Illustration by Neil Jamieson for TIME
July 9, 2021 7:00 AM EDT

The Tokyo Olympics won’t be anything like the Games you’ve watched in the past. Athletes will be competing with no spectators, without even their families to cheer them on, among other restrictions. These strict on-the-ground rules, will be in effect because of the COVID-19 pandemic that just triggered a new state of emergency for Tokyo. But the global event is moving forward, and roughly 11,000 participants are headed to Tokyo for the Games. Such a massive group of elite athletes are sure to bring thrilling competition, gripping rivalries and moments for the record books.

Here are 48 to watch when the Games formally kick off on July 23.

(Click each plus sign to read more.)

Simone Biles

Gymnastics, U.S.

Simone Biles competes on the beam during the 2021 GK U.S. Classic gymnastics competition on May 22, 2021 in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Emilee Chinn—Getty Images

When the greatest gymnast of all time got the notice in March that every aspiring Olympian was dreading—that the Games were postponed by a year—it hit hard.

“I was angry, I was annoyed, I was sad,” says Simone Biles, the reigning Olympic all-around gymnastics champion. “I had to let myself feel all the emotions. I 100% felt like I didn’t plan this—now we have to go back to the drawing board and deal with a lot of variables. But at the end of the day, this is bigger than me. We have to make sure that everybody in the world is safe.” Still, she adds, “it did suck.”

Read more

Zoom workouts with her coaches and teammates, walks with her dogs, and alternating fits of housecleaning with Netflix binges got her through the two months her gym was under lockdown. When she was allowed back in for modified workouts, her new coaches, Cecile and Laurent Landi, focused on the fundamentals to make the already unrivaled Biles even better.

Undefeated in the all-around competition in women’s gymnastics since 2013, Biles will essentially be competing against herself in Tokyo. Her signature skills, which test the limits of human ability—and gravity—collect enough difficulty points that she’s often far ahead of her closest competitor. Indeed, for all but a handful of rivals, the competition is essentially over before it begins.

Biles is planning to make history in Tokyo as the first female gymnast to perform a dangerously difficult vault that only men have pulled off at the Games so far. That’s on top of the beam dismount named after her that’s so risky, the International Gymnastics Federation didn’t reward it with a high difficulty value to discourage other gymnasts from trying it and potentially injuring themselves, along with two gravity-­defying tumbling skills that have become hallmarks of her floor routine. The Landis say Biles is not chasing medals, only testing herself to see how far she—and gymnastics—can go.

While Biles’ close-knit family won’t be in Tokyo to cheer her on because of COVID-19 restrictions, they and the dozens of young gymnasts who train with her at the gym her parents own in Spring, Texas, are planning a sleepover and watch party like none other on her competition days. Several hundred people will gather at the gym for food, festivities and a livestream of the action in Tokyo. “We’ll have a huge screen and have a live feed; it’s going to be awesome,” says her mom Nellie. The show should be amazing to watch—even without much suspense. —Alice Park

Ariarne Titmus

Swimming, Australia

When Ariarne Titmus swam the second fastest women’s 400-m freestyle in history at the Australian swimming trials in June, observers called it a “warning shot” to U.S. powerhouse Katie Ledecky, who set the world record at the Rio Olympics.

Read more

Titmus has already shown that she’s capable of beating Ledecky; she won in a stunning upset against the U.S. swimmer in the 400-m freestyle at the 2019 world championships, though Ledecky dropped out of two races at that event because of illness. The rivalry between the Australian and U.S. swim teams, a highlight of the Summer Olympics for decades, will be showcased once again in Tokyo. At the trials, 20-year-old Titmus, nicknamed the Terminator, predicted, “I think the Olympics are not going to be all America’s way.” —Amy Gunia

Alex Morgan

Soccer, U.S.

Tottenham Hotspur's Alex Morgan warming up before the Continental Cup match at Meadow Park, London.
Adam Davy—PA Images/Getty Images

If the U.S. Women’s National Soccer Team has one last goal to accomplish, it’s this: becoming the first women’s team to ever win a World Cup and an Olympics, back to back. Alex Morgan, the fifth leading goal scorer in the team’s history, will be key to preventing another letdown: past U.S. World Cup victories, in 1999 and 2015, were followed by Olympic disappointment.

Read more

Morgan’s original plan for Tokyo was to play just months after giving birth to her first child, daughter Charlie, in May 2020. With the postponement of the Games, Morgan was able to gradually round into top form for her third Olympics; she scored a goal in a tune-up against France, and was named National Women’s Soccer League player of the month in May, after scoring a goal in each of the first four games with the Orlando Pride this season. —Sean Gregory

Caeleb Dressel

Swimming, U.S.

There’s no missing Caeleb Dressel on the pool deck. Blanketing his left arm is a sleeve of ink that captures the qualities that make the 24-year-old Floridian the swimmer to watch in multiple events in Tokyo.

Read more

Beginning on his shoulder, an eagle with outstretched wings floats atop a growling bear, which sits above a tooth-baring gator (an homage to his alma mater, the University of Florida). Dressel calls them his “spirit animals,” from which he channels the power, ferocity and speed that drove him to a history-­making eight medals at the 2019 world championships (that’s one more than Phelps’ record at the event). The world-record holder in the 100-m butterfly has a shot at seven medals in Tokyo. —Alice Park

Allyson Felix

Track and Field, U.S.

Photograph by Djeneba Aduayom for TIME

Get a print of TIME’s Tokyo Olympics cover featuring Allyson Felix here

With one more medal in Tokyo, Allyson Felix—who has already won more world-championship gold medals than any other track-and-field athlete ever—will become the most decorated female track-and-field athlete in Olympic history. And now her influence resonates well beyond her records. —Sean Gregory


Read Allyson Felix’s full profile here

Gabriel Medina

Surfing, Brazil

There may be no one better suited to making the sporting masses fall in love with surfing in its Olympic debut than this 27-year-old Brazilian. The world’s top-ranked surfer, Gabriel Medina is known for an exhilarating acrobatic style, frequently soaring above the waves for highly technical maneuvers.

Read more

In 2016, he became the first surfer to complete a backflip with his board over the water in competition. Medina grew up on Brazil’s southern Atlantic coast, where the swell is consistently large. That’s a far cry from what he’ll encounter at Japan’s ­Tsurigasaki Beach. “[The waves] are small and funky,” he told the Guardian in May. “But if you want to be the best, you gotta do everything in any conditions.” —Ciara Nugent

Kevin Durant

Basketball, U.S.

Kevin Durant of the Brooklyn Nets looks to shoot against the Boston Celtics in Game Five of the First Round of the 2021 NBA Playoffs at Barclays Center on June 01, 2021 in Brooklyn, New York.
Steven Ryan—Getty Images

Despite his heroic effort in the second round of this year’s NBA playoffs—he scored 48 points and played all 53 minutes in a Game 7 overtime loss to the Milwaukee Bucks—Kevin Durant couldn’t carry his star-­studded Brooklyn Nets to a championship.

But he should still collect some hardware this summer.

Read more

Durant chose to play in Tokyo despite missing 37 games last season because of injuries and COVID-19 issues, and the entire 2019–20 season with an Achilles injury. But the allure of a third straight gold—Durant was Team USA’s leading scorer in both London and Rio—is strong. He’ll also reunite with his former Golden State Warriors coach Steve Kerr, who will serve as assistant coach at the Olympics, and former teammate Draymond Green. Many of the NBA’s biggest names are sitting out Tokyo, but Durant will anchor a U.S. squad that’s still the heavy favorite to win it all. —Sean Gregory

Emily Seebohm

Swimming, Australia

The five-time Olympic medalist heads to her fourth Games with a newfound purpose outside the pool. In January, Emily Seebohm, 29, revealed she had battled an eating disorder for two years, saying on social media that bingeing, purging and continually weighing herself resulted in part from pressure she felt that “the only way I can swim faster is by losing weight.”

Read more

Seebohm vowed in her post to “give my body the love it deserves,” and in June she snagged the second spot in the 100-m backstroke at Australia’s Olympic trials. Seebohm wasn’t specific about what was behind her own eating disorder, but ahead of those national trials, Swimming Australia was hit by allegations of a toxic culture, particularly for women. Butterfly specialist Madeline Groves pulled out of the event, citing “misogynistic perverts” who “body shame or medically gaslight [young women and girls].” Australian swimming officials said they were investigating Groves’ claims. —Alice Park

Hend Zaza

Table Tennis, Syria

Syria's table tennis player Hind Zaza plays during the local clubs championship on March 13, 2020 in Damascus, Syria.
Photo by Louai Beshara—AFP/Getty Images

Just 12 years old, Hend Zaza is set to be the youngest athlete to compete in Tokyo­—and one of the youngest to ever qualify for the Games—a feat that’s possible because table tennis, unlike some Olympic sports, has no age restrictions.

Read more

The young Syrian bested a 42-year-old opponent in last year’s Western Asia Olympic Qualification tournament to make it to the the Games from a 155th-place ranking. Her appearance in Tokyo will also mark a milestone for her country: Syria has never entered a table-tennis player in the Games through qualification.

Zaza is little-known at the sport’s elite level, which is dominated by players from China, South Korea, Japan and Germany. Her coach has said that because of the civil war that has ravaged the country for more than a decade, Zaza has been unable to enter many tournaments. While her odds of advancing in Tokyo are slim, her presence alone is a triumph. —Raisa Bruner

Hannah Roberts


BMX racing has been a part of the Summer Olympics since 2008, but the sport’s freestyle competition will debut in Tokyo. The current reigning women’s champion in the event, Hannah Roberts is the first woman to land a 360 tailwhip in competition, and won all three World Cup events in 2019 and 2020.

Read more

She began biking as a 9-year-old in Michigan—and early into her training, she fractured a vertebra. After recovering, she entered her first competition. Now

19, Roberts is just as confident as an advocate for pay equity in the sport, calling out disparities in prize money and sponsorship opportunities. It’s an issue she’s hopeful the Olympics—where Roberts is the favorite for gold—will help remedy. —Raisa Bruner

Sue Bird

Photograph by Paola Kudacki for TIME

Get a print of TIME’s Tokyo Olympics cover featuring Sue Bird here

Sue Bird, 40, has assumed the role of wizened veteran, both on and off the court. Now the WNBA’s all-time assists leader, Bird will bring her extraordinary floor vision to the Tokyo Olympics, where she and teammate Diana Taurasi hope to become the first basketball players to win five Olympic gold medals. Former teammate Staley is now their coach. —Sean Gregory


Read Sue Bird’s full profile here

Carissa Moore

Surfing, U.S.

These are heady times in competitive surfing. Long considered an outsider’s sport, it requires intense athleticism and highly technical skills that will be on display for the whole world when surfing makes its Olympic debut in Tokyo. Carissa Moore, a native Hawaiian and four-time World Surf League (WSL) champion, is the favorite to take home that first gold.

Read more

That’s because Moore’s arsenal of highlight-­reel aerials—twists, grabs, turns and other maneuvers performed above the cresting wave—is unparalleled. During an event in Australia in April, Moore completed the biggest one of her dominant career: her board rose over the wave as she twisted it and grabbed it with her left hand before landing cleanly in the water. The air reverse earned her a score of 9.9 out of 10. She clutched her head, with both hands, in disbelief. “It was so rad because I didn’t think about it,” Moore says. “It just happened.”

“She’s someone who’s broken the barriers of what is possible to do on a wave,” says Jessi Miley-Dyer, a former pro surfer who now oversees competition for the WSL. “That’s the benchmark right now for modern surfing. It’s so important.”

The sport has also been a leader in equal pay for women and men, an elusive goal for so many Olympic athletes. In September 2018, the WSL announced it would offer the same prize money to women and men on tour. That’s a big jump from Moore’s rookie year, in 2010, when the men’s world champion earned a $100,000 bonus and the women’s champ took home $30,000. Both the men’s and women’s winners of the 2021 WSL finals will receive $200,000. “For me, the fight was in the water,” Moore tells TIME. “I was trying to prove that we deserved to be on that level.”

After the WSL canceled its 2020 season because of the COVID-19 pandemic, Moore, 28, has returned to the top of the rankings this year, thanks to four strong performances at events in Australia in April and May. “The best way to warm up for the Olympics,” she says, “is to make sure all the competitive juices are flowing.”

In Tokyo, rivals like Australia’s Stephanie Gilmore, a seven-time WSL champ, and 19-year-old American upstart Caroline Marks will challenge Moore for the sport’s first gold in Chiba, Japan, site of the Olympic surfing beach.

“I know we’re going to bring our best and really put on a good show,” says Moore. “I hope for all those little girls that are watching and dreaming, it really inspires them to go big.” —Sean Gregory

Gwen Berry

Track and Field, U.S.

Gwen Berry of the United States competes in the Women's Hammer qualification on September 27, 2019 in Doha, Qatar.
Matthias Hangst—Getty Images

Gwen Berry refuses to shut up and throw the hammer. When Berry raised a fist on the medal podium during “The Star-Spangled Banner’’ at the 2019 Pan Am Games, the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Committee put her on a 12-month probation. It later apologized, but she’s said she lost sponsors, and 80% of her income, in the aftermath. At the trials on June 26, where she qualified for her second consecutive Olympics, Berry turned away from the U.S. flag during the national anthem.

Read more

The anthem had been played only once a night, and on that night it was while Berry was on the podium for placing third in the hammer throw. “I feel like it was a setup, and they did it on purpose,’’ Berry said. “I was pissed, to be honest.” The IOC has said that athletes can protest at the Games before events but not on the medals stand. Berry isn’t backing down. “When I get there,” she says, “I’ll figure out something to do.” —Sean Gregory

Janja Garnbret

Sport Climbing, Slovenia

Janja Garnbret grew up scrambling over furniture and up trees and hasn’t stopped since. The 22-year-old is widely recognized as the top woman in climbing and her country’s best hope for a gold medal in Tokyo.

Read more

She’s racked up a whopping 46 World Cup podium finishes as well as world championship titles in bouldering and lead climbing—two of the three disciplines that will make up the competition in the sport’s Olympic debut. The third, speed climbing, is her weakest event but one she’s worked to improve over the past year. With its daring jumps and superhero-like moves, climbing is poised to be a breakout hit of these Games—and Garnbret an emerging star. It’s a burden she happily shoulders. “I have a responsibility to show the sport to the world and to set a good example,” Garnbret told TIME earlier this year. “I’m going there to enjoy it, because I know if I enjoy it, everything will be O.K.” —Raisa Bruner

Masahiro Tanaka

Baseball, Japan

Masahiro Tanaka of the New York Yankees warms up in the bullpen before a game against the Atlanta Braves on August 12, 2020 in New York City.
Jim McIsaac—Getty Images

The host country’s baseball dreams may hinge on ace pitcher Masahiro Tanaka, who returned to Japan’s Pacific League this season after a seven-year stint with the New York Yankees. Tanaka will be among the top stars in Tokyo since Major League Baseball would not let active players compete.

Read more

The last time baseball was in the Olympics, in 2008, Tanaka also represented Japan; that team lost to the U.S. in the bronze-medal game. “I had a bitter feeling when I played in the Beijing Olympics,” Tanaka said. “This time I want to win a gold medal.” These Games will be particularly meaningful to the home team, which has a rich baseball history. On July 28, Japan will play in Fukushima, site of the 2011 nuclear accident that followed the earthquake and tsunami that killed some 20,000 people. —Sean Gregory

Katie Ledecky

Swimming, U.S.

Few swimmers will be busier in the Tokyo pool than Katie Ledecky, who is scheduled to swim four freestyle events, including the 1,500 m, which is new to the women’s Olympic program and, even at Ledecky’s breakneck pace, takes around 15 minutes to complete.

Read more

On day five of the swimming competition in Tokyo, the 24-year-old will swim both the 200-m and 1,500-m freestyle finals in the same two-and-a-half-hour session. “I would point out that men do not have that double,” she has said. Will it faze her? Probably not. Ledecky—who missed her graduation from Stanford University because she was competing at the Olympic trials in June, holds three world records and has won five Olympic golds since her debut in London in 2012—has a habit of putting herself half a body length or more ahead of her nearest rivals. —Alice Park

April Ross

Beach Volleyball, U.S.

April Ross hits the ball during the finals at AVP Gold Series Championships at Oak Street Beach on September 01, 2019 in Chicago, Illinois.
Justin Casterline—Getty Images

All that’s left for April Ross is gold. Ross won a silver medal at the London Olympics, playing with Jennifer Kessy, and in Rio she won bronze with Kerri Walsh Jennings, the three-time gold medalist.

Read more

This cycle, Ross and Walsh Jennings split up; Ross, now 39, teamed with Alix Klineman, a convert from indoor volley­ball. (Walsh Jennings failed to qualify for her sixth Olympics.) The pair spent the pandemic training together and won their first tournament of 2021, in Doha, Qatar. Ross, who also played indoor volley­ball in college—at USC, where she won two national titles—and professionally before swapping sneakers for sand, says she’s inspired to keep going by her mother Margie, who died of breast cancer when Ross was 19; she visualizes herself, daily, at the top of the podium in Tokyo, her mom looking down on her smiling. “It makes me emotional,” says Ross. “So hopefully that’s the driving force.” —Sean Gregory

John John Florence

Surfing, U.S.

During the pandemic, many Olympians struggled to find places to practice their crafts. American surfer John John Florence, who was holed up in his native Hawaii, didn’t have that problem. “Even during the lockdowns and curfews and things like that, the ocean was never closed,” Florence, a two-time world champion, tells TIME. In the lead-up to surfing’s Olympicdebut, Florence has had to cope with injuries: he blew out an ACL in his right knee in 2019, and his left knee required surgery in May. But rehab has gone well, and Florence should be set to surf in Japan, where the waves tend to be less powerful than those in his home state. “When the waves are really small,” he says, “you have to rely on your equipment, your fitness, everything like that in order to create that energy, and create that speed.” —Sean Gregory

Katinka Hosszú

Swimming, Hungary

A veteran racer at 32, Katinka Hosszu holds the world records in the 200-m and 400-m individual medley events, which require swimmers to master all four strokes—butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle—and dominated her competition in those events at the 2019 world championships.

Read more

Tokyo will be her fifth Olympics—and her first since splitting with two different coaches, one of whom is her ex-husband. This time, Hosszu decided to train herself. “As a woman, it is sometimes a bit different than [it is] for male athletes,” she told Sports Illustrated. “Sometimes the coaches get more credit than the athletes.” That’s not a surprise coming from the outspoken Hungarian, who earned the nickname Iron Lady for her notorious stamina racing in a seemingly inhuman number of events. —Alice Park

Andre De Grasse

Track and Field, Canada

Canada's Andre De Grasse in action during Men's 200M Heats at Khalifa International Stadium on September 29th, 2019 in Doha, Qatar.
Simon Bruty—Sports Illustrated/Getty Images

He’s the last man standing. With Usain Bolt retired and other once elite sprinters failing to qualify, Andre De Grasse, 26, will be the only 100-m and 200-m men’s medalist from the Rio Games to race in Tokyo.

Read more

In 2016 he won 100-m bronze and 200-m silver, as well as 4 × 100-m relay bronze, to become the first Canadian sprinter to earn three medals at a single Olympics. De Grasse has stayed busy since Rio, graduating from the University of Southern California and having two children with his partner Nia Ali, the world champion American hurdler. In both 2017 and 2018, De Grasse’s seasons were cut short because of hamstring injuries. He’s healthy now, and with 2019 100-m world champion Christian Coleman out of the Games for missing drug tests, it may finally be De Grasse’s time on top of the podium. —Sean Gregory

Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo

Badminton, Indonesia

Badminton is the only sport in which Indonesia has won an Olympic gold, and the game is as popular there as soccer or basketball is in other parts of the world. Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo, the world’s top-ranked doubles player with his partner, Marcus Fernaldi Gideon, is the latest star to carry the hopes of his badminton-mad nation.

Read more

The pair, affectionately known as “the minions” because of their shorter statures and hyperactive playing style, have maintained their top ranking despite setbacks this year. In January, they were forced to withdraw from three international tournaments after Sukamuljo contracted COVID-19. In March, the team had to pull out of the All England Open after a passenger on their flight tested positive for the virus. That should be a distant memory in Tokyo, where the minions are poised to add to Indonesia’s badminton glory. —Madeleine Roache

Kristof Milak

Swimming, Hungary

Hungary's Kristof Milak competes in the semi-final of the men's 100m butterfly event during the swimming competition at the 2019 World Championships at Nambu University Municipal Aquatics Center on July 26, 2019 in Gwangju, South Korea.
François-Xavier Marit—AFP/Getty Images

Kristof Milak broke Michael Phelps’ 200-m butterfly world record at the 2019 world championships, making the 21-year-old from Hungary the man to beat in that event in Tokyo.

Read more

Milak continued that momentum in the “lost” year after the Tokyo Games were postponed—until the fall of 2020, when he contracted COVID-19. Milak battled the aftereffects for months. But he recovered to prove at the European championships in May that he has a chance to win the first Olympic gold in the 200-m butterfly of the post-Phelps era. Milak could also qualify for the 100-m butterfly, where he could challenge current world-record holder Caeleb Dressel. —Alice Park

Lisa Carrington

Canoeing, New Zealand

Lisa Carrington is so dominant in sprint kayaking that she draws comparisons to Simone Biles. She has won gold in two successive Games (her 2012 win was the first for a Maori) and hasn’t lost in the 200-m sprint in more than a decade.

Read more

But she’s taking on her greatest challenge yet in Tokyo by competing in four different events. There’s evidence her gambit may pay off. At the 2019 world championships, Carrington blew away the competition in her individual races, and the last time she contested all four events, in 2018, she only narrowly lost her team races. If successful, Carrington will make yet more history: three more gold medals would make her New Zealand’s most decorated Olympian ever. —Michael Zennie

Laurel Hubbard

Weight Lifting, New Zealand

Laurel Hubbard of New Zealand competes in the Women's +90kg Weightlifting Final during the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games on April 9, 2018 on the Gold Coast, Australia.
Dan Mullan—Getty Images

Laurel Hubbard is set to make history in Tokyo. The 43-year-old weight lifter, who will compete for New Zealand in the women’s over-87-kg category, will be the first openly transgender athlete in the modern Olympics—a milestone that has thrust the private athlete into a spotlight she did not seek.

Read more

Hubbard meets all the criteria the IOC has put in place for trans athletes since 2015, including testosterone limits for trans women. Although she suffered a potentially career-­ending injury in 2018, she returned to competition and currently ranks 15th in the world in her division. “I was advised that my sporting career had likely reached its end,” Hubbard said in a statement when she was named to the team. “But your support, your encouragement, and your aroha carried me through the darkness.” —Madeleine Carlisle

Maria Lasitskene

Track and Field, Russian Olympic Committee

Having dominated high jumping for years—winning gold at the 2015, 2017 and 2019 world championships—Maria Lasitskene, 28, is vying for her first Olympic gold in Tokyo.

Read more

She’ll be one of 335 Russians competing in Tokyo under a neutral flag after an investigation revealed a widespread, state-­sponsored athlete-­doping program. As punishment, Russian athletes are barred from competing under their flag and anthem until 2022. In a country where top athletes rarely speak out against officials, ­Lasitskene has been a leading voice for reform, calling on top athletics officials and coaches to be replaced. “I’m just an athlete,” she wrote in a 2019 open letter. “But I have a lot of questions.” —Madeline Roache

Helen Glover

Rowing, Britain

Helen Glover MBE in action during a TeamGB Rowing Training Session on May 05, 2021 in Reading, England.
Photo by Naomi Baker–Getty Images

Had the Olympics happened in 2020 as planned, Helen Glover would not have been there. Her twins were born in January of that year, and the idea of adding a third gold medal to the ones she won in London 2012 and Rio 2016 seemed impossible. One of the most decorated athletes in the history of women’s rowing assumed she’d be watching the Tokyo Games on TV.

Read more

But during lockdown, Glover began working out on a rowing machine and watched her numbers improve, even as she parented three children under the age of 3. She resumed training in earnest and in April won the European women’s pair title alongside her racing partner Polly Swann. (Glover’s two previous gold medals were won with the since retired Heather Stanning.) Now Glover, 35, will be the first British rower to compete at the Games after having children. And a third gold is well within reach. —Dan Stewart

Nikita Nagornyy

Gymnastics, Russian Olympic Committee

While the Japanese and Chinese men have dominated gymnastics in recent Olympic cycles, Nikita Nagornyy is at the fore of a resurgent ­Russia eager to reclaim bragging rights.

Read more

At the 2021 European Artistic Gymnastics Championships in April, Nagornyy became the first gymnast to perform a triple back pike somersault, in his floor exercise routine, setting a bar for the men’s all-around competition that few are likely to reach. Popular on social media, where he chronicles his training and daily exploits, in Tokyo the 24-year-old is not just eyeing the individual all-around title, but hoping that he and his neutral Russian Olympic Committee teammates will be able to clinch the first team gold for Russian athletes since 1996. —A.P.

Saurabh Chaudhary

Shooting, India

Saurabh Chaudhary of India competes in the Men's 10m Air Pistol Final at the 2018 Asian Games on August 21, 2018 in Palembang, Indonesia.
Edgar Su—Reuters/Alamy

Marksman Saurabh Chaudhary, 19, is one of India’s best shots at gold in Tokyo. Having only taken up shooting in 2015, he has accumulated an impressive haul of medals: 14 gold and six silver in international competitions. In 2018, he became India’s youngest gold medalist at the Asian Games.

Read more

A year later, Chaudhary set a new junior and senior world record in the 10-m air-pistol category at the International Shooting Sport Federation World Cup, securing his spot on India’s 15-member shooting team in Tokyo. There, he’ll also pair with Manu Bhaker to form a top contender in the mixed team competition. “He’s extremely focused,” teammate Apurvi Chandela said. “I see great things happening for him in the future.” —Madeline Roache

Noah Lyles

Track and Field, U.S.

Noah Lyles has run the four fastest 200-m times in the world since 2016, but you wouldn’t have known it at the start of the Olympic trials in June. After the 23-year-old from Florida failed to win his heat or the semifinals, some wondered about his form—and whether the hype that he could be the next Usain Bolt was overblown.

Read more

But in the final, he roared to the head of the pack to make his first Olympic team and establish himself as the favorite to win gold in the 200 m—something no U.S. man has done since 2004. Lyles has been open about his struggles with mental health and the pressures of competition. Last summer, he shared that he had started antidepressant medication and called it “one of the best decisions I have made in a while.” Going into Tokyo, he says he’s found clarity. “I don’t have anything to prove,” Lyles says. “When I put the race together, y’all are going to be in trouble.” —Sean Gregory.

Eliud Kipchoge

Marathon, Kenya

Eliud Kipchoge of Kenya, winner of the gold medal, crosses the finishing line and celebrates with a flag during the NN Mission Marathon held on April 18, 2021 in Enschede, Netherlands.
Dean Mouhtaropoulos—Getty Images

“Personally, I don’t believe in limits,” Eliud Kipchoge, the Kenyan marathoner, once said. As the only person in history to run the marathon’s 26.2 miles in under two hours, why should he?

Read more

That 2019 feat in Vienna might not count as an official world record, as Kipchoge did not run in race conditions. The event was engineered for maximum speed: the course was flat, and a team of pacesetters surrounded Kipchoge to reduce drag. But Kipchoge does hold the world record: he ran it in 2 hr. 1 min. 39 sec. in Berlin in 2018. In April, he won his final marathon—in a Netherlands airport—before the Olympics, where Kipchoge will defend the gold he won in Rio. The smart money is on him to do it. —Sean Gregory

Shaunae Miller-Uibo

Track and Field, Bahamas

Shaunae Miller-Uibo is the defending Olympic champion in the 400 m, winning gold in Rio in controversial fashion by diving across the finish line to edge out Allyson Felix. The dramatic moment became something of a Rorschach test: Did Miller-Uibo violate unwritten codes of sportsmanship or simply do whatever it took to win legally?

Read more

The 27-year-old sprinter, who carried her country’s flag in 2016, not surprisingly takes the latter view. “I had a lot of people who came to me and they said, ‘After we saw what you did ... it made me dive into my dreams and go after them even harder,’” Miller-Uibo recently told the Olympic Channel. Miller-Uibo could run both the 200 m and 400 m in Tokyo, but she’s said she’ll focus on the 200 m, in which she holds the Bahamian record, as the schedule makes pursuing the double difficult. “Yes, it would have been great to defend my title,” says Miller-Uibo. “But at the same time, I wanted a new title as well.”­ —Sean Gregory

Sky Brown

Skateboarding, Britain

Sky Brown at Vans Off The Wall Huntington Beach skatepark in 2020 in Los Angeles, California.

Sky Brown has already earned a Nike contract, appeared on Dancing With the Stars: Juniors, recorded a pop song and has a Barbie doll in her likeness—and she only turned 13 on July 7. Brown, whose father is from the U.K. and whose mother is from Japan, will compete for Team Britain in park skateboarding in Tokyo, thanks to a precocious arsenal of moves including a 720—two full rotations in the air.

Read more

Her skills have inspired female skaters of all ages. “She’s hella cool,” says Jocelyn Writer, 18, who skates in Venice, Calif., where Brown sometimes trains. “To see a little girl be better than, like, half the guy skaters out there, it’s very empowering.” The Games come just over a year since Brown suffered skull fractures and broke her left wrist and hand in a horrifying fall while skating. “It’s O.K. to fall sometimes,” she said in a YouTube message from her hospital bed. “I’m just going to get back up and push even harder.” —Sean Gregory

Yuto Horigome

Skateboarding, Japan

Yuto Horigome wrote in his elementary­-school yearbook that his dream was “to become the best skateboarder in the world.” The Tokyo native picked up skateboarding at the age of 6 by accompanying his father to skate parks. Now 22 and ranked second in the world for men’s street skating, he could achieve that goal in spectacular fashion when the sport makes its Olympic debut in his home country.

Read more

To get to this point, Horigome had to leave home. He began traveling to the U.S., the hub of competitive skating, for competitions as a teenager in 2014. Just four years later, Horigome became the first Japanese skater to claim a world title, at the Street League Skateboarding tour in London. After graduating high school, Horigome moved to the U.S. and is now based in Los Angeles, where he bought a home with its own skate park.

Horigome’s move across the ocean was driven by both ambition and necessity. Skaters in Japan have long been considered troublemakers. No skateboarding signs are common across city streets, and skaters say they get hassled by security guards or the police for even carrying skateboards around. But the growing popularity of the sport has helped ease the stigma, paving the way for more skate parks and spaces that help nurture the nation’s skating culture. And with the sport on the cusp of Olympic validation, Japanese media has ramped up coverage of competitions, and top skaters now appear on magazine covers and on TV interviews.

Horigome—an innovative skater known for coming up with tricks that no one else has done (a switch backside 180 nosegrind fakie, for instance) and landing difficult spins and slides in competitions—is Japan’s best hope for men’s skating gold. To do it, he’ll have to get by Nyjah Huston, the world’s top-ranked street skater. But Horigome has done it before; in June, he beat Huston for the world championship, denying the American a fourth consecutive title.

Horigome told reporters that the win gave him the confidence to believe he can take skating’s first gold in Tokyo: “I want to achieve something that no one has ever done ­before.” —Aria Chen

Saeid Mollaei

Judo, Mongolia

Saeid Mollaei at the World Judo Championships on August 28, 2019 in Tokyo, Japan.
Naoki Nishimura—Aflo Sport/Alamy

Saeid Mollaei returns to Tokyo determined to banish painful memories. In 2019, the Iranian-born Judoka was ordered by Tehran officials to throw his World Judo Championships semi-final in the Japanese capital to avoid having to compete in the final against an opponent from Israel, which Iran doesn’t recognize as a state.

Read more

Mollaei, the competition’s reigning under 81-kg gold medallist at the time, refused but lost the bout anyway, which he attributed to the emotional strain. Fearing retribution for his disobedience, Mollaei has not returned to Iran since and instead competes at the 2020 Olympics for Mongolia, which has granted him citizenship. But the 29-year-old is training for the Games alongside the Israeli team—now both his biggest rivals and best friends. Their kindness, he told the International Judo Federation, “is something I will never forget.” —Charlie Campbell

Race Imboden

Fencing, U.S.

After Race Imboden took a knee on the medal stand at the 2019 Pan American Games in Peru—citing racism, gun violence, mistreatment of immigrants and President Trump’s rhetoric as reasons for his protest—the United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee (USOPC) put him on a 12-month probation, a move he called a “cowardly flex.”

Read more

But Imboden, a two-time Olympian who sits on the Team USA Council on Racial and Social Justice, helped inspire change: the USOPC has since permitted protest at Olympic trials, said it will not sanction athletes who peacefully demonstrate at the Games. A part-time DJ and fashion model when not training, Imboden won team bronze in foil in Rio and a team foil gold at the 2019 World Championship. —Sean Gregory

Lilly King

Swimming, U.S.

Lilly King of the United States after competing in a semifinal heat for the Women's 200m breaststroke at the Olympic Team Swimming Trials on June 17, 2021 in Omaha, Nebraska.
Maddie Meyer—Getty Images

Lilly King took home two gold medals in Rio, but it was her rivalry with Russian swimmer Yuliya Yefimova, who failed a drug test prior to the 2016 competition, that really captivated viewers; King ultimately bested her in the 100-m breastroke final after a viral finger wag, and they remain notably unfriendly.

Read more

Making it to Tokyo though was different for King, 24. When her close friend and training partner Annie Lazor’s father passed away earlier this year, King promised her teammate’s mom that she’d do whatever it took to get Lazor on the team. And she did; Lazor won the 200-m breaststroke at Trials while King placed second. “It’s just a really, really special moment between the two of us,” King said. “We’ve been through hell and back together.” —Raisa Bruner

Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce

Track and Field, Jamaica

Until further notice, 34-year-old Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce is the fastest woman alive. On June 5, the two-time Olympic gold medalist in the 100 m ran the second quickest time in history, 10.63 sec.

Read more

Only Florence Griffith Joyner, who set the world record with a 10.49 in 1988, has run faster. In 2017, after Fraser-Pryce won bronze in the 100 m in Rio, she gave birth to her son Zyon (which earned her a fitting nickname: Mommy Rocket). She returned to the track to win gold at the world championships in 2019 and is now the woman to beat in the marquee sprint event in Tokyo.

A win would make her the first woman to win three 100-m golds and the oldest woman to pull off the feat.

Heading into her fourth Olympics, Fraser-Pryce is the biggest star of a Jamaican team that always has high expectations on the track. In a sport that tends not to reward longevity, Mommy Rocket remains a solid bet to deliver. —Sean Gregory

Brooke Raboutou

Sport Climbing, U.S.

Brooke Raboutou of United States competes during the finals of the IFSC Climbing World Cup Salt Lake City at Industry SLC on May 22, 2021 in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Andy Bao—Getty Images

Technically, Brooke Raboutou is a college student, majoring in marketing at the University of San Diego. But this summer, the 20-year-old has medals on her mind.

Read more

As sport climbing will make its Olympic debut in Tokyo, so will Raboutou; and she’s the first American to qualify for the Games in the sport. The daughter of professional climbers and climbing world cup champions Robyn Erbesfield-Raboutou and Didier Raboutou, she grew up with an affinity for the sport in Colorado, and has trained since she was a toddler—often alongside legends. She made her mark on the sport at a young age; when at 11 years old she became the youngest person to ever climb a route rated at a difficulty level of 5.14b in the Yosemite Decimal System. (Climbing routes start at 5.0 and go up to a 5.15d in that system). More recently, she won first place at the 2017 Youth Pan-American Championships for the combined event, which includes all three disciplines of speed, bouldering and lead climbing, and clinched her Olympic spot with a ninth-place combined finish at Olympic qualifiers in Japan. Given her youth, Raboutout may be one to watch not just in Tokyo, but for years to come. —Raisa Bruner

Sydney McLaughlin

Track and Field, U.S.

The future of U.S. track and field should arrive in Tokyo. In Rio, Sydney McLaughlin, then 16, became the youngest U.S. track-and-field athlete to qualify for the Olympics since 1980.

Read more

Though she didn’t make the finals in her first Olympics, she’s been catching up to the 2016 400-m hurdles gold medalist, Dalilah Muhammad, ever since.

At the 2019 world championships in Doha, Qatar, McLaughlin finished a close second to fellow American Muhammad, who set a world-record time, 52.16 sec., to win. At the U.S. track-and-field trials this June, McLaughlin shattered that record, running a scorching 51.9 sec. Expect more records to fall when McLaughlin and Muhammad meet in Tokyo. The showdown should be appointment viewing: the final is on Aug. 4. —Sean Gregory

Shi Tingmao

Diving, China

Shi Tingmao of Chongqing competes in the Women's 3-meter Springboard Final at the 2021 Chinese National Diving Championships & Tokyo Olympic Trials on May 15, 2021 in Shanghai, China.
VCG/Getty Images

Shi Tingmao has won so often in springboard diving that Chinese state media has nicknamed her “the ever victorious general.” Indeed, she’s won all but five major international competitions in the event since 2015, including two gold medals at the 2016 Rio Games.

Read more

Shi started in gymnastics as a young girl and didn’t join China’s national diving team until she was 21. Tokyo will be Shi’s second Olympics but likely her last, and she is determined to end on a high note. “Persevere, self-discipline, focus, final sprint, come on!” Shi wrote on the Twitter-like social media platform Weibo ahead of the Games. Those are words in line with her name, Tingmao, which translates to “working hard for the country.”

Shi looks likely to continue her domination and help maintain China’s Olympic winning streak in individual women’s springboard diving, which stretches back to 1988. —Aria Chen

Teddy Riner

Judo, France

“Give Teddy Riner—One of Sport’s Most Dominant Athletes—the Global Olympic Stardom He Deserves,” screams a recent headline in Eurosport. Indeed, Riner has ruled judo in a way few athletes have in any sport.

Read more

Before losing a match in February 2020, right before the pandemic shutdown, Riner hadn’t lost in nearly a decade—winning 154 straight bouts—while picking up two Olympic gold medals and six world championships along the way. The 6-ft. 8-in., 300-plus-lb. judoka known as Big Ted returned to the top of the podium at the World Masters in Doha, Qatar, in January. An Olympic gold in Tokyo would be his third straight. —Sean Gregory

Wilfredo León

Volleyball, Poland

Wilfredo Leon Venero of Poland celebrates a point against France during EuroVolley on September 28, 2019 in Paris, France.
Catherine Steenkeste—Getty Images

Poland was never a volleyball hotbed. But that was before Wilfredo León, the man known as the Cristiano Ronaldo of the sport, arrived in the country and single-­handedly turned it into a contender.

Read more

The 6-ft. 8-in. outside hitter made his debut for the national team of his native Cuba at just 14, and by 17 was its captain—the youngest ever. After fleeing Cuba, León gained Polish citizenship in 2015. He played for Russian and Italian pro teams, becoming one of the world’s highest-paid volleyball players, but he didn’t become eligible to compete for Poland’s national team until 2019. Cuba “will always have a place in my heart,” León said, but “everything I do in this moment” is for Poland. With León on the roster, Poland has been transformed into a medal contender with a shot to win its first Olympic gold in the sport since 1976.—Madeline Roache

Yukiko Ueno

Softball, Japan

After softball was dropped from the 2012 and 2016 Games, Japan insisted it return for Tokyo. Little wonder why, with a pitcher like Yukiko Ueno waiting in the wings. The veteran right-hander throwsone of the fastest pitches in the world—up to 80 m.p.h.—and has a history of big wins in the Olympics.

Read more

At Athens in 2004, Ueno pitched a perfect game over seven innings—the only one in Olympic history. At the 2008 Beijing Games, she threw 413 pitches in two days while leading Japan to gold. Her performance was such a sensation that Ueno’s 413 pitches was named one of Japan’s top buzzwords of the year. At 38, she has one more chance to exhibit her extraordinary dominance on the world stage again—this time on home ground. —Aria Chen

Laura Kenny

Track Cycling, Britain

Great Britain's Laura Kenny competes in the Women's Omnium Tempo Race during the UCI track cycling World Championship on February 28, 2020 in Berlin, Germany.
Odd Andresen—AFP/Getty Images

When a crash left her with a broken arm in February 2020, Laura Kenny was ready to give up track cycling entirely. But the postponement of the Tokyo Games proved a blessing in disguise. With an additional year to heal, Kenny is fully recovered and the favorite to dominate the indoor track cycling events.

Read more

Kenny became an instant British icon at the London Olympics, when at the age of just 20 she won two gold medals in front of a home crowd. She doubled her haul in Rio four years later. Tokyo will be her first Olympics since she gave birth to her son, Albie, in 2017. While the 29-year-old already has more gold medals than any other British woman in Olympic history, she has the chance to win three more in Tokyo—bringing her within touching distance of becoming the most successful female Olympians of all time, from any country. —Billy Perrigo

Simone Manuel

Swimming, U.S.

When Simone Manuel glanced at her time in the 100-m freestyle semi­final at the Olympic trials on June 17, she wasn’t entirely surprised—even if much of the swimming world was. She finished ninth, missing the cut for the finals and ensuring that the reigning gold medalist in the 100-m freestyle wouldn’t be defending her Olympic title.

Manuel revealed after the disappointing swim that she was diagnosed with overtraining syndrome in March. “It was really hard to [swim] specific times that had come easier weeks or months before,” she tells TIME. “As I continued to compete and train hard, it got worse and worse.”

Read more

Her first symptom was a fast heartbeat, even when she was resting or doing simple sets in practice. That snowballed into anxiety, insomnia and depression when things in the pool didn’t improve.

Her doctor recommended complete rest, so Manuel returned home to Texas for about 12 days in March. “My job when I got home was to literally recover,” she says. Long massages, ice baths and time out of the water helped restore her body, but her mind was another matter. Forced to take so much time off so close to the Olympic trials didn’t help her anxiety. “Being out of the water, watching time pass me by, was hard mentally,” she says.

It was the latest disruption in a grueling year that saw the Olympics postponed because of the COVID-19 pandemic, which disproportionately affected people of color, and a widespread reckoning over racism. “What the Black community had to deal with this year was very hard,” says Manuel, who became the first African-American woman to earn an individual Olympic gold in swimming at Rio in 2016. “The deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery and the incident with the man in Central Park happening right after each other really made me have to sit down and I guess grieve some of the experiences I’ve had in the sport, or experiences I’ve had as a Black woman that I had just brushed off before.” It was, she says, “like a mirror I couldn’t look away from.”

The time to reflect proved well spent, however. Three days after missing the 100-m final, Manuel won the 50-m freestyle final at the trials, giving her the chance to swim for an individual medal in Tokyo.

“There were moments I wasn’t sure if I was going to be able to get on the team,” she says. “But I learned that I have a lot of perseverance, a lot of fight in me. I willed myself to that wall. More than anything, [the trials experience] taught me there really is nothing I can’t do. And I think that’s pretty cool.” —Alice Park

Liz Cambage

Basketball, Australia

Liz Cambage of the Las Vegas Aces in action against the Washington Mystics on June 5, 2021 in Washington, DC.
Scott Taetsch—Getty Images

For a while, it looked like Australia’s women’s basketball team could be headed to the Olympics without one of its biggest stars. Liz Cambage announced on social media in May that she would sit out the Olympics over accusations that the Australian Olympic committee whitewashed marketing materials.

Read more

A photo posted on the Australian Olympic team’s official Instagram page showing the team’s uniforms featured just one Indigenous athlete. Cambage, whose father is Nigerian, also took issue with a photograph—which she said lacked racial diversity—for the brand Jockey, which supplies underwear to Australia's Olympic athletes. “If I’ve said it once I’ve said it a million times,” the 29-year-old posted on social media, “How am I meant to represent a country that doesn’t even represent me?” Ultimately, Cambage, who plays for the WNBA's Las Vegas Aces but hails from Melbourne, had a change of heart. “I’m going to ball out for all those young brown kids back in Australia watching me, baby,” the she said. “I’m going to do it for you. —Amy Gunia

Sunisa Lee

Gymnastics, U.S.

No female gymnast has a more difficult uneven-bars routine, but you wouldn’t know it from the way Sunisa Lee swings through it. The calm, elegant flow of the 18-year-old from St. Paul, Minn., comes from an inner strength that makes the most dangerous skills look easy.

Read more

Lee’s fortitude was tested in a different way in 2019, when days before she left for the U.S. national championships, her father fell while helping a friend trim a tree; he remains partially paralyzed. He underwent surgery while Lee competed, but she still managed to earn silver behind Simone Biles. That strength will be tested again as she competes in her first Olympic Games—as the first Hmong American to make the U.S. team—­separated again from her close-knit family, this time by the pandemic. —Alice Park

Dina Asher-Smith

Track and Field, Britain

The fastest British woman in history had a dramatic route to Tokyo after a clock malfunction at the national Olympic trials created confusion about the sprinter’s winning 100m time. While she hadn’t beaten her national record as she—and the crowd—initially thought, her 10.97-second sprint was enough to secure her place at the top of Team GB’s athletics squad.

Read more

The 25-year-old has been breaking records and racking up medals since she was 13, including a bronze in the 4x100m relay at the Rio Olympics. She is the world champion in the 200m and is Britain’s best hope for Gold on the track in Tokyo. And ff she medals in the 100m—a possibility given her recent times—she would be the first British woman to do so in more than 60 years. —Ayesha Javed

Read more about the Tokyo Olympics:

More Must-Read Stories From TIME

Contact us at letters@time.com.

Read More From TIME