: Telephone-company area manager (retired) POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 371 Ashwood Lane, McKinney 75069. Tel.: 214-368-0714

Cole jumped into politics in the redistricting rush in August. With his campaign headquartered in his home, the Southwestern Bell retiree is not considered a contender in this race. But that hasn’t prevented Cole from issuing position papers on everything from the budget to health care: he is “pro-children,” advocates a federal school-lunch program, says that every public school student must be able to read by third grade and believes that Medicare and Medicaid can be streamlined.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “To me, the Republicans are in the past. I think President Clinton has done a good job. I know I’m in the minority in this state–most everybody I talk to is a Republican.”

SAM JOHNSON (R) District 3

BORN: Oct. 11, 1930, San Antonio EDUCATION: Southern Methodist U, B.B.A., 1951; George Washington U, M.S.I.A., 1974 FAMILY: Wife, Shirley Melton; three children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Air Force, 1951-79 OCCUPATION: Homebuilder POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1984-91; U.S. House, 1991- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 516145, Dallas 75251. Tel.: 214-424-9573

Though Johnson has a master’s degree in international affairs, it came after his real foreign experience: nearly seven years as a POW in Vietnam. A long, heroic military career might have been enough for most people; Johnson found a new life in Congress. And he is so popular in his district, one of the nation’s most affluent, that no Democrat–until Lee Cole–has opposed him since he was first elected in 1991.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “It has become painfully clear that President Clinton and congressional Democrats would rather mortgage the future of our children for political gain than admit that the time has come for them to balance the budget.”

JERRY HALL (R) District 4 (Northeast–Sherman; part of Tyler)

BORN: Aug. 9, 1951, Denver, Colo. EDUCATION: Metropolitan Junior College, 1970-71; U of Indiana, 1973-75; U of Houston, 1994 FAMILY: Divorced; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Temporary-staffing-service executive POLITICAL CAREER: Republican nominee for Texas House, 1992; sought Republican nomination for Texas House, 1994 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1773, Rockwall 75087. Tel.: 214-772-3425

Like the conservative Fourth District–which gave Clinton only 28% of its vote in 1992–Hall wants power returned to state and local governments. He also wants to replace the federal income tax with a national sales tax. But Hall may have a tough time differentiating himself from incumbent Ralph Hall, who, in addition to sharing a surname, shares some conservative views.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Financial joyriding must be stopped. We need to arrest the bureaucratic chauffeurs who are taking the taxpayer for a ride.”

RALPH HALL (D) District 4 BORN: May 3, 1923, Fate EDUCATION: Texas Christian U, 1943; U of Texas, 1946-47; Southern Methodist U, LL.B., 1951 FAMILY: Wife, Mary Ellen Murphy; three children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Navy, 1942-45 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Rockwall County judge, 1950-62: Texas Senate, 1962-72; U.S. House, 1980- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 711, Rockwall 75087. Tel.: 214-771-4255

One of the most conservative of Democrats, Hall voted with the majority of his party only 36% of the time in 1994. He opposed the 1993 Clinton economic-stimulus package and, as a member of the Commerce Committee, joined Republicans in blocking Clinton health-care legislation. But in a district that gave Clinton a hearty thumbs-down in 1992, there may be better things than being a friend of Bill.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I fully and firmly believe that we’re going to find some cure for the dreaded diseases, cancer and diabetes [in space], because we can’t find them on earth.”

JOHN POULAND (D) District 5 (Eastern Dallas suburbs; part of Tyler and Brazos counties)

BORN: May 18, 1954, Lufkin EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.A., 1976; U of Houston, J.D., 1980 FAMILY: Wife, Charla; one child RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Candidate for Texas Railroad Commissioner, 1986; Dallas County Democratic chairman, 1989-90 ADDRESS: 6335 Prospect Avenue, Dallas 75214. Tel.: 214-821-2809

Pouland, a self-proclaimed centrist, was Texas coordinator for Jimmy Carter’s 1976 presidential campaign. But after a stint as a General Services Administration official, he has taken up the anti-government mantle, believing that 250,000 federal jobs could be cut without cutting services. If elected, Pouland vows to serve a maximum of six years even if term limits are not in place by the end of his third term. Though the district has been redrawn, this race attracted no new candidates.

THE ISSUES:

Budget NR Medicare NR Defense NR Abortion NR Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia NR NAFTA NR Welfare NR Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I’m pro-choice, and I ain’t Newt Gingrich.”

PETE SESSIONS (R) District 5

BORN: March 22, 1955, Waco EDUCATION: Southwestern U, B.S., 1978 FAMILY: Wife, Nita; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Public-policy analyst; phone-company executive POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Republican nomination for U.S. House, 1991; Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1994 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 140970, Dallas 75214. Tel.: 214-271-1196.

Son of former FBI director William Sessions, this self-described “lifelong Republican” has the right family-values image: he is a former eagle scout who claims never to have missed a day of work. Sessions favors term limits and the line-item veto and has pledged to donate his congressional salary to the federal-budget-deficit trust fund any year Congress doesn’t meet its balanced-budget goals. With Representative John Bryant (D) leaving to run for the Senate (he lost the primary), this may be Sessions’ year.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I believe that government is the problem and not the answer.”

JOE BARTON (R) District 6 (Suburban Dallas–parts of Fort Worth, Arlington)

BORN: Sept. 15, 1949, Waco EDUCATION: Texas A&M U, B.S., 1972; Purdue U, M.S., 1973 FAMILY: Wife, Janet; three children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Engineering consultant POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Republican nomination for U.S. Senate, 1993; U.S. House, 1984- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1444, Ennis 75120. Tel.: 214-875-8688

After finishing a demoralizing third place in the 1993 Republican primary for the U.S. Senate and failing to win the chairmanship of the Texas G.O.P. in 1994, Barton has finally enjoyed some legislative glory during the 104th Congress as a leader in the balanced-budget wars. And despite redistricting, he may avoid a runoff.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “There’s a lot of concern that we’re backing away from what we started out [to do] in this Congress. The year that is most important is the current year, and the deficit is going up, not down.”

JANET RICHARDSON (I) District 6

BORN: Jan. 9, 1959, Fort Worth EDUCATION: U of Texas, 1977-81 FAMILY: Divorced; one child RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: TV-production-company president; campaign manager; advertising executive; legislative aide POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1524, Keller 76244. Tel.: 817-379-9970

Host of a nationally syndicated TV show, Richardson enjoys more name recognition than most challengers without political experience. And she has earned the endorsement of the Texas State Teachers Association for her promise to fight cuts in education. Though a clerical error made her an Independent, Richardson is really a Democrat.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays NR Bosnia NO NAFTA NR Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “As a single parent and a businesswoman, I believe I understand what the people of this district are going through as we work hard to raise our families. We are all concerned about crime, health care and the economy … We deserve to have medical care, a roof over our heads and food on the table.”

BILL ARCHER (R) District 7 (Part of western Houston; western suburbs; most of Katy)

BORN: March 22, 1928, Houston EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.B.A., 1949, LL.B., 1951 FAMILY: Wife, Sharon Sawyer; five children, two stepchildren RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: Air Force, 1951-53 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House of Representatives, 1966-70; U.S. House, 1970- ADDRESS: 2001 Kirby Drive, Suite 713, Houston 77019. Washington Tel.: 713-973-2974

Archer arrived in Washington in 1971, taking the seat George Bush gave up to run for the Senate, and hasn’t left. He now wields enormous power as chairman of both the Ways and Means Committee and the Joint Committee on Taxation. A strict conservative, Archer believes in the free market and tax cuts. Once unopposed, he now faces a new Democrat and two Independents who entered this race because of the court decision.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Our challenge will be to do no less than pull the current income tax code out by its roots and throw it away so that it can never grow back.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 7

Three new candidates have entered this race to challenge G.O.P. incumbent Bill Archer.

Democrat Al Siegmund is campaigning for a 32-hour work week with a 12.5% increase in hourly pay. Siegmund, an engineer, defends affirmative action and says prayer and work should be required of all prisoners. He also says free lunches should be provided to all public school students.

Independent Gene Hsiao favors eliminating PACS and setting a 12-year congressional term limit. He wants to cut income taxes 30% to 50%, and would send violent criminals to island prisons with boot-camp discipline.

The other Independent in the new race, Robert (“Randy”) Sims, has built his campaign on three issues: balancing the federal budget without borrowing any money, stopping what he calls the massive flow of illegal aliens entering the U.S. and passing term limits.

AL SIEGMUND (D) 9918 Rippling Fields Drive, Houston 77064. Tel.: 713-890-9192

GENE HSIAO (I) 15622 Stoney Fork Drive, Houston 77084. Tel.: 713-270-1881

RANDY SIMS (I) P.O. Box 274, Alief 77411. Tel.: 713-777-5160

KEVIN BRADY (R) District 8 (Northern Houston suburbs; College Station)

BORN: Nov. 4, 1955, Vermillion, S. Dak. EDUCATION: U of South Dakota, B.S., 1990 FAMILY: Wife, Cathy RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Businessman POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1991- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 8277, Woodlands 77387. Tel.: 713-363-9297

Calling himself a “common-sense conservative,” Brady criticizes the size of the federal bureaucracy and the “coddling” criminal-justice system–safe positions in this solidly conservative district. He is an admirer of Jack Fields, the Republican who is stepping aside after 16 years of service to the Eighth. As a conservative, Brady also wants Texas’ “sunset laws” brought to Washington, requiring federal agencies to “prove their worth” by a specified date or be terminated.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The way I see it, every Federal Government job represents two that didn’t get created out in the private sector.”

CYNTHIA NEWMAN (D) District 8

BORN: Aug. 1, 1959, Albany, Ga. EDUCATION: Temple U, 1977-78 FAMILY: Husband, James; four children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Army, 1978-80 OCCUPATION: Public-relations consultant POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O Box 90443, Houston 77290. Tel.: 713-583-7275

Newman says her lack of political experience frees her from the grip of special interests. But her lack of enthusiasm for spending cuts on social programs may be the hardest thing for her to sell to the conservative Eighth. Among her proposals: increased federal funding for education and welfare reform that includes requiring grocers to contribute up to 5% of their food-stamp income to a training fund for welfare recipients.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Being new to politics makes me an excellent candidate because I owe no favors to any special-interest groups or individual.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 8

Though the special election has reopened this race, it’s still largely a contest between Republican Kevin Brady and Democrat Cynthia Newman.

After losing the primary to Brady before redistricting, Republican Gene Fontenot has decided to take another shot at this seat. A hospital owner who spent nearly $2.4 million in 1994 on a House bid in another district, he’s basing his campaign on a plan to tax sales rather than income. Fontenot, who’s never held office, says common sense is what’s needed in Congress. He thinks abortion should be illegal in all cases and strongly supports the Contract with America.

Democrat Robert Musemeche is also going for a second try, hoping a newly drawn district will produce different results. A lawyer and former real estate agent, he labels himself a moderate in order to appeal to conservative and independent voters. Musemeche says the Federal Government should work toward providing health care for all citizens, and wants to leave Medicare intact while balancing the budget.

GENE FONTENOT (R) 5807 Spring Stuebner, Spring 77389. Tel.: 713-823-0755

ROBERT MUSEMECHE (D) 3907 Colquitt, Houston 77027. Tel.: 713-626-5858

NICK LAMPSON (D) District 9 (Southeast–Beaumont; Galveston)

BORN: Feb. 14, 1945, Beaumont EDUCATION: Lamar U, B.S., 1968, M.Ed., 1974 FAMILY: Wife, Susan Floyd; two children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Teacher; tax assessor-collector POLITICAL CAREER: Chairman, Jefferson County Democratic Party, 1972-74; Tax assessor-collector, Jefferson County, 1977-95 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 21578, Beaumont 77720. Tel.: 409-833-1996

A moderate Democrat with endorsements from the Sierra Club and the Texas State Teachers Association, Lampson has no problem distinguishing himself from Steve Stockman. But being a Texas moderate also means supporting a balanced budget and tax breaks for small businesses that provide employees health insurance.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NR Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare NR Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: [Criticizing Washington politicians…] “who keep voting for more and more money to defend Germany and Japan while our future is threatened by Texas jobs moving overseas…I say let’s put Americans first.”

STEVE STOCKMAN (R) District 9

BORN: Nov. 14, 1956, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. EDUCATION: U of Houston, Clear Lake, B.S., 1990 FAMILY: Wife, Patti RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Accountant POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Republican nomination for U.S. House, 1990; Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1992; U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 57135, Webster 77598. Tel.: 713-996-6900

Unemployed and living in a station wagon when he arrived in Texas in 1980, Stockman unseated 42-year incumbent Jack Brooks in 1994 with a shrewd one-issue campaign–opposing gun control–that resonated with the district’s large gun-owning population. In Congress Stockman has drawn fire for such positions as calling the Waco raid on the Branch Davidian compound a ploy by federal agencies to build support for the assault-weapons ban.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “If the Democrats choose to make me their No. 1 target, they can. However, their personal attacks against me just prove they have an empty message and no real ideas of their own.”

NEW CANDIDATE District 9

Not only will the new Democrat in this race have to beat G.O.P. incumbent Steve Stockman, she’ll have to steal the Democratic vote from Nick Lamson, who originally won the primary.

Geraldine Sam, a kindergarten teacher from La Marque who still teaches full-time, says Stockman’s conservative views are out of sync with the district. She has no lack of enthusiasm for her campaign, saying, “You can’t put a price on grass-roots support.” She has been endorsed by the Texas State Teachers Association and has the backing of the Coalition of Black Democrats and several Galveston city-council members.

GERALDINE SAM (D) P.O. Box 1800, La Marque 77568. Tel.: NR

LLOYD DOGGETT (D) District 10 (Central–Austin)

BORN: Oct. 6, 1946, Austin EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.B.A., 1967, J.D., 1970 FAMILY: Wife, Libby; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas Senate, 1973-85; Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate, 1984; Texas Supreme Court, 1989-94; U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: P.O Box 5843, Austin 78763. Tel.: 512-476-8120

Forgotten in the Republican electoral wave of 1994 were people like Doggett, who won a House seat as a liberal Democrat. He remains a strong supporter of civil rights, gun control, universal health-care coverage and a greater commitment to public schools–though he reveals “New Democratics” by pushing for tougher penalties against criminals and forcing welfare recipients to work for their dole.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare NO* Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Of course, I’m delighted that the Republicans think I’ve made a good enough name for myself that they want half of it.”

TERESA DOGGETT (R) District 10

BORN: May 28, 1950, Milwaukee, Wis. EDUCATION: Wichita State U, B.A., 1971; Creighton, J.D., 1976; Harvard, M.A., 1982 FAMILY: Husband, John RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer, businesswoman POLITICAL CAREER: Candidate for Texas Comptroller, 1994 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 163747, Austin 78716. Tel.: 512-494-1996

The name game may earn this race some added attention–the challenger’s husband is the John Doggett who gave a memorable defense of Clarence Thomas in 1991. But so has the presence of G.O.P. heavyweights like Jeanne Kirkpatrick and Edwin Meese, who have campaigned for Teresa Doggett. Their presence may not help in a district that is one-third African American and Latino, but Doggett is not an average Republican: if she wins, she could be the only black Republican woman in Congress.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare NR Defense NR Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I don’t agree with this minority thing…In the world at large, I’m a majority.”

CHET EDWARDS (D) District 11 (Central–Waco)

BORN: Nov. 24, 1951, Corpus Christi EDUCATION: Texas A&M U, B.A., 1974; Harvard, M.B.A., 1981 FAMILY: Wife, Lea Ann Wood RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Radio-station executive POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Democratic nomination for U.S. House, 1978; Texas Senate, 1983-90; U.S. House, 1990- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 182, Waco 76703. Tel.: 817-776-6100

Edwards nearly altered the course of Texas politics in 1978, losing a Democratic primary to Phil Gramm by a mere 115 votes. He had to wait until 1990 to win a U.S. House seat, and immediately earned a reputation for independence as a member of the “Gang of Six”–one of six freshmen Democrats who repeatedly urged their reluctant party leaders to vote on a balanced-budget amendment.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO* Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “It is terribly wrong for Speaker Gingrich and the Gingrich Republicans of this House to use federal employees and their families as hostages during this budget debate.”

JAY MATHIS (R) District 11

BORN: June 7, 1966, Waco EDUCATION: Baylor U, B.A., 1988 FAMILY: Wife, Lydia; two children RELIGION: Protestant MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Insurance agent; estate planner POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 22033, Waco 76702. Tel.: 817-741-6529

The shift toward the G.O.P. throughout Texas gives the youthful Mathis his best chance of defeating third-term incumbent Chet Edwards. Mathis supports the Contract with America and would like to see a Federal Government with less influence on taxation and education. But it may be tough convincing Waco voters to support him: the 11th has only had three different representatives in the past 50 years.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NR Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Liberal ‘Hug-a-Thug’ policies have failed us. I favor tougher sentencing and no parole for violent criminals to keep criminals off our streets.”

KAY GRANGER (R) District 12 (Northwest Tarrant County; part of Fort Worth)

BORN: Jan. 18, 1943, Greenville EDUCATION: Texas Wesleyan U, B.S., 1965 FAMILY: Divorced; three children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Insurance agent POLITICAL CAREER: City zoning commission, 1981-88; Fort Worth city council, 1989-91; mayor of Fort Worth, 1991-96 ADDRESS: 1701 River Run, Suite 1113, Fort Worth 76107. Tel.: 817-496-4529

A pro-choice moderate who does not embrace the Gingrich agenda, Granger has been criticized for being too liberal for the Republican Party. But as mayor of Fort Worth she was praised for slashing the crime rate with innovative “community policing” and had a good base of support from the business community. She will need all of that support to win a seat that has not been occupied by a Republican this century.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I don’t agree with the N.R.A. that no weapons should be banned. It’s just that crimes in Fort Worth aren’t committed with grenade launchers.”

HUGH PARMER (D) District 12

BORN: Aug. 3, 1939, Fort Worth EDUCATION: Yale, B.A., 1961; U of Texas, Arlington, M.A., 1985 FAMILY: Wife, Evelyn; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Air Force, 1963-64; Texas Air National Guard, 1964-70 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1963-64; Fort Worth mayor, 1977-79; Texas Senate, 1983-91; Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate, 1990 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1629, Fort Worth 76101. Tel.: 817-926-1997

This seasoned campaigner, who took on powerhouse Phil Gramm in 1990 (losing by 23%), has a better chance against Kay Granger, another former Fort Worth mayor. A moderate, like Granger, Parmer believes in balancing the budget without sacrificing environmental preservation or funding for Medicare and Social Security.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “It’s the control of big campaign donations and dollars that causes Congress to represent special interests instead of people.”

SAMUEL SILVERMAN (D) District 13 (Eastern Panhandle–Wichita Falls; part of Amarillo)

BORN: July 9, 1962, Amarillo EDUCATION: Columbia U, B.A., 1984; U of Houston, J.D., 1988; West Texas A&M U, B.S., 1993, B.A., 1994 Family: Single RELIGION: NR MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Patent attorney POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 510 South Polk Street, Amarillo 79101. Tel.: 806-373-0701

Silverman believes his educational background–he has degrees in economics, law, physics and Spanish–and his work as a patent lawyer will help make him an effective legislator. A considerable contrast to the conservative Mac Thornberry, Silverman condemns the Contract with America. Unfortunately for the challenger, however, the local press focused not only on the U.S. House, but on his own: it was condemned by the City of Amarillo after neighbors complained of its disrepair.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I view Medicare not as an entitlement, but as a debt that we owe our seniors.”

MAC THORNBERRY (R) District 13

BORN: July 15, 1958, Clarendon EDUCATION: Texas Tech, B.A., 1980; U of Texas, J.D., 1983 FAMILY: Wife, Sally; two children RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Rancher, lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: 701 South Taylor, Suite 320, Amarillo 79101. Tel.: 806-371-8183

A freshman running for his first re-election, Mac Thornberry is not a political novice. He worked on the Hill staffs of Representatives Tom Loeffler and Larry Combest before defeating incumbent Bill Sarpalius in 1994. Thornberry’s mission is cutting the size of the Federal Government and protecting private-property rights. He showed his true G.O.P. grit by supporting closure of the Amarillo helium reserve. THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia YES NAFTA NR Welfare YES Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of the guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “If you try to do a good job and do what you said you were going to do, then you don’t have to worry so much about the next [campaign]. Because if you do a good job and do what you said you were going to do, it will take care of itself.”

CHARLES MORRIS (D) District 14 (Southeast; Gulf Coast)

BORN: March 27, 1940, Midland EDUCATION: Texas Christian U, B.A., 1963; U of Texas, L.L.B., 1967 FAMILY: Wife, Judy; two children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 139 East Hopkins, Suite 201, San Marcos 78666. Tel.: 512-393-5000

“Lefty” Morris believes his moderate political ideology suits his rural, oil-rich, Gulf Coast district just fine. He is a staunch supporter of federal regulation to protect the environment and a believer in the war on drugs. Morris also agrees that “wasteful government programs” should be halted, but wouldn’t follow the G.O.P. path in cutting agricultural programs, Medicare and funding for education. His campaign slogan: LEFTY IS RIGHT.

THE ISSUES

Budget NR Medicare NR Defense NR Abortion NR Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia NR NAFTA NR Welfare NR Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “We can have clean air and clean water, as well as protect the rights of property owners. I am committed to keeping the lakes, streams and coastline of the 14th Congressional District pollution free.”

RON PAUL (R) District 14

BORN: Aug. 20, 1935, Pittsburgh, Pa. EDUCATION: Gettysburg College, B.S., 1957; Duke U, M.D., 1961 FAMILY: Wife, Carol; five children RELIGION: Protestant MILITARY: Air Force, 1963-65; Air National Guard, 1965-68 OCCUPATION: Physician POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1976-84; sought Republican nomination for U.S. Senate, 1984; Libertarian candidate for U.S. President, 1988 ADDRESS: 837 West Plantation, Clute 77531. Tel.: 409-265-1996

Paul left the House in 1984–only to become a Phil Gramm casualty in a Senate primary–and wants back in. The controversial doctor has called for a return to the gold standard and a ban on abortion. He has also said that “95% of the black men in Washington, D.C. are ‘semi-criminal’ or ‘entirely criminal.'” He has tried to distance himself from such statements, but it is unlikely that Lefty Morris will let voters forget.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “No nation that undermined the family has ever survived, and the United States will be no different.”

TOM HAUGHEY (R) District 15 (South–Bee, Brooks, Hidalgo and San Patricio counties; McAllen)

BORN: May 25, 1943, Washington EDUCATION: U of Maryland, B.A., 1965; Capital Bible Seminary, Th.M., 1969 FAMILY: Wife, Linda Adams; one child RELIGION: Evangelical MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Minister; author; radio broadcaster POLITICAL CAREER: Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1992, 1994 address:Route 1, Box 18-J-12, San Juan, Texas 78589. Tel.: 210-781-5067

Haughey is a San Juan broadcaster, pastor and author of six mystery novels. As a politician, he espouses less regulation of small business, cleaning up the Rio Grande and firm support for the Contract with America. But he has also embarked on a “crusade” against pornography in Hidalgo County, helping close a well-known adult theater in the area.

THE ISSUES

Budget NR Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NR Bosnia NR NAFTA NR Welfare YES Medical Leave no (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “We’ve finally reached the point where the Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives will unite to dump a corrupt political system.”

RUBEN HINOJOSA (D) District 15

BORN: Aug. 20, 1940, Edcouch EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.B.A., 1962; U of Texas-Pan Am, M.B.A., 1980 FAMILY: Wife, Martha; five children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Food-processing executive POLITICAL CAREER: Texas State Board of Education, 1975-84 ADDRESS: 2901 North 10th Street, Suite I, McAllen 78501. Tel.: 210-686-6455

A fiscal conservative and social liberal, Hinojosa favors downsizing the Federal Government without cutting programs for education and senior citizens. As a member of the Texas State Board of Education, he helped create vocational high schools and South Texas Community College. In a district where Latinos account for 69% of the voting-age population and the Democratic party reigns supreme, Hinojosa is a clear favorite to take over for the popular retiree, Kika de la Garza.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I know what it means to meet a payroll while trying to comply with government regulations.”

RICK LEDESMA (R) District 16 (El Paso and suburbs)

BORN: July 29, 1954, El Paso EDUCATION: Coast Guard Academy, B.S., 1976; U of Southern Florida, 1981-82; Loyola U, Chicago, 1983-84 FAMILY: Wife, Beatriz; six children RELIGION: Christian MILITARY SERVICE: Coast Guard, 1972-83; Army, 1984-96 OCCUPATION: Insurance salesman POLITICAL CAREER: Candidate for mayor of El Paso, 1993; sought Republican nomination for U.S. House, 1994 CAMPAIGN ADDRESS: 7680 Gateway East, El Paso 79915. Tel.: 915-592-1776

Despite an easy primary victory, Ledesma faces a tough race against local hero Silvestre Reyes for this open seat. Divisions in the local Democratic party–increased by the retirement of seven-term Representative Ronald Coleman (D)–may have hurt Reyes. But Ledesma also hopes to lure the so-called blue-dog-conservative Democrats to his cause with tough talk about less government and a 12% flat income tax.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of the guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The Contract with America didn’t go far enough in scaling back government.”

SILVESTRE REYES (D) District 16

BORN: Nov. 10, 1944, Canutillo. EDUCATION: U of Texas, 1964-65; Texas Western College, 1965-66; El Paso Community College, A.A. 1977 FAMILY: Wife, Carolina Gaytan; three children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY SERVICE: Army, 1966-68 OCCUPATION: U.S. Border Patrol Chief (ret.) POLITICAL CAREER: Canutillo School Board, 1968-69 CAMPAIGN ADDRESS: 215 East Yandell, El Paso 79902. Tel.: 915-541-1134

With El Paso an immigration tripwire, the 16th District couldn’t ask for a better candidate than Reyes, whose controversial program to stop illegal aliens made him a symbol of national self-determination. And though he doesn’t want to be a one-issue candidate, the election outcome will likely depend on voters’ opinions of his tough stand on the Rio Grande.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NR Abortion YES Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of the guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “People like to think that this is one community, and it is simply not so. You’ve got the city of Juarez and the city of El Paso; the country of Mexico and the country of the United States.”

RUDY IZZARD (R) District 17 (West Central–Abilene)

BORN: Dec. 28, 1956, San Angelo EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.A. 1980; Baylor U, D.D.S., 1984 FAMILY: Wife, Janice Van Amburgh; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Dentist; cattle rancher POLITICAL CAREER: San Angelo City Council, 1992-95 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 5516, San Angelo 76902. Tel.: 915-655-0811

Izzard is a conservative, running in a conservative district against a conservative incumbent. What is so different about Izzard that voters would turn their influential incumbent Charles Stenholm, a conservative Democrat, out of office? Izzard says the difference is that he won’t have to fight his majority party to get conservative things done.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I don’t think the country wants people to go up there and do the Republican thing or the Democrat thing–they want people to do the right thing.”

CHARLES STENHOLM (D) District 17

BORN: Oct. 26, 1938, Stamford EDUCATION: Tarleton State Junior College, 1957-59; Texas Tech, B.S., 1961, M.S. 1962 FAMILY: Wife, Cynthia; three children RELIGION: Lutheran MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Cotton farmer POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1978- ADDRESS: Box 1032, Stamford 79553. Tel.: 800-391-0704

He started as cotton farmer in Texas, became a powerful boll weevil in Washington–a Democrat who supported Reagan’s budget and tax cuts–and now Stenholm’s conservatism has earned him the label blue dog. Nevertheless, this veteran Democrat has served his heartland district since 1978 with a mission to pull his party back to the center. In the process he has earned the respect of colleagues on both sides of the aisle–one reason he is expected to be returned to Washington.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO* Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Compromise is not a four-letter word. I have always been more nonpartisan; if someone has a good idea, we’ll roll up our sleeves and work with them.”

SHEILA JACKSON-LEE (D) District 18 (Downtown Houston)

BORN: Jan. 12, 1950, Jamaica, N.Y. EDUCATION: Yale, B.A. 1972; U of Virginia, J.D., 1975 FAMILY: Husband, Elwyn; two children RELIGION: Seventh-Day Adventist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer; congressional aide POLITICAL CAREER: Houston municipal judge, 1987-89; Houston city council, 1990-94; U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: 3701 Main, Houston 77004. Tel.: 713-737-8350

Though respected as a forceful advocate for the poor, minorities and women, the freshman Jackson-Lee was undercut by the Supreme Court’s June decision to invalidate her district. She is expected to win this race to keep Barbara Jordan’s old seat, but Jackson-Lee sees the high court’s ruling as a setback for civil rights.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “We have seen minorities, and particularly African Americans, Hispanics and Asians, coming into this body [Congress]. That is a republic. That is what we are saying to the American people.”

LARRY WHITE (R) District 18

BORN: Nov. 23, 1947, Oklahoma City, Okla. EDUCATION: Polk Junior College, A.A., 1968; U of Florida, B.S., 1971 FAMILY: Wife, Beverly Chandler; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Management consultant; small-business owner POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 1617 Fannin, Ninth Floor, Houston 77002. Tel.: 713-308-2198

Dismissing talk of Sheila Jackson-Lee’s 1994 landslide, White preaches a G.O.P. platform that includes downsizing the Federal Government and putting control of social-program dollars back into local hands. Complicating White’s political plans, two new Republicans have joined the race.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I really emphasize education because we’re trying to get to where people have the same opportunity … Right now if you ask people whether they think their children will ever achieve the American Dream, they’ll tell you no.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 18

Though the new 18th no longer has a black majority, incumbent Democrat Sheila Jackson-Lee remains the favorite in this race. Redistricting has given her four new challengers, however.

Jerry Burley gets a rematch with old adversary Jackson-Lee. An African-American conservative, he supports educational reform to give parents school choice and enterprise zones to create jobs. Democrat Mike Lamson is a Houston litigation attorney who favors using federal funding to punish violent criminals. He also defends public education, opposes school vouchers–and wants a manned landing on Mars within the next 10 years. Republican George Young is a Vietnam veteran and an independent business owner. He says he’ll restore a sense of family to the community and promote private businesses and safer streets in the district.

JERRY BURLEY (R) 427 West 20th Street, Houston 77008. Tel.: 713-669-1199

MIKE LAMSON (D) 7810 Bryonwood, Houston 77055. Tel.: 713-56-9269

GEORGE A. YOUNG (R) 200 Republic Building, 1018 Preston, Houston 77002. Tel.: 713-236-9202

LARRY COMBEST (R) District 19 (Western Panhandle–parts of Lubbock and Amarillo)

BORN: March 20, 1945, Memphis, Tenn. EDUCATION: West Texas State U, B.B.A., 1969 FAMILY: Wife, Sharon McCurry; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Farmer; congressional aide; electronics wholesaler POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1984- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 10667, Lubbock 79408. Tel.: 806-784-0950

The 19th District is a mix of Old West machismo and Sun Belt sophistication–home to oil, Cowboy Mornings, agribusiness and Texas Tech. Like the district’s economic prosperity, Combest’s political success comes from expertise in old and new technologies: he was John Tower’s agricultural-affairs specialist, is a member of the Agriculture Committee and chairman of the Select Intelligence Committee.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I believe making deep cuts in intelligence during peacetime is comparable to canceling your health insurance when you’re feeling fine.”

JOHN SAWYER (D) District 19

BORN: Dec. 16, 1948, Columbia, Mo. EDUCATION: Duke U, B.A., 1970; Princeton U, M.A., 1973; U of North Carolina, Ph.D., 1978; U of Maryland, M.S., 1984 FAMILY: Wife, Martha Louise Elks; two children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Biostatistician; professor POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 93668, Lubbock 79493. Tel.: 806-792-2100

Not wanting Larry Combest to be unopposed for the third time in the past six years, Sawyer, a public-health statistician, jumped into the fray. He urges citizens of this heavily agricultural district to take a hard look at what Republicans have not done for them, arguing that the kind of loose regulation that G.O.P. power brokers like Combest promote is a raw deal for farmers.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion YES Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA NR Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Democrats had a more stable approach to agriculture than Republicans have, so what we’re basically going to need is a Democrat-controlled Congress to get agriculture back in whack.”

HENRY GONZALEZ (D) District 20 (Downtown San Antonio)

BORN: May 3, 1916, San Antonio EDUCATION: San Antonio College, 1937; U of Texas, 1937-39; St. Mary’s U of San Antonio, LL.B., 1943 FAMILY: Wife, Bertha Cuellar; eight children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Teacher POLITICAL CAREER: San Antonio City Council, 1953-57; Texas Senate, 1957-61; sought Democratic nomination for Governor, 1958; sought Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate, 1961; U.S. House, 1961- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 15167, San Antonio 78212. Tel.: 210-472-6195

Henry B., as he is known, is a respected, if not always loved, legislator who called for the impeachment of Bush and (twice) Reagan and, through relentless investigations as chairman of the House Banking Committee, even helped end some Democrats’ political careers.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortions NO Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I continue to be deeply troubled by the severe budgetary limitations on domestic discretionary spending, particularly for the most vulnerable and working families.”

JAMES WALKER (R) District 20

BORN: Sept. 14, 1964, Santa Monica, Calif. EDUCATION: U of Utah, B.S., 1983, M.A., 1987, Ph.D., 1988 FAMILY: Single RELIGION: Mormon MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Research scientist POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 291070, San Antonio 78229. Tel.: 210-520-1105

Walker was born the year Henry Gonzalez ran for his second term. But age is not the only difference between the two. A conservative Republican and an academic, the earnest and educated Walker is against abortion and a waiting period on gun purchases, and for reforming welfare by turning control over it to the states.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The true greatness of America stems not from Washington and springs not from legislators and bureaucracies, but is due to hardworking men and women everywhere: in the factory, in the office, in the home.”

LAMAR SMITH (R) District 21 (South Central–western Bexar County; Austin suburbs)

BORN: Nov. 19, 1947, San Antonio EDUCATION: Yale, B.A. 1969; Southern Methodist U, J.D. 1975 FAMILY: Wife, Elizabeth Lynn Schaefer; two children RELIGION: Christian Scientist MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer; rancher POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1981-82; Bexar County Commissioner’s Court, 1983-85; U.S. House, 1986- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 6155, San Antonio 78209. Tel.: 210-826-1085

This nine-term Republican loyalist has made a name for himself in the 104th Congress as the chairman of the Immigration and Claims Subcommittee, where he has spent a great deal of political capital pushing for reform of immigration procedures. At the end of September, a Smith-sponsored immigration bill that will curb aid to U.S. legal immigrants passed the House.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The current legal immigration system is indefensible. We just can’t admit everyone who wants to come.”

GORDON WHARTON (D) District 21

BORN: Aug. 22, 1921, San Antonio EDUCATION: U of Southern California, B.S., 1947 FAMILY: Divorced; three children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: Air Force, 1942-45, 1950-53 OCCUPATION: Accountant POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Republican nomination for U.S. President, 1976, 1984; sought Republican nomination for Texas House, 1978, 1980 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 61502, San Angelo 76906. Tel.: 915-942-6132

A waist gunner in the 8th Air Force’s Eightball Crew in World War II and Korea, Wharton is a battle hero and an unrequited politician. He has run for many offices as a Republican, losing most of them until the Democrats made him their nominee for the 21st District. Unfortunately for the ardent environmentalist, poet and chess player, he is not given much of a chance of unseating Smith.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I will represent you as having the grace and good sense to leave a little foliage in the fence corners for the birds, and not to glean your field so closely.”

SCOTT CUNNINGHAM (D) District 22 (Southwest Houston and suburbs; Fort Bend and Brazoria counties)

BORN: Nov. 28, 1952, Chicago, Ill. EDUCATION: Princeton, A.B., 1974; Tulane, J.D., 1977 FAMILY: Wife, Angelique; one child RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY SERVICE: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Democratic nominee for U.S. House, 1994 CAMPAIGN ADDRESS: 4917 Evergreen, Bellaire 77401. Tel.: 713-237-1234

Taking direct aim at “G.O.P. extremists,” a group of which he considers his opponent Tom DeLay an integral member, Cunningham wants strong regulatory protection of the environment, universal health care and welfare reform that doesn’t hurt the poor. Cunningham would love to score a monumental upset of DeLay, but that seems improbable in a Republican district of wealthy Houston suburbanites.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Let’s stop the politics of hypocrisy, intolerance and division. Let’s send a new voice and spirit to Congress who can restore integrity and purpose to the process.”

TOM DELAY (R) District 22

BORN: April 8, 1947, Laredo EDUCATION: U of Houston, B.S., 1970 FAMILY: Wife, Christine Furrh; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Pest-control executive POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1978-84; U.S. House, 1984- ADDRESS: 10707 Corporate Drive, Suite 130, Stafford 77477. Tel.: 713-491-8663

Though he was not Newt Gingrich’s first choice as House Majority Whip, DeLay campaigned for G.O.P. candidates in 25 states, becoming one of the party’s top fund raisers, and won his Republican colleagues’ vote for the third-in-command position. A strict conservative who receives near-perfect scores from pro-life, pro-defense and pro-gun groups, DeLay is best known as a regulation buster. Redistricting will do little to place obstacles in Delay’s way to a seventh term.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The Democratic Party is to job creation what Dr. Kevorkian is to health care: a job killer cloaked in kindness.”

HENRY BONILLA (R) District 23 (Southwest–Laredo; San Antonio suburbs)

BORN: Jan. 2, 1954, San Antonio EDUCATION: U of Texas, B.A. 1976 FAMILY: Wife, Deborah Knapp; two children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Television executive POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 17292, San Antonio 78217. Tel.: 210-229-9591

Bonilla earned G.O.P. rewards for his unexpected 1992 victory in one of Texas’ largest, poorest districts. His party loyalty since then (he nominated Newt Gingrich for Speaker) has also helped. But conservative credentials have not prevented Bonilla from championing his roots in promoting NAFTA, lobbying for wastewater-treatment plants on the Rio Grande and publicizing the (Democratic) tax credit for low-income families.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “One of the greatest reasons…there has not been much job growth in this country in recent years is that…those who believe in free enterprise have to operate with handcuffs every day.”

CHARLES JONES (D) District 23

BORN: Sept. 13, 1947, San Antonio EDUCATION: St. Mary’s U, B.S., 1970; U of Texas, San Antonio, 1973-75; Texas Southern U, J.D., 1979 FAMILY: Divorced; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Army, 1970-72 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Democratic nominee for Texas House, 1986 ADDRESS: 1800 San Pedro Avenue, San Antonio 78212. Tel.: 210-732-4084

Despite Henry Bonilla’s popularity, Jones believes that the incumbent’s support of the Contract with America, links to Newt Gingrich and support for the federal budget only hurt the mostly poor people of the 23rd District. Jones, also Latino, is a moderate Democrat and has been endorsed by San Antonio’s AFL-CIO.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of the guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Twenty-five years ago as a young officer in Vietnam, I saw children with guns and old people rummaging through garbage dumps searching for food. Twenty-five years later I am now seeing in my own country children carrying weapons and people going through garbage dumps for food.”

MARTIN FROST (D) District 24 (Parts of Dallas and Tarrant counties; part of Arlington; Navarro county)

BORN: Jan. 1, 1942, Glendale, Calif. EDUCATION: U of Missouri, B.A., B.J., 1964; Georgetown U, J.D., 1970 FAMILY: Wife, Valerie Hall; three children RELIGION: Jewish MILITARY SERVICE: Army Reserve, 1966-72 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Sought Democratic nomination for U.S. House, 1974; U.S. House, 1978- ADDRESS: 800 East Abram Street, Arlington 76010. Tel.: 817-459-3870

Frost, Texas’ only Jewish member of Congress, is a career politician and loyal Democrat who, as head of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, has the daunting task of devising the plan to wrest the House from Republican control. On the home front, Frost has lobbied intensively for funding projects such as Dallas-Fort Worth Airport runways, Dallas Area Rapid Transit System, and the doomed superconducting supercollider.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO* Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Our message is getting across, and that is, the cuts [the G.O.P. House is] planning are radical and mean.”

ED HARRISON (R) District 24

BORN: Jan. 2, 1954, Los Angeles EDUCATION: Dallas Baptist U, B.S., 1980; Dallas Seminary, M.A., 1992 FAMILY: Wife, Trish; three children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Navy, 1972-73 OCCUPATION: Real estate executive POLITICAL CAREER: Precinct chairman, 1979-83 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 381697, Duncanville 75138. Tel.: 214-296-1674

Harrison, a fifth-generation Texan, gave Martin Frost a run for his money in 1994 and is waging a similar attack this time: blasting Frost for supporting higher taxes and more government regulation and for his ties to labor unions. Though he is an adept fund raiser, Harrison is running against the chairman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, who has spent his entire term raising money as part of his job.

THE ISSUES

Budget NR Medicare NR Defense NR Abortion NR Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia NR NAFTA NR Welfare NR Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “What Americans really want is simple: Allow them to take home more of what they make so they can provide for their future.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 24

Even after redistricting, the only newcomer in this race is Democrat Marion Jacob. A 66-year-old retiree, he says the country is “in a state of moral and financial decay” and that something must be done to increase workers’ earnings. Jacob also considers campaign reform among his highest priorities: he advocates requiring that all campaign money be raised in the candidate’s district, that pacs be abolished and a six-year term limit on House members be imposed.

Independent Dale Mouton was on the ballot in May and stuck through the redistricting to continue his campaign. Only 26, he is a law student at Southern Methodist University, and also considers campaign reform his top priority. A former Marine who served in the Gulf War, Mouton supports life sentences for twice-convicted child molesters and rapists. He also wants to “make prisons as uncomfortable as the Eighth Amendment prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment will allow.” Pledging he will not be forced to vote along party lines, Mouton says “the best way to fix the system is from within the system.”

MARION JACOB (D) 1408 Southwood Boulevard, Arlington 76013. Tel.: 817-469-1825

DALE MOUTON (I) P.O. Box 540891, Grand Prairie 75054. Tel.: 214-692-8263

KEN BENTSEN (D) District 25 (South Houston and Baytown)

BORN: June 3, 1959, Houston EDUCATION: U of St. Thomas, B.A., 1982; American U, M.P.A., 1985 FAMILY: Wife, Tamra; two children RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Investment banker; congressional aide political CAREER: Harris County Democratic Party chairman, 1990-93; U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: 5615 Morningside, No. 301, Houston 77005. Tel.: 713-660-8810

Bentsen, the nephew of former U.S. Senator and vice-presidential candidate Lloyd Bentsen, won his seat in 1994 despite being outspent five to one. A moderate, labeled “White House potential” by an influential Capitol Hill publication, Bentsen devoted much of his first term to balancing the budget, achieved by cutting discretionary spending and holding the line on taxes.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia NO NAFTA NR Welfare NO Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I’ve tried to spend time hearing more about issues than I knew when I got here…There’s so much more you need to learn.”

BRENT PERRY (R) District 25

BORN: Dec. 19, 1963, Baytown EDUCATION: Baylor U, B.A., 1986; U of Chicago, J.D., 1989 FAMILY: Wife, Carol Woodworth; two children RELIGION: Southern Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 4654 Beechnut, Houston 77096. Tel.: 713-665-8467

Though it will be difficult to out-smart Ken Bentsen, National Merit Scholar and University of Chicago grad Perry at least has the intellectual credentials to know what he’s up against. With advice also from former boss Representative Jack Fields, Perry is pushing for a balanced-budget amendment and term limits. However, Perry now encounters more opposition within his own party since seven other Republicans have joined the race.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of the guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I believe in the philosophy of Ronald Reagan: less government, lower taxes and more individual responsibility. These are the values I will fight for as the next Congressman from the 25th District of Texas.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 25

A wave of G.O.P. candidates descended on the 25th after redistricting turned the tables on the Democrats. Dolly McKenna calls herself a pro-growth conservative and decries the tax burden on small businesses in the district. Antiabortion activist and judge John Devine says he’s the only conservative with a “proven track record” in this race and has the support of the Christian Coalition to prove his credentials. One of his more interesting ideas: use the National Guard to secure the nation’s borders against illegal immigration. Ron Meike, a writer for Christian Alert magazine, offers “religious values” and economic conservatism. Other Republicans now in the race include former English teacher Dotty Collins, John Sanchez, who runs a medical clinic in Baytown and offers a “voice of reason” in the fight to reduce the deficit, Lloyd Oliver and Ken Mathis. The one new Democrat in this race is Beverly Clark. Jerry Freiwirth is the Socialist Workers Party candidate.

BEVERLY CLARK (D) P.O. Box 711474, Houston 77271. Tel.: 713-995-7286

DOTTY QUINN COLLINS (R) 502 Wilmington, Bellaire 77401. Tel.: 713-664-8879

JOHN DEVINE (R) P.O. Box 35960, Houston 77235. Tel.: 713-660-5960

JERRY FREIWIRTH (SWP) 4714 Clay Street, Houston 77023. Tel.: 713-921-6934

KEN MATHIS (R) 1906 South Memorial, Pasadena 77502. Tel.: 713-946-8874

DOLLY MADISON MCKENNA (R) P.O. Box 541594, Houston 77254. Tel.: 713-521-7744

RON MEINKE (R) 7902 Oakington, Houston 77071. Tel.: 713-774-4414

LLOYD OLIVER (R) P.O. Box 271503, Houston 77277. Tel.: 713-237-9389

JOHN SANCHEZ (R) 503 Bayland Avenue, Houston 77009. Tel.: 713-837-2273

DICK ARMEY (R) District 26 (Suburban Dallas; parts of Denton)

BORN: July 7, 1940, Cando, N. Dak. EDUCATION: Jamestown College, B.A., 1963; U of North Dakota, M.A., 1964; U of Oklahoma, Ph.D., 1969 FAMILY: Wife, Susan Byrd; five children RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Economist, professor POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1984- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 85, Lewisville 75067. Tel.: 214-416-4907 Like House Speaker Newt Gingrich, Armey is a professor who started as a political outsider and finds himself at the center of the inside–House Majority Leader. Armey was one of the architects of the Contract with America and embodies the conservatism that brought about the Republican revolution: he’s for free markets and flat taxes and against national health care, defense cuts, abortion rights and the National Endowment for the Arts.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The IRS is 134 years old. I just hope they’re not planning any celebrations to mark the big sesquicentennial.”

JERRY FRANKEL (D) District 26

BORN: Jan. 31, 1943, Jersey City, N.J. EDUCATION: Franklin and Marshall College, A.B., 1964; Hahnemann Medical College, M.D., 1969 FAMILY: Wife, Rhoda; two children RELIGION: Jewish MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Physician POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 860803, Plano 75086. Tel.: 214-491-7119

Frankel is a physician with an improbable mission: to defeat Dick Armey. A self-proclaimed Truman Democrat, Frankel says the House Majority Leader and his Republican cohorts have sold out the middle class in exchange for campaign funds from PACS and lobbyists. He promises to protect the American worker through minimum-wage increases and vows to fight for a ban on PAC contributions. But redistricting will not help Frankel’s chances, since the race has not changed.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The American worker of today has no voice on Wall Street. Too many companies, realizing healthy profits, reward today’s worker with a pink slip and a good recommendation.”

JOE GARDNER (R) District 27 (Gulf Coast–Corpus Christi; Brownsville)

BORN: March 26, 1949, Washington, D.C. EDUCATION: Southern Methodist U, 1967-69; U of Texas, B.A. 1974; Texas A&M U, M.B.A., 1975, B.B.A., 1990 FAMILY: Wife, Becky; two children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: CPA POLITICAL CAREER: Nueces River Authority 1987-95, president, 1992-94; State Board of Dental Examiners 1981-86 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 6070 Corpus Christi 78466. Tel.: 512-851-1996

Gardner has been thinking about this bid for more than 20 years, accumulating impeccable conservative credentials as advance man for Senator John Tower in the ’70s and as an economics student under professor Phil Gramm. Accordingly, he calls for the abolition of the departments of Education and Energy as well as state control of Medicare, Medicaid and welfare.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I am running on a plank of the repeal of the personal income tax, because I feel like an oncologist around April 15.”

SOLOMON ORTIZ (D) District 27

BORN: June 3, 1937, Robstown EDUCATION: Institute of Applied Science, 1962; Del Mar College, 1965-67 FAMILY: Divorced; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Army, 1960-62 OCCUPATION: Law-enforcement official POLITICAL CAREER: Nueces County Commission, 1969-77; Nueces County sheriff 1977-82; U.S. House, 1982- ADDRESS: 3649 Leopard, Suite 510, Corpus Christi 78408. Tel.: 512-883-5868.

A South Texas political pioneer for Mexican Americans, Ortiz has been a popular figure since his 1964 election as Nueces County constable. He has run unopposed for the House three times. And to the envy of his Democratic colleagues, he has overcome sudden minority status to get things done for his district, like keeping open Coastal Bend military bases.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I’ve been very vocal when I have had to be vocal, but the main thing is, we have to be effective and productive.”

MARK CUDE (R) District 28 (South San Antonio; Zapata)

BORN: Nov. 22, 1961, Pleasanton EDUCATION: Texas A&M U, B.S., 1985 FAMILY: Single RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Owner of finance and petroleum companies POLITICAL CAREER: Republican Precinct Chairman, 1990-94; Atascosa County Republican Chairman, 1994- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 308, Pleasanton 78064. Tel.: 210-569-5583

An experienced small-business owner, Cude was born and raised in the 28th District’s Atascosa County–as were three previous generations of Cudes. But in addition to fighting the popularity of incumbent Frank Tejeda, Cude is running in one of the most Democratic districts in Texas–Michael Dukakis won 57% of its vote in 1988.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “It’s time we took a personal hand in our own destiny and not continue to depend on someone else to do it for us.”

FRANK TEJEDA (D) District 28

BORN: Oct. 2, 1945, San Antonio EDUCATION: St. Mary’s U of San Antonio, B.A., 1970; U of California, Berkeley, J.D., 1974; Harvard U, M.P.A., 1980; Yale, LL.M., 1989 FAMILY: Divorced; three children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: Marines, 1963-67; Marine Corps Reserve, 1967- OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1977-87; Texas Senate, 1987-92, U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: 5101 South Presa, San Antonio 78223. Tel.: 210-534-8847

Tejeda left school at 17 to fight with the Marines in Vietnam, earning a Purple Heart and Bronze Star for valor. To heroism he added impeccable education credentials, then won a seat in the House. His Latino roots and war record make him a nearly invincible candidate in a Hispanic district with two military bases where 10% of the population is veterans.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: [On volunteering for Vietnam] “I was a grunt and proud of it. I wouldn’t have it any other way.”

GENE GREEN (D) District 29 (North and east Houston; Jacinto City and Galena Park)

BORN: Oct. 17, 1947, Houston EDUCATION: U of Houston, B.B.A., 1971 FAMILY: Wife, Helen Lois Albers; two children RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1973-85; Texas Senate, 1985-93; U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 16128, Houston 77222. Tel.: 713-691-1996

When the Supreme Court ruled earlier this year that the 29th District was improperly drawn to favor Hispanics, Anglo incumbent Gene Green had reason to laugh: his primary election opponent, Felix Farga, had already made race an issue and lost. As a nonminority representative of a “minority” district, Green is an anomaly–a winning one, however.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “In our country, more than any other in the world, people ought to be able to represent districts not based on ethnicity or the color of their skin.”

JACK RODRIGUEZ (R) District 29

BORN: Oct. 11, 1948, Houston EDUCATION: Milby High School, 1968 FAMILY: Wife, Lynn; three children RELIGION: Roman Catholic MILITARY: Navy, 1968-69 OCCUPATION: Business consultant; county commissioner’s aide; senior citizen’s council director POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 3084, Houston 77253. Tel.: 713-868-9070

Rodriguez is the first Latino to run in a general election for the 29th District seat since its creation in 1992. Though the district has been redrawn, no major-party candidate has entered the new race. With a 61% Hispanic population, most of which, polls suggest, supports such conservative issues as a two-year limit on welfare, Rodriguez may be just the right kind of Republican to upset Gene Green.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA NR Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The Hispanic community has never been able to go to a general election…the word on the street is, vote Hispanic.”

JOHN HENDRY (R) District 30 (Downtown Dallas; Irving)

BORN: Sept. 13, 1951, Fort Smith, Ark. EDUCATION: Phillips U, B.S., 1974 FAMILY: Wife, Pat Johnson; three children RELIGION: Christian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Medical sales executive POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: Box 795817, Dallas 75379. Tel.: 214-620-9868

Hendry appreciates the fact that the 30th is a Democratic district that incumbent Eddie Bernice Johnson drew for herself. He believes he can claim it for for the Republicans by proposing a platform of tort reform, gasoline-tax reduction, closure of the IRS, term limits, law and order, family values, the right to life, and limited government. It is likely Hendry will face Johnson again in a runoff.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NR Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “While we have been saying publicly that we wanted to achieve a color-blind society, Ms. Johnson drew these lines to encompass minorities.”

EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON (D) District 30

BORN: Dec. 3, 1935, Waco EDUCATION: St. Mary’s College, nursing preparation, 1955; Texas Christian U, B.S., 1967; Southern Methodist U, M.P.A., 1976 FAMILY: Divorced; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Registered nurse POLITICAL CAREER: Texas House, 1973-77; Texas Senate, 1987-93; U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: 2515 McKinney Avenue, Suite 810, Dallas 75201. Tel.: 214-871-9291

As chairwoman of the committee that created the district she now represents, Johnson was devastated by the June Supreme Court decision declaring the 30th District unconstitutionally gerrymandered. In what was once a fairly easy race for Johnson, she now may have to wait until a Dec. 10 runoff to reclaim her seat since six new candidates have joined the race.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “There’s a double standard here. Districts have been scrambled all over the state of Texas in the past and they elected white people and no one questioned them.”

NEW CANDIDATES District 30

This is the outcome Eddie Bernice Johnson feared. “You can’t beat her one on one,” says University of Houston political scientist Richard Murray about Johnson. But this free-for-all primary is anything but one on one. Now, with six new candidates (including two more Democrats), it will be almost impossible for Johnson to grab the 51% of the vote needed for an outright victory on Nov. 5.

The new contenders: Democrat James Sweatt, a thoracic surgeon, was the first African-American president of the Dallas County Medical Society. He opposes building more jails and supports public education. Lisa Kitterman is the only new Republican in the race. She advocates abolishing payroll taxes and instead funding Social Security through a consumption tax. Other candidates, none expected to do much more than take votes away from the frontrunners, include Democrat Marvin Crenshaw and Independents Ada Granado, Steven Hammond and Lisa Hembry.

MARVIN CRENSHAW (D) 5134 Oakland Avenue, Dallas 75215. Tel.: 214-421-0529

ADA GRANADO (I) 8923 Cartagena Place, Dallas 75228. Tel.: 214-327-2986

STEVEN HAMMOND (I) 1601 Cottonwood Valley Circle South, Irving 75038. Tel.: 214-630-7793

LISA HEMBRY (I) 816 Blaylock Drive, Dallas 75203. Tel.: 214-637-6660.

LISA KITTERMAN (R) 4510-29 Abbott Avenue, Dallas 75205. Tel.: 214-521-5772

JAMES SWEATT (D) 2745 Blackstone, Dallas 75237. Tel.: 214-780-1851

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