TIME Germany

93-Year-Old Former Nazi Charged With 300,000 Counts of Accessory to Murder

A replica hung in place of the stolen infamous "Arbeit macht frei" sign at the former Nazi death camp Auschwitz in Oswiecim, Poland on Dec. 18, 2009.
Jacek Bednarczyk—AFP/Getty Images A replica hung in place of the stolen infamous "Arbeit macht frei" sign at the former Nazi death camp Auschwitz in Oswiecim, Poland on Dec. 18, 2009.

The one-time member of Hitler’s S.S. has spoken publicly about working at Auschwitz

A 93-year-old man who was once a member of Hitler’s SS unit and worked at Auschwitz has been charged by prosecutors in Germany with 300,000 counts of accessory to murder for his role in perpetrating the Holocaust.

Oscar Gröning is accused of taking money from victims’ luggage as they arrived at the concentration camp and giving it to SS headquarters, the Wall Street Journal reports.

“Through his activities, he provided the Nazi regime with economic advantage and supported systematic killings,” the prosecutor’s office said in a statement. The prosecutor alleges that Gröning knew that prisoners who were deemed unfit for work at the concentration camp were automatically sent to gas chambers where they were systematically murdered.

Gröning’s case is unusual because the accused has already spoken publicly in interviews with Der Spiegel and the BBC about the role he played at Auschwitz, which amounted, he said, to adding up money taken from the primarily Jewish victims of the Third Reich. Convicting former Nazis in Germany has historically been hard, due to the difficulty of proving them guilty of specific crimes many decades in the past. The conviction in 2011 of U.S. auto worker John Demjanjuk as an accessory to nearly 30,000 murders opened the possibility to other similar prosecutions, the Journal reports.

Gröning’s attorney declined to comment on the case but said his client is in good health.



U.S. Mission to Destroy ISIS Doesn’t Faze Extremists

A member loyal to the ISIL waves an ISIL flag in Raqqa

Militant group remains defiant in the face of a broadening international coalition of military powers and their allies in the region

The U.S. is shoring up support across the Middle East for its mission to destroy the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS), but the militants seem unfazed by the broadening coalition against them.

“We welcome America into Syria with open arms… and an explosive belt,” tweeted a man calling himself Abu Abdullah Britani.

Since President Barack Obama announced U.S. forces would not hesitate to hit the militants inside Syria, nearly 40 nations have pledged to join the coalition. Increasingly, both regional and international states fear the threat of the expansionist Jihadis.

Yet for now, little has changed in the militants’ strategy. “ISIS is responding by not backing down, ” said Christopher Harmer, a senior analyst with the Institute for the Study of War, who served several tours with the U.S. army in Iraq. That might be due, in part, to the fact that this coalition is so far more about moral support than military backing. The U.S. is the only external state yet to have acted against the group.

“Every nation state in the world is willing to stand up and say, ‘ISIS is evil. I think ISIS sucks’,” said Harmer. “ISIS doesn’t give a tin s–t about what the U.N. says or what the [Gulf Cooperation Council] says. All they care about is what is actually happening to them.”

And perhaps for these militant fighters the mere fact that they have earned such a broad coalition of opposition is a source of pride. Despite over a month of U.S. strikes and ground operations by Kurdish peshmerga and Iraqi national forces, the progress against the group has been limited.

One ISIS sympathizer, who tweets in both English and Dutch, appears to welcome the U.S. involvement. “Ya Allaah give us the Honour to Fight the US face 2 face. The problem is they can’t face us only with planes:P,” he wrote on social media. His profile says of the United States military: “They lost the war in Afghanistan, there was NO Mission Accomplished in Iraq, They are just wasting there [sic] Economy.”

Despite the promise of air strikes and weapons for ISIS rivals, those sentiments of defiance have been echoed by militants on the ground, along with threats against states joining the coalition. In the most recent video, believed to show the gruesome murder of British aid worker David Haines, the black-clad killer says in an English accent that the execution is ISIS’s response to the U.K. sending weapons to Kurdish forces to fight them. Other sites have posted broader messages threatening countries that join the coalition.

And even if the intensifying air campaign pushes ISIS off military fronts with the Iraqi, Kurdish, and Syrian force, the militants could be driven to hide amongst the civilian population of the urban centers—like Mosul—that are under their control.

Then the group could easily return to the traditional methods of terrorism, such as IEDs and suicide bombings, that it used before becoming a well-organized militant movement with state-building aspirations. The group has thousands of members eager to die for their cause.

“Stop threatening me with drone strikes and death. That’s like threatening a fat American with a visit to McDonalds and a Big Mac,” tweeted one self-identified militant, who calls himself Abu Turaab and put his location as inside the Islamic Caliphate.

The U.S. needs an international coalition or regional allies both to lend legitimacy to their military operation, and to provide bases and on-ground training where the U.S. won’t go. But key in battling ISIS will be getting other Sunni militant groups to fight against them. However, the appearance of a broad U.S.-led coalition, backed by many western nations, will not be appealing for most armed Sunni groups and may instead increase resentment against the West, rather than bring others on side. The U.S. has been assisting the Free Syrian Army, who have been battling both Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad and ISIS, but in Iraq allies have been harder to find.

“In the face of this new coalition, [these groups] aren’t coming out against ISIS any more than they were before. On the contrary, the focus of their rhetoric is on the air strikes,” said Aymenn al-Tamimi, an expert on Syrian and Iraqi militants with the Philadelphia-based Middle East Forum.

In a rare joint statement, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) condemned the U.S.-led alliance in Iraq and Syria and called on the fractured and battling Jihadi movements of Syria to unite against the shared enemy. “Stop the infighting between you and stand as one rank against America’s campaign and that of its satanic alliance,” said the statement, according to a translation by the Jihadi monitoring group SITE.

The U.S. faces an uphill battle convincing other Sunni groups that the enemy of their enemy is their friend, al-Tamimi said. “It’s not looking good. As part of its strategy the U.S. wants to find Sunni allies on the ground who can help build up an internal revolt against ISIS,” he said. But Iraqi insurgents that have tensions with ISIS aren’t convinced. The Islamic Army in Iraq’s spokesman has said the coalition intends to target Muslims under the pretense of a new war on terrorism.

“If [these groups] are going around saying this is war against Islam,” says al-Tamimi, “then there is not much hope for that right now.”

TIME ebola

Obama on Ebola: ‘The World Is Looking to Us’

US President Barack Obama makes a statement following meetings at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Sept.16, 2014 in Atlanta.
Mandel Ngan—AFP/Getty Images US President Barack Obama makes a statement following meetings at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Sept.16, 2014 in Atlanta.

Obama confirms U.S. efforts to lead the charge against the Ebola virus sweeping through West Africa

President Barack Obama confirmed the U.S.’s renewed and bolstered efforts to combat the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in a press conference Tuesday at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.

The U.S. has committed to sending a deployment of 3,000 U.S. military forces and over $500 million in defense spending to West Africa, a response the President says is a national-security priority since the epidemic has “profound security implications.”

“Faced with this outbreak, the world is looking to us, the United States, and it’s a responsibility that we embrace,” said the President. “It’s a potential threat to global security if these countries break down, if their economies break down, if people panic. That has profound effects on all of us, even if we are not directly contracting the disease.”

Obama spent the day at the CDC headquarters to talk about the U.S. response — called Operation United Assistance — and to thank health care workers dealing with the outbreak. Before leaving Washington to travel down to Atlanta, Obama met with Ebola survivor Dr. Kent Brantly and his wife Amber. Brantly was in the nation’s capital to testify before Congress about the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Brantly contracted Ebola while treating patients in Liberia as a missionary doctor for the organization Samaritan’s Purse. “[I am] grateful to [Dr. Brantly] and his family for the service he has rendered to people who are a lot less lucky than all of us,” Obama said Tuesday.

During his Atlanta trip, Obama also met the Emory University Hospital doctors who have been treating American patients with Ebola evacuated to the U.S.

The WHO has reported 4,963 cases of Ebola and 2,453 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Obama says the U.S. has four central goals: to control the outbreak, address the ripple effect, coordinate a broader global response, and urgently build up a public-health system for the countries for the future. “This massive ramp-up of support from the United States is precisely the kind of transformational change we need to get a grip on the outbreak and begin to turn it around,” said Dr. Margaret Chan, the director general of the World Health Organization in a statement sent to media.

As part of the U.S. effort to combat the outbreak, Department of Defense personnel will offer training and epidemic logistics. At the request of the Liberian government, the U.S. will set up a military command center in Liberia, led by Major General Darryl Williams, commander of U.S. Army forces in Africa. The Pentagon is also poised to deliver 130,000 sets of personal protective equipment and thousands of kits that can be used for disease diagnostics. Africa Command engineers will be constructing several additional treatment facilities and more than 1,000 beds, and will train up to 500 health care workers a week. In his press conference, Obama reiterated that the threat of Ebola spread in the U.S. is extremely low.

“The reality is that this epidemic is going to get worse before it gets better,” concluded Obama. “The United States of America intends to do more … We’re going to continue to make sure that the world understands the need for them to step alongside us.”

TIME Media

Netflix Has a Plan to Take Over the World

ABC's "Good Morning America" - 2014
Ida Mae Astute—ABC via Getty Images Kevin Spacey talks about the new season of "House of Cards" on Good Morning America, 2/18/14, airing on the ABC Television Network.

But it'll likely lose money abroad long before it ever makes it there

Like the conniving Frank Underwood, Netflix’s ambitions only continue to grow.

The streaming service is rolling out in six new European countries this week, including France and Germany, two of the region’s largest markets. The expansion, Netflix’s biggest ever, will expose the company to hundreds of millions of potential new customers who have high-speed Internet access. But the challenges and costs of adapting a U.S.-based service for six different cultures won’t be easy—or profitable—for quite a while.

At home, Netflix is still growing at a healthy clip. The company added 2.82 million streaming subscribers in the first half of 2014, up from 2.66 million additions during the same period last year. But the growth rate abroad is even faster as Netflix continues to come online in more regions. The company added 2.87 million international customers in the first half of the year, compared to 1.63 million last year. It’s projecting that it will add 2.36 million international subscribers in the third quarter alone thanks to the new markets where the service is launching.

While opening in new markets will certainly boost Netflix’s subscriber base, there’s no guarantee the service will perform as well as it has in the United States or the United Kingdom. In Germany, TV is less popular than in other Western nations. Germans watch 230 minutes of TV and video content per person per day, compared to 286 minutes per person in the U.S., according to research firm IHS. And the TV they do watch isn’t necessarily the same as what succeeds elsewhere. Seinfeld was famously a bust in Germany because it was “too American.” More worryingly for Netflix, its own high-budget original show House of Cards failed to net even a million viewers when it debuted on the German network Sat. 1, according to Bloomberg. Episodes from season two averaged less than 100,000 viewers.

“The Germans notoriously have different tastes from the rest of the West,” says Michael Pachter, an equity analyst for Wedbush Secutiries. “All of us . . . make the mistake of thinking that ‘international’ is a place. International is 180 independent, different nations.”

While there are similar cultural concerns in France, there Netflix must also deal with entrenched competitors who want to squash the streaming service before it can gain traction. Canal Plus, France’s largest pay-TV provider, actually owns the broadcast rights to House of Cards and recently announced a deal to stream HBO shows through its own Netflix-like service, Canalplay. Another provider, Numbericable, launched an online service with access to 3,000 episodes of TV shows on the same day Netflix launched in France. Meanwhile, content creators and regulators worry Netflix will try to further Americanize French culture while avoiding paying large taxes because it’s headquartered outside the country.

“People are concerned the emergence of Netflix will damage the local content industry,” says Richard Broughton, an IHS analyst. “They really have to make some partnerships in order to make better headway into the French market.”

Netflix has plans to address these issues. A new House of Cards-like drama called Marseille is set in the south of France and will be helmed by French directors. It should help cast Netflix as a collaborator in the country rather than an invader. The company will also try to buy up streaming rights to locally produced shows in the new countries where it launches, Broughton says. The strategy has been effective in the United Kingdom, where Netflix has the rights for many BBC shows. The company has 3 million customers there, according to one estimate.

But building a curated library for each individual market is expensive, and Netflix often has to negotiate individual rights agreements for each different country where it operates. “They have to replicate the wheel every place they go,” Pachter says.

That’s why Netflix’s international business has been unprofitable since it began. The division lost $15 million in the most recent quarter, and Netflix projects that loss will balloon to $42 million in the third quarter due to marketing and licensing costs in new territories. The price to compete will only grow, especially when other U.S. competitors show up in Europe (Amazon Prime Instant Video is already available in Germany).

Early impressions indicate that Netflix’s library of titles in France is not as robust as in the U.S. But analysts expect the company will eventually work out the kinks. IHS projects that Netflix will have 18 million subscribers across Europe by 2018, up from 5.8 million today. That would be a boon for the world’s most popular streaming service, but it’s hardly guaranteed.

“You’ve got to spend an awful lot up front,” Broughton says. “You’re gambling on, over the next few years, being able to accrue sufficient subscribers to offset those costs.”

TIME ebola

Timeline: The Worst Ebola Outbreak in History

As Ebola continues to ravage West Africa, follow this outbreak's most critical moments

TIME United Kingdom

The Scottish Independence Debate Gets Nasty

As Sept. 18 draws nearer, tensions are rising and some on either side of the debate are resorting to dark tactics

Scotland’s independence referendum is just days away and, in some corners, the debate has turned hostile.

As Scots are preparing to head to the polls on Sept. 18 in order to answer the question “Should Scotland be an independent country?” opinion polls have been neck and neck. Pro-independence campaigners have been rallying across Scotland in support of the Yes vote. Meanwhile, pro-union campaigners and politicians — who believe that Scotland and England, Wales and Northern Ireland are “Better together,” as their campaign slogan says — have been working overtime in a last minute endeavor to get Scots to vote No and keep Scotland in the U.K.

But as tensions run high, some of the rhetoric and tactics used by either side have become hostile. On Tuesday, Labour Party’s leader Ed Miliband was forced to cut short a walkabout tour of Edinburgh, where he was attempting to campaign for Scots to stay in the U.K., after he was swarmed by pro-independence protesters the Guardian reports. As Miliband tried to give interviews, he was drowned out by hecklers who branded him a “liar” and “serial murderer.”

The evening before, politicians Danny Alexander, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, and George Galloway, a member of Parliament for the left-wing Respect Party, appeared at a No campaign event at Glasgow’s Royal Concert Hall. During Alexander’s address to the crowd, he was harassed by hecklers, some of whom walked out. In the video below, an angry heckler can be seen shouting from the audience and eventually being removed by security:

Galloway, who also took the stage, said, “In the last 30 minutes I have been told I am going to face a bullet.” According to the Telegraph, Galloway also pleaded with the crowd: “We have got to keep the hatred and violence out of this debate.”

Of course, Galloway isn’t the first politician to note the dark tone the debate has taken. When Labour MP Jim Murphy visited Scotland in August in order to campaign for the “Better together” side, he said he was met with hostility and violence. Writing in the Spectator, Murphy said that his public appearances were marred by “[g]roups of Yes voters being organized to turn up to intimidate the No campaigners and silence undecided voters” and that he was pelted with eggs and called “a terrorist and often a pedophile too.”

Even journalists covering the referendum have noted the hostile atmosphere. Tom Bradby, the political editor for ITV, wrote in an op-ed on Tuesday:

I am not enjoying covering the Scottish referendum. I should be. All journalists live for the chance to report on great events and they don’t come more momentous than the potential break-up of the UK. But pretty much all reporters I chatted to yesterday agreed that the level of abuse and even intimidation being meted out by some in the ‘Yes’ campaign was making this referendum a rather unpleasant experience.

It’s not just pro-independence supporters who have been guilty of abuse. Alex Salmond, Scotland’s First Minister and the pro-independence movement’s leader, told Sky News that he “condemn[ed] any egg throwing or any intimidation from any side,” while also pointing out that, “Somebody was convicted, of course, of online threats against me. Somebody thought his car should be a political weapon. There was a woman, a Yes campaigner, assaulted on the streets of Glasgow.”

Earlier this month, a group of pro-union men allegedly attacked a group of pro-independence campaigners outside a football ground in Edinburgh after they spied the campaigners passing out flyers. Three people were injured. And in Edinburgh on Monday, police arrested two 18-year-old men for assaulting a 48-year-old man outside a pro-independence concert at Usher Hall. The BBC reports the younger men were charged with assault and will appear in court at a later date, sometime after the referendum.

Nastiness has cropped up in other ways in the lead-up to Sept. 18: graffiti has stained public spaces, campaign posters have been vandalized and celebrities who’ve waded into the public debate — such as J.K. Rowling or David Bowie — have found themselves the targets of “cybernats,” or Yes campaign supporters who spew vitriol on social media.

All of which raises some serious questions about security on the day Scots head to the polls — and the day after when the results are announced. “We will respond appropriately to any issues which arise [on Sept. 18],” assistant chief constable Bernard Higgins, from Police Scotland, told the Herald, though he refrained from giving the exact number of officers who would be on duty. “Policing arrangements for the referendum are well in hand and will be appropriate and proportionate.”

Whether or not Scotland will gain independence will be answered once the votes are counted on Friday. But as the tension — and the hostilities — continue to mount, it seems clear that the bad blood being stirred up on both sides might have consequences that last long into Scotland’s future.

TIME Cancer

Our Global Cancer Report Card Is Here

In its annual cancer status report, the American Association for Cancer Research highlights new tumor-fighting drugs, and the inevitable spike in cancer cases expected in coming years

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved six new cancer treatments between July 2013 and July 2014, five of them representing innovative ways to target tumors more precisely with fewer side effects. Thanks to those therapies, and advances in understanding how the body’s own immune system can be co-opted into fighting cancer, patients diagnosed with any of the 200 or so forms of the disease have never been in a better position to survive it. In fact, the number of cancer survivors has increased nearly five-fold from when Congress declared a war on cancer in 1971 and 2014. But despite advances in diagnosing and treating cancer, incidence and death rates may start to rise again, say experts in a new report.

That’s in part because most cancers emerge in older age—and the population of people over-65 is expected to double by 2060. “We face a future in which the number of cancer-related deaths will increase dramatically unless new and better ways to prevent, detect, and treat cancer can be developed,” according to the 2014 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)’s Cancer Progress Report 2014. “These trends are being mirrored globally, and the number of people dying of cancer worldwide is expected to increase from 8.2 million in 2012 to 14.6 million in 2035.”

The (AACR), which has been compiling the report every year since 2011 as an educational tool to update Congress and the public on the progress and needs in the fight against cancer, also provided a “prescription” for addressing this coming wave, and for maintaining the momentum of recent victories against the disease. Noting that research grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the largest funder of basic biomedical research that has contributed to many of the new anti-cancer therapies now on the market, are $3.5 billion lower than where they should be even if the funding only kept up with the rate of inflation for biomedical equipment and personnel, the AACR urges more federal investment in cancer research.

That money, they point out, can also be directed toward training the next generation of cancer researchers, since fewer grants are turning promising young scientists away from the field. They write:

We are now at a crossroads in our country’s long struggle to prevent and cure cancer; we must choose between two paths, but there is only one viable path forward to continue transforming lives.

On the viable path we seize the momentum at this exciting time in biomedical research by committing to budget increases for the NIH and NCI so that the remarkable progress of the past can continue at a rapid pace.

To take the alternative path is simply unacceptable. This particularly dangerous path leads us to a place where federal funding for biomedical research remains stagnant, or even worse, declines, seriously jeopardizing the rate at which we are able to make progress. On this path, breakthroughs and discoveries will be slowed, meaning that delivery of the cures that patients and their loved ones desperately need is delayed.

…Our federal government can do no better than invest robustly in the NIH and NCI so that the path forward will lead us to a brighter future for the millions of people whose lives have been touched by cancer.

TIME ebola

The WHO Says It Needs $1 Billion to Fight Ebola

FABRICE COFFRINI—AFP/Getty Images World Health Organization's Assistant Director General Bruce Aylward holds a report on Ebola virus during a press conference on global aid pledged to fight the Ebola outbreak in west Africa

That's up from $100 million about a month ago

The World Health Organization needs at least $1 billion to keep the number of cases in West Africa’s deadly Ebola outbreak within the “tens of thousands,” United Nations officials said at a Tuesday news conference in Geneva.

Thus far, there have been 4,985 cases of Ebola, while 2,461 have died of the disease.

“The numbers can be kept in the tens of thousands,” WHO Assistant Director Bruce Aylward said during the conference. “But that is going to require a much faster escalation of the response if we are to beat the escalation of the virus.”

And the figure could increase given the escalating nature of the outbreak.

“The amount for which we requested was about $100 million a month ago and now it is $1 billion, so our ask has gone up 10 times in a month,” said Dr. David Nabarro, senior U.N. coordinator for Ebola. “Because of the way the outbreak is advancing, the level of surge we need to do is unprecedented, it is massive.”

The United States announced its own plans Tuesday to send 3,000 troops to West Africa to help build treatment clinics and train health workers to fight the disease.

TIME technology

Uber Is Now Legal in Germany Once Again

German Court Bans Uber Service Nationwide
Adam Berry—Getty Images In this photo illustration, a woman uses the Uber app on an Samsung smartphone on September 2, 2014 in Berlin, Germany.


Updated 1:15 p.m.

Germany’s ban on Uber’s ride-sharing service has been lifted by a local court.

The Franklin Regional Court ruled Tuesday that UberPop, Uber’s cheaper alternative to its well-known black car service, could resume operating freely throughout the country. The ruling comes after Taxi Deutschland, a German taxi union, had successfully sought a nationwide injunction against Uber’s service last month.

The taxi union vowed that it would continue to fight Uber in Germany. “The taxi industry accepts competitors who comply with the law,” the organization said in a statement. “Uber doesn’t do that. Therefore we today announce that we will be appealing without delay.”

UberPop connects drivers and riders via a smartphone app. Critics say drivers are not subject to the same regulations and requirements as licensed German taxi drivers, a common complaint against Uber drivers around the world. The judge who lifted the injunction said that there was likely a legal basis to the taxi union’s complaint, but the organization could not have the issue tried as an expedited case. Therefore, the temporary inunction had to be lifted.

Uber, of course, is happy about the ruling. “We welcome today’s decision by the German court to lift the injunction placed on UberPOP by the incumbents,” Uber Germany spokesman Fabien Nestmann said in an emailed statement. “Demand is so great all across the country that we expect to double in size by the end of the year and plan to bring Uber to more and more cities across Germany.”



TIME Military

Joint Chiefs Would ‘Recommend’ Ground Troops in ISIS Fight If Current Plan Fails

Top military leader concedes circumstances under which U.S. troops could come within close range of the battlefield

Updated 2:39 p.m.

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff testified before a Congressional panel on Tuesday that he would recommend a deployment of ground troops in the campaign against the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS) should the current strategy involving airstrikes and logistical support fail to wrest the organization’s control over strategic assets in Iraq.

Army Gen. Martin Dempsey said in a Tuesday hearing before the Senate Armed Services Committees that the current goal was to degrade ISIS’ forces by sending American advisors to help Iraqi troops on the ground. Dempsey added the involvement of those advisers could extend into the battlefield under particularly complex missions, such as the re-taking of a densely populated city like Mosul.

“To be clear, if we reach the point where I believe our advisers should accompany Iraqi troops on attacks against specific [ISIS] targets, I will recommend that to the President,” Dempsey said.

Later on Tuesday, White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest emphasized that Dempsey was speaking about a strictly hypothetical scenario.

“As was clear form General Dempsey’s remarks he was referring to a hypothetical scenario in which there might be a future situation in which he might make a tactical recommendation to the President as it relates to the use of ground troops,” Earnest said.

“It is also the responsibility of the commander in chief to set out a clear policy,” Earnest added. “The President has been clear what that policy is. What he has been very specific and precise about is he will not deploy ground troops in a combat role into Iraq or Syria.”

Administration officials to date have stressed that the 1,600 U.S. military advisers currently stationed in Iraq will not be engaged in ground combat missions, a distinction lawmakers pressure-tested under questioning Tuesday. Asked if military commanders would consider sending American troops in a rescue mission to save a hypothetical downed pilot, Dempsey responded “yes and yes.”


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