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A GUIDE TO THE CONGRESSIONAL RACES: SOUTH CAROLINA

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TIME

SOUTH CAROLINA

Population (1994): 3,664,000 (up 5.1% from 1990), 1.4% of U.S. total

Voting-age population: 2,740,000; 1994 turnout, 34%

Median age: 32.0 years

Median household income: $29,846 ($2,418 below U.S. median)

Unemployment: 4.9% (0.7% below U.S. average, March 1996)

Last presidential election: Bush (R): 48% Clinton (D): 40% Perot (I): 12%

Congressional delegation: Three Democrats, five Republicans

Once upon a time the Palmetto State was a bastion of Democratism–of the 99,000 South Carolinians who voted for President in 1940, 96% were members of the old coalition party brought together by Franklin D. Roosevelt. As recently as 1976, Jimmy Carter won the state handily. But that was the last victory for a Democratic presidential candidate in South Carolina–the state gave George Bush his second highest percentage (after Mississippi) in the nation in 1992. A one-man symbol of this trend–and many others–is the state’s 93-year-old Senior Senator Strom Thurmond, who, in his 67-year political career, has been both a Democrat and Republican and, by the end of next term, may also be the oldest Senator ever.

ELLIOT CLOSE (D) SENATE CHALLENGER

BORN: Sept. 14, 1953, Charlotte, N.C. EDUCATION: U of South Carolina, 1972-73 FAMILY: Wife, Laura Dabney; three children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Real estate developer; N.F.L. team co-owner POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: 2024 Main Street, Columbia 29201. Tel.: 800-256-7396

The president and CEO of Island Harbor Development Corp.–who also has a stake in the Carolina Panthers pro-football team–Close calls himself a fiscal conservative and social moderate. He advocates campaign finance reform that would limit spending to $1 per constituent and eliminate PAC contributions, which he does not accept. Whether or not Close makes age an issue, Strom Thurmond did enter the Senate the year after the challenger’s birth.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare YES National Service YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I’ve even voted for Senator Thurmond in the past, but I think it’s time for a new face and new ideas in Washington.”

STROM THURMOND (R) SENIOR SENATOR

BORN: Dec. 5, 1902, Edgefield EDUCATION: Clemson U, B.S., 1923 FAMILY: Separated; three children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Army Reserve, 1924-41; Army, 1942-46; Army Reserve, 1947-64 OCCUPATION: Lawyer; teacher; coach; education administrator POLITICAL CAREER: Edgefield superintendent of education, 1929-33; South Carolina Senate, 1933-38, Circuit Court of Appeals, 1938-46, Governor, 1947-51; U.S. Senate, 1954- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 11691, Columbia 29211. Tel.: 803-254-1345

The only living man to lose the presidency to Harry Truman, in 1954 Thurmond also became the only U.S. Senator ever elected by write-in votes. (He also educated himself in law and went on to pass the state bar.) If he wins and completes this term, Thurmond will also be the oldest Senator ever at 100.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays NO Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO* National Service NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “No matter how tough the going gets, I don’t give in and don’t give up. After all, they don’t call me the Thurmon-ator for nothing!”

MARK SANFORD (R) District 1 (East–part of Charleston; Myrtle Beach)

BORN: May 28, 1960, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. EDUCATION: Furman U, B.A., 1983; U of Virginia, M.B.A., 1988 FAMILY: Wife, Jennifer; three children RELIGION: Episcopalian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Real estate investor; investment banker POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 160, Charleston 29402. Tel.: 803-722-9034

Sanford is unopposed for the second of a self-imposed three-term-maximum House career. A political outsider first elected on a platform of term limits and campaign-finance reform, he is a budget cutter with a 100% ranking from the Citizens Against Government Waste, drawing criticism from his party for voting against a bill–because of a $2 billion increase in defense–that would have brought money to his state for social programs.

THE ISSUES Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia YES NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Nobody is wild about change, and I’m not saying these [Medicare] reforms are perfect, but it is a step in the right direction.”

FLOYD SPENCE (R) District 2 (Central and south–Columbia suburbs; Hilton Head)

BORN: April 9, 1928, Columbia EDUCATION: U of South Carolina, A.B., 1952, L.L.B., 1956 FAMILY: Wife, Deborah; four children RELIGION: Lutheran MILITARY: Naval Reserve, 1947-52, 1954-88; Navy, 1952-54 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: South Carolina House, 1956-62, Senate, 1966-70; U.S. House, 1970- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1475, Columbia 29202. Tel.: 803-779-4476

For the fourth straight election, Democrats are not running an opponent against Spence, the 13-term incumbent whose district is dominated by affluent–and Republican–suburbs. But Spence, a former Navy officer and the survivor of a double lung transplant, won’t know until after Election Day whether House balance of power will allow him to remain head of its National Security Committee.

THE ISSUES Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The fact that [the President’s] long-term defense plan is dramatically underfunded has become the most open secret in Washington.”

DEBBIE DORN (D) District 3 (West–Anderson; Aiken)

BORN: July 21, 1955, Washington, D.C. EDUCATION: U of South Carolina, A.B.J., 1977 FAMILY: Single; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Advertising manager; realtor POLITICAL CAREER: Anderson County Democratic chair, 1982-86; sought Democratic nomination for U.S. House, 1994 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 2223, Anderson 29622. Tel.: 864-375-0969

To beat an incumbent in a district that gave George Bush a 17-point victory in 1992, Democrats chose a person whose father was Third District Congressman for 26 years. Dorn believes her work on her dad’s campaigns and familiarity with fellow South Carolinians make her the choice over “Newt Get Rich” and the Republicans.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare NO Defense YES Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare YES Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “I will always be available–phone calls and written requests will be answered within hours or days, not weeks. I want to be your representative to Washington, not Washington’s representative to you.”

LINDSEY GRAHAM (R) District 3

BORN: July 9, 1955, Pickins County EDUCATION: U of South Carolina, B.A., 1977, J.D., 1981 FAMILY: Single RELIGION: Southern Baptist MILITARY: Air Force, 1981-88; South Carolina Air National Guard, 1989-95; Air Force Reserve, 1995- OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: Oconee County assistant attorney, 1988-92; Central city attorney, 1990-94; South Carolina House, 1992-94; U.S. House, 1994- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 1155, Seneca 29679. Tel.: 864-885-9600

Graham is one of the Deep South’s passionate new Republicans; the first G.O.P. Congressman from the Third since Reconstruction. Carrying the banner of federal downsizing–except for the military–and Contract with America reform with the zeal of a crusader, he was one of only 25 House members to vote against an April 1996 bill to fund the Federal Government for the rest of the year.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NR Gays NR Bosnia YES NAFTA NR Welfare YES Medical Leave NR (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “We will propose cradle-to-grave reforms, from how we get elected to what we do while we serve, to how we conduct ourselves when we leave Congress.”

DARRELL CURRY (D) District 4 (Northwest–Greenville; Spartanburg)

BORN: Nov. 10, 1933, Danville, W. Va. EDUCATION: Greenville Tech, A.A., 1978 FAMILY: Wife, Catherine; one child RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: Marines, 1952-72 OCCUPATION: Postal worker POLITICAL CAREER: None ADDRESS: P.O. Box 16, Greenville 29602. Tel.: 864-963-9568

Curry is taking on the Contract with America in a district that hates federal spending. He advocates the preservation of Medicare, Medicaid, Head Start, the EPA, and anti-crime and anti-drug programs. Since the Fourth gave President Bush one of his 12 best showings in the country in 1992, and in 1994 sent incumbent Bob Inglis back to Washington with a 3-to-1 vote, Curry is both an underdog and a long shot.

THE ISSUES

Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The Contract with America has turned into a Contract on Americans who can least afford it. Republicans continue to undercut the middle class and give huge tax breaks to the wealthiest Americans.”

BOB INGLIS (R) District 4

BORN: Oct. 11, 1959, Savannah, Ga. EDUCATION: Duke U, A.B., 1981; U of Virginia, J.D., 1984 FAMILY: Wife, Mary Anne; five children RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 361, Greenville 29602. Tel.: 864-421-9696 Inglis, who’s courting South Carolina legend by sleeping on an air mattress in his congressional office, approaches “right-sizing” the Federal Government with monastic dedication. For the nation’s good, he’s against pork-barrel spending and furthers his political zeal as co-chairman of the Term Limits National Campaign. In keeping with that duty, 1996 would be his last term–as he positions himself to challenge Senator Ernest Hollings in 1998.

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays YES Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: [On career politicians] “If I were looking for a brain surgeon…I would go to the most experienced guy or go to the most experienced lady. But I must say, that is not what we are looking for…to represent us.”

LARRY BIGHAM (R) District 5 (North central–Rock Hill)

BORN: Aug. 20, 1950, Chester EDUCATION: The Citadel, B.S., 1972 FAMILY: Wife, Kathy; two children RELIGION: Baptist MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: Restaurant owner; stock broker POLITICAL CAREER: Rock Hill School District Board of Trustees, 1982-92; Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1994 ADDRESS: P.O. Box 11745, Rock Hill 29731. Tel.: 803-324-3500

Bigham, owner of Thursdays Too restaurant in Rock Hill, burst onto the political scene in 1994, coming within four points of beating incumbent John Spratt–who had never won with less than 61% of the vote. Better known than two years ago, Bingham is determined to carry his reformist platform to victory, advocating term limits, citizen legislators and limitations on PAC contributions, while linking his opponent to Clinton’s “liberal agenda.”

THE ISSUES

Budget YES Medicare YES Defense NO Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare YES Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Whether they’re six, eight or 12 years, the main goal is term limits and true representation by citizens, not career politicians.”

JOHN SPRATT (D) District 5

BORN: Nov. 1, 1942, Charlotte, N.C. EDUCATION: Davidson College, A.B., 1964; Oxford U, M.A., 1966; Yale U, LL.B., 1969 FAMILY: Wife, Jane; three children RELIGION: Presbyterian MILITARY: Army, 1969-71 OCCUPATION: Lawyer POLITICAL CAREER: U.S. House, 1982- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 830, York 29745. Tel.: 803-328-0114

Though his opponent would disagree, Spratt seems neither a loyal Clinton ally nor a blind follower of the Republican leadership. But since his narrow victory over conservative Larry Bigham in 1994, Spratt has supported much of the Contract with America and spent more weekends at home talking with constituents. He also–from his seat on the National Security Committee–helped secure more than $14 million in federal money for Shaw Air Force Base in Sumter.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion YES Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA YES Welfare NO* Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “The President has his program, and I have mine. I suppose it would help if we had someone at the top of the ticket who would draw votes in South Carolina.”

JAMES CLYBURN (D) District 6 (Central and south–Florence; parts of Columbia and Charleston)

BORN: July 21, 1940, Sumter EDUCATION: South Carolina State College, B.S., 1962 FAMILY: Wife, Emily; three children RELIGION: African Methodist Episcopal MILITARY: None OCCUPATION: State official POLITICAL CAREER: South Carolina human-affairs commissioner, 1974-92; U.S. House, 1992- ADDRESS: P.O. Box 12567, Columbia 29211. Tel.: 202-225-3315

In 1992 Clyburn became the first black South Carolinian elected to the House since George Washington Murray left Capitol Hill in 1897. He has often been the only liberal South Carolina vote in the 104th Congress, but uses his ability to work with both parties to deliver federal funding to the district.

THE ISSUES Budget NO Medicare NO Defense NO Abortion NO Guns YES Gays YES Bosnia NO NAFTA NO Welfare NO Medical Leave YES (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “We should not be so distressed about the geometric correctness or abstract value of a congressional district, but instead glory in our ability to fashion peaceful and tolerable remedies to one of our longstanding social ills.”

GARY MCLEOD (R) District 6

BORN: Nov. 28, 1942, Leonardtown, Md. EDUCATION: Camden Military Academy, graduated 1960 FAMILY: Divorced; one child RELIGION: Methodist MILITARY: Navy, 1960-64 OCCUPATION: Dairy farmer POLITICAL CAREER: Republican nominee for U.S. House, 1994 ADDRESS: Route 6, Box 46, Manning 29102. Tel.: 800-946-4279

McLeod lost big to James Clyburn in 1994, but was also heavily outspent. He wants creationism taught in schools and hopes his social conservatism attracts religious blacks as well as whites in the Sixth. Were he to win, he would be one of Congress’s strictest constitutionalists, advocating a drastic contraction of the Federal Government, including elimination of federal income and inheritance taxes in favor of a consumption tax.

THE ISSUES Budget YES Medicare YES Defense YES Abortion YES Guns NO Gays NO Bosnia YES NAFTA NO Welfare NR Medical Leave NO (For an explanation of these issues, see the front of this guide.)

QUOTE OF NOTE: “Our government sanctions the killing of 30 million babies and spends the majority of time figuring out how to take our property and give it to someone who didn’t earn it. That is socialism.”

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