NETHERLANDS MARCH 15
The far-right Party for Freedom is ahead in the polls for the parliamentary election. If it wins a majority, its populist leader and E.U. opponent Geert Wilders could be in position to become Prime Minister.
FRANCE APRIL 23
The presidential election in one of Europe’s largest economies could pit the far-right and anti-E.U. Marine Le Pen against an Establishment figure like former Prime Minister François Fillon. If no candidate wins a majority in April, a second round of voting will be held in May.
IRAN MAY 19
Incumbent President Hassan Rouhani is running for re-election, but he faces hard-line rivals critical of the nuclear deal he struck with the U.S.; incoming President Donald Trump’s threats to tear up the deal likely won’t help Rouhani’s bid.
KENYA AUG. 8
President Uhuru Kenyatta is running for re-election and will likely face rival Raila Odinga, who disputed the results of the previous race in 2013. Kenyans are on edge, as many of the country’s previous elections have been marred by violence.
Angela Merkel, currently the E.U.’s longest-serving leader, is running for a fourth term as Chancellor in a country polarized by her open-door refugee policy.
This appears in the December 26, 2016 issue of TIME.