TIME Ukraine

Artillery Fire Kills Teens in Donetsk as Ukraine’s Ceasefire Breaks Down

Members of an honour guard hold their weapons as they wait for the arrival of separatist leader Zakharchenko in front of a theatre in Donetsk
Members of an honour guard hold their weapons as they wait for the arrival of separatist leader Alexander Zakharchenko in front of a theatre in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine on November 4, 2014. Maxim Zmeyev — Reuters

Four others are wounded and being treated in intensive care

Two teens were killed and four others wounded when an artillery shell hit a school in Ukraine’s war-torn Donetsk region on Wednesday as a two-month truce between Kiev and pro-Russian militants appeared to be in collapse.

The BBC reports that the shell struck a school sports field where children were playing soccer, near Donetsk airport. The four teens who survived the attack are being treated in an intensive care unit at a local trauma center.

The renewed clashes appear to have been spurred by the widely condemned elections held in Ukraine’s rebel-held southeast over the weekend. Both Kiev and separatist forces are reportedly preparing for all-out conflict once again, with troops being mobilized.

Read more at the BBC.

TIME ebola

The Spanish Nurse Who Survived Ebola Leaves Hospital Disease-Free

Spain Ebola
Teresa Romero, bottom right, arrives with medical workers to give a press statement before she leaves the Carlos III hospital in Madrid, Spain, Wednesday, Nov. 5, 2014. Andres Kudacki—AP

"I don't know what went wrong," Teresa Romero said

The Spanish nurse’s aide believed to be the first person to have contracted Ebola outside Africa was on Wednesday released from a Madrid hospital.

Teresa Romero, 44, thanked God and her caregivers for “giving her back life,” the New York Times reports.

Health officials said it was impossible to discern which of several factors — including the use of an experimental Ebola drug and blood plasma from another survivor — had beaten the often fatal disease

Romero had tested positive for the illness almost a month ago, after treating a missionary who had come down with the disease in West Africa and later died in Madrid.

Her case had stoked fears that Ebola could threaten countries with advanced health care systems — worries that reached new heights when two health care workers in Dallas also contracted the illness — and played into a furious blame game.

“I don’t know what went wrong, I don’t even know if anything went wrong,” Romero said. “I only know that … if my infection can be of some use, so that the disease can be studied better or to help find a vaccine or to cure other people, here I am.”


TIME South Korea

Relatives of the South Korean Ferry Owner Have Been Jailed

S. Korea Ferry With Hundreds Of Passengers Sinks
In this handout image provided by the Republic of Korea Coast Guard, a passenger ferry sinks off the coast of Jindo Island on April 16, 2014 in Jindo-gun, South Korea. Handout—Getty Images

A son and two brothers were convicted of embezzling funds

Three family members of the businessman linked to the ill-fated South Korean Sewol ferry, which capsized in April and killed over 300 people, were sentenced to jail on charges of corruption Wednesday.

Korean authorities say that graft may have contributed to the sinking of the vessel, which was illegally modified and overloaded. The boat was owned by the Chonghaejin Marine Company, in which the late tycoon Yoo Byung-eun had an interest, the BBC reported.

Yoo’s 44-year-old son Dae-kyun was convicted of embezzling $6.8 million from company funds and sentenced to three years in prison, and two of Yoo’s brothers were also handed jail terms of one and two years respectively on similar charges.


TIME Comics

Bill Watterson Drew a New Comic, and It’s Really Funny

Bill Watterson, creator of the syndicated cartoon strip "Calvin & Hobbes" is shown in this Feb. 24, 1986 file photo at his home in Chagrin Falls, Ohio. C.H. Pete Copeland—The Plain Dealer/AP

The 15-panel comic was created by Watterson for France's 2015 Angoulême International Comics Festival

Bill Watterson, the reclusive cartoonist behind Calvin and Hobbes, has created a new comic. But don’t go looking for it in your local newspaper.

Watterson’s latest strip was created in celebration of France’s 2015 Angoulême International Comics Festival. In 2014, Watterson received the Grand Prix award at the festival, its highest honor, for his esteemed comic about an imaginative little boy named Calvin and his wise stuffed tiger Hobbes. Since retiring the cartoon in 1995, Watterson rarely illustrates strips. One exception is a poster he drew for the recent comic strip documentary, Stripped.

In an interview, Watterson said he drew his latest comic without text in order to break any language barriers. “Telling a story only in pictures is one of the great strengths — and greatest pleasures — offered by comics,” Watterson said.

TIME Jerusalem

Tensions Mount in Jerusalem After Latest Attack

An ultra-Orthodox youth stands in front of the vehicle of a Palestinian motorist who rammed into pedestrians at the scene of an attack in Jerusalem, Nov. 5, 2014.
An ultra-Orthodox youth stands in front of the vehicle of a Palestinian motorist who rammed into pedestrians at the scene of an attack in Jerusalem, Nov. 5, 2014. Ammar Awad—Reuters

Two are dead in Israel after a driver plowed his van into a queue of commuters waiting for a tram Wednesday, marking the latest deadly incident amid escalating religious tensions around one of the country’s heavily disputed sacred sites for both Jews and Muslims.

Police said the motorist Wednesday slammed his vehicle into the light rail stop in east Jerusalem first, backed out and proceeded to drive off, hitting several cars along the way. He then got out of the car and attacked a group of civilians and police officers on the side of the road with a metal bar before authorities shot and killed him.

The attacker was identified by authorities as Ibrahim al-Akari, a 38-year-old Palestinian who had recently been released from prison after serving time for security offenses, police said. Security camera footage appeared to show al-Akari darting through a crowded intersection before he was shot.

The attack Wednesday bore similarities to an incident two weeks ago in which two Israelis were killed by a Palestinian assailant who was then killed by Israeli police.

Hamas, the Palestinian militant group that controls the Gaza Strip, confirmed that al-Akari was a member of the group, and said in a statement that al-Akari, “whose blood watered the land of the occupied holy city of Jerusalem, preferred but to retaliate for the blood of his people and the sacredness of the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Jerusalem.”

The Temple Mount/Noble Sanctuary compound, which includes the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, is at the center of rising tension as a movement for Jewish right to prayer there gains a foothold in political spheres. Israel forbids non-Muslims from praying on the compound. Jews pray instead at the Western Wall, a retaining wall of the ancient demolished Jewish temple.

Last week, Rabbi Yehuda Glick, who managed a center aimed at advancing Jewish rights at the Temple Mount, was leaving a Jerusalem conference he convened called “Israel Returns to the Temple Mount” when Moataz Hijazi, a Palestinian dishwasher at the conference building who had previously spend 12 years in Israeli prisons, pulled up on a motorbike and shot him. Police shot the 32-year-old Hijazi 22 times in his home the following morning.

Supporters of Glick say the attack on him should be a watershed moment. At a prayer rally for Glick Saturday, Jerusalem city council member Aryeh King called on the Israeli government to “wake up and strengthen the Jewish presence on the Temple Mount.”

Up a stone staircase from the Hijazi home, a young man named Amar, 25, said Hijazi reminded him of himself, caught between making money in an Israeli job and nursing a deep grudge toward Israel. He declined to give his last name for fear of losing his job cooking in a Tel Aviv restaurant. He said he works in an Israeli restaurant because he cannot find any other work but, “I would take a life sentence for the sake of Al-Aqsa,” he said.

Since Israel conquered Jerusalem’s Old City from Jordan in 1967, Muslims have been able to access the site at all times, while non-Muslims have limited visiting hours. Jews may not pray on the site. King Abdullah of Jordan has warned that changing the agreement could jeopardize the 20-year-old peace treaty between his country and Israel. On Wednesday, Jordan recalled its ambassador for consultations.

TIME Ukraine

Cease-Fire in Ukraine Fails and Preparations for War Begin

The newly elected leader of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, takes the oath on Nov. 4, 2014 during an inauguration ceremony in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk.
The newly elected leader of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, takes the oath on Nov. 4, 2014, during an inauguration ceremony in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk Alexander Khudoteply—AFP/Getty Images

Ukraine and pro-Russian forces are arming for the next round of conflict

The shelling of Mariupol, a city on the front lines of the war in eastern Ukraine, resumed in earnest at the end of October, just as the country had finished electing a new parliament. It has not let up since. “Day and night, they have been bombing from two directions,” says Vasyl Arbuzov, an adviser to the local authorities in Mariupol, referring to the pro-Russian rebels who have approached the city from the east. “So most people, yes, are preparing for an invasion at any time, from minute to minute.”

If some of the locals still believed in the conflict’s cease-fire — the so-called Minsk protocol signed on Sept. 5 — they have been forced in the past week to part with their illusions. Both the Ukrainian forces and the pro-Russian separatists have been mobilizing troops and weapons for another round of vicious fighting, and the truce has all but broken down in the war that has already claimed some 4,000 lives since April.

“We will continue intensive reinforcement,” President Petro Poroshenko told the Ukrainian people in a televised address on Monday, referring to the rebel leaders as “bandits, terrorists and interventionists.” The following day, he announced during a meeting with his security council that several new military units had been formed to aid in the defense of Mariupol and two other cities near the war zone. The forces in Mariupol, he said, have built three lines of fortifications around the city and received “modern offensive and reconnaissance weapons” from the Ukrainian military.

But it is far from clear whether that will be enough to defend the city of nearly half a million people, a strategic port and industrial powerhouse on the coast of the Azov Sea. Its defenders barely managed to repel the last attack in August, when NATO officials observed thousands of regular Russian troops rushing across the border in an apparent effort to take the sea’s entire northern coast. They managed to seize the seaside town of Novoazovsk, securing access to the sea for the breakaway rebel enclaves in eastern Ukraine. But they were stopped at the outskirts of Mariupol.

“We barely held on,” says Serhei Taruta, who was then serving as the governor of the region that includes Mariupol, his hometown. A former mining tycoon and engineer, Taruta told TIME in September that he managed to scrounge up a stock of enormous steel plates from the city’s industrial forges, working with a group of paramilitary fighters to turn them into a system of bomb-proof bunkers at the edge of the city. The Russian forces, he says, “would try to clear a path with intensive shelling, but the bunkers stood firm.” As the Russian forces approached, he recalls, the Ukrainian fighters would jump out of the steel boxes and fire on the advancing Russian columns with shoulder-mounted rocket launchers. It went on like this for several days, Taruta says, before the assault subsided.

Since then, the pro-Russian militias have been preparing for another round. U.S. Air Force General Philip Breedlove, the supreme commander of NATO forces in Europe, said on Monday that the border between Russian and Ukraine has become completely porous, allowing Russian troops and weapons to pass freely into the rebel territory with reinforcements. Since August, Russia has sent six massive convoys of trucks, hundreds of them in all, into the rebel strongholds, carrying what Moscow claims to be humanitarian aid. None of them have been inspected by Ukrainian authorities, who have lost control of the roads leading into rebel territory from Russia, so the government in Kiev suspects the cargo could be loaded down with heavy weaponry.

But it wasn’t the flow of supplies from Russia that led to the erosion of the cease-fire. It was the rebels’ decision on Sunday to held elections on the breakaway territories that run along the Russian border. Touted as a sign of their independent statehood, the ballots were meant to legitimize the rebel leadership with titles such as “President” and “Minister” in the regions they control. The day after the results were announced, Ukraine’s President called them “pseudo elections” and pledged never to recognize the “coronated” men. “They may even call themselves kings or emperors,” Poroshenko said in his televised address. “Still, no matter what they put on their heads, they will remain occupants, criminals and militants.”

In response to the rebel ballot, he ordered parliament to revoke the key concession that Poroshenko made in September to secure the cease-fire. The so-called special status law was meant to give broad powers of autonomy to the disputed regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, where the rebels have set up little protectorates of Moscow. That act of appeasement from the Ukrainians was enough to slow the fighting over the past two months. But Poroshenko now wants the law to be repealed. Instead, a new law must delineate a clear border for the separatist regions and cut them off from all support from the central government in Kiev. “It will let these districts be responsible for their self-funding,” Poroshenko said. “Everyone will be judged by his work.”

If this is an attempt to starve the rebel leaders into submission, it is not likely to work. Russia has proved willing to support them with cheap fuel and other supplies as long as they keep up their rebellion against the government in Kiev. As the peace deal breaks down, they will be tempted to expand the territories they control, thus forcing Poroshenko to cede more and more land to the rebels whenever a new round of peace talks begins.

Oleg Tsarov, who took the title of “Speaker” of the separatist parliament after the weekend ballot, has already hinted that such an offensive was in the works. The pro-Russian uprising, he said in a statement emailed to TIME on Wednesday, began six months ago with the deadly street clashes between protesters in the port city of Odessa, which has remained under Ukrainian control. “I am certain that we must close the circle,” Tsarov said in his statement. “The civil war that started in Odessa must end in Odessa as well.”

A look at the map of Ukraine leaves little doubt of his intentions. In order for the pro-Russian forces to attack Odessa, they would need not only to overrun Mariupol but nearly all of southern Ukraine as well. Russia would then be able to secure a land bridge to the southern region of Crimea, which it invaded and annexed at the outset of the conflict in March. For the military hawks in Moscow, that has been the great temptation all along.

But Tsarov, when reached by phone on Wednesday, tried to ease up on his threat. “We are not preparing an imminent march on Odessa,” he tells TIME. Instead they will bide their time and continue laying down the roots of statehood on their territory, he says. “But if the Ukrainians attack us, they should know that we will not just defend ourselves. We will counter attack.” And if the Russian military once again comes to support them, it could mean the fall of Mariupol fairly quickly, though not without a pile of bodies on both sides.

Read next: Former Aide Says Putin Has No Strategic Plans

TIME russia

Former Aide Says Putin Has No Strategic Plans

President Putin at the Great Kremlin Palace in Moscow on May 7, 2012, during his inauguration ceremony.
President Putin at the Great Kremlin Palace in Moscow on May 7, 2012, during his inauguration ceremony. Alexey Druzhinin—AFP/Getty Images

An oligarch now living in exile in London tells TIME the Russian President can't imagine life without power

At times during the past year Russian President Vladimir Putin has appeared to make somewhat sudden changes in policy as he has confronted the West over Ukraine and Russia’s influence in Eastern Europe. Earlier this year, for example, he publicly insisted the uniformed troops who began taking control of the Ukrainian region of Crimea in February had no connection to Russia. Later he acknowledged Russian troops had, in fact, been in Crimea. During the conflict in Eastern Ukraine he has moved Russian forces back and forth — in Russia and in Ukraine — in ways that suggest he is improvising rather than adhering to a careful gameplan. If Putin sometimes appears to be making up policy on the fly, maybe that’s because, according to a close former aide speaking to an American news organization for the first time, he is.

“Putin is not someone who sets strategic plans; he lives today,” says the former aide, Sergei Pugachev, a Russian businessmen once so well connected in Moscow that he was called the “Kremlin’s banker”. Pugachev, whose wealth at its peak was estimated by Forbes magazine to be $2 billion and who now lives in London, knew Putin when the Russian President was still working as an adviser to the mayor of St. Petersburg. They stayed close when the future President moved to work for the central government in Moscow, often meeting every day.

Pugachev had founded a bank in the dying days of the Soviet Union and in 1992, after the communist system had collapsed, he set up a new bank called Mezhprombank (International Industrial Bank) in Moscow. It’s unclear how this apparently unconnected, provincial figure managed to become a Kremlin powerbroker but by 1996 he was helping then President Boris Yeltsin win re-election and was acting as an adviser inside the Kremlin, which is how he met Putin.

“He’d always have well-sharpened pencils, a clean sheet of paper and a newspaper,” Pugachev says, remembering Putin from those days. “There were no documents, nothing. I had been in politics about 10 years and seen everyone. They’d have tons of documents. They’d always be doing something. But with him it was just quiet, no one there, no meetings, everything quiet. He’d sit there, or watch TV. He really likes watching TV.”

Pugachev did not think his new associate was particularly ambitious. “He had no plans, he didn’t aim to become President. He hadn’t thought of that. He didn’t plan to remain in the government at all.”

In 2008, Forbes rated Pugachev the 605th richest man in the world. He reportedly owned shipyards in St. Petersburg, a coal mine, luxury goods companies and acres of prime real estate. He was building a prestigious hotel in Moscow. And he was a senator in Russia’s upper house of parliament.

Pugachev’s position in Moscow collapsed in 2010, when the Kremlin began to forcibly purchase his businesses, causing him to flee to Britain in 2011.

In July a London court froze his bank accounts, following a request from Russia, allowing him a limit of £10,000 ($16,000) spending money per week. Russian prosecutors allege Pugachev siphoned money out of Mezhprombank, allowing it to go bankrupt. Pugachev denies the debts were his, saying he had surrendered control of the bank in 2001. He said Russia effectively invented the debts as an excuse to expropriate his assets. Russia is now attempting to seize more of his assets in return for what prosecutors say are unpaid debts. By way of retaliation he has decided to speak publicly about his former boss.

Putin, according to Pugachev, lives entirely from day to day. His enthusiasm for projects — such as the luxury hotel Pugachev was building — can be all-encompassing, but can also suddenly evaporate, with no explanation given. Putin cancelled the hotel project, according to Pugachev, despite having previously been so excited that he helped draw up the specifications for individual suites. Kremlin guards prevented Pugachev’s team even from retrieving their computers from the building site, which remains unfinished to this day.

Pugachev said such behavior was not out of character, and neither was Russia’s sudden annexation of Crimea earlier this year. “He was a black box, no one knew what was inside. I spoke to him almost every day probably, and if someone had asked me then whether what we have now is possible, I would have said no,” says Pugachev. “But there wasn’t some evil genius who thought this all up — this is just how he is.”

Pugachev said there were two main reasons why the Kremlin team chose Putin to be Yeltsin’s successor in the 2000 election. First, there weren’t any other options — almost everyone else had abandoned the ailing, alcoholic Yeltsin. Second, Putin was associated with the glamour of his former boss, Anatoly Sobchak, the ex-mayor of St. Petersburg who had a reputation as a courageous reformer and a democrat.

Putin’s accession came as a surprise to Russia’s big businessmen, who were nervous about the ex-KGB man’s intentions. Pugachev says he persuaded Putin to meet them in summer 2000, a few months after his election. Putin had been reluctant, but eventually agreed, provided he could specify the venue.

“I only found out about it two hours before the meeting,” Pugachev recalls. “I rang up and asked, ‘Where’s the meeting? In the Kremlin, or where?’ And he said: ‘No, I’ve decided to do this informally.’ The meeting was at Stalin’s dacha. That was very symbolic.”

The home of former Soviet leader Joseph Stalin — at Kuntsevo on the outskirts of Moscow — has been left almost unchanged since the dictator’s death in 1953. Pugachev says Putin had not been to the dacha before, so would appear to have chosen it purely for its symbolic value. Stalin was responsible for the deaths of millions and epitomised tyrannical leadership — facts not lost on the newly rich oligarchs. Oil tycoon Roman Abramovich — who has managed to preserve good relations with Putin to this day, unlike several of his fellow guests — presided over a barbecue. Conversation failed to flow.

“Afterwards I said: ‘Why didn’t you ask him anything?'” Pugachev says. “They replied: ‘What could we have asked? He’s a KGB agent. He took us to Stalin’s dacha. It’s enough that he let us leave. What else were we going to ask for?’”

Over the past 15 years, Putin has weakened most institutions in Russia that could act as blocks to his power: political parties, the media, the courts, the civil service, regulators and police. Putin gradually side-lined all the individuals he inherited from Yeltsin’s Kremlin. He is now surrounded by close friends, mostly from St. Petersburg and the security services, such as Vladimir Yakunin (head of Russian Railways) and Igor Sechin (head of the Rosneft oil company), who have reportedly become wealthy during his time in office.

If they want something, they get it, Pugachev said: from a Russian shipyard to a Ukrainian province.

“If Putin says he wants to buy something, you cannot say that you do not want to sell. If he says ‘I want to buy something’ then you say, ‘Thanks for saying you want to buy it, and not just taking it,’” Pugachev says.

The authorities’ light-fingered approach to private property has been one of many reasons why investors have been reluctant to leave their money in Russia. Capital flight is due to hit $85.3 billion this year this year, partly as a result of Western sanctions on Russian business. The rouble has lost around a fifth of its value against the dollar since the summer.

Russia’s economic problems do not worry the President, however, according to Pugachev. “Vladimir Putin does not understand economics. He does not like it. It is dry. It’s boring to hear these reports, to read them. He likes clear things: Russia’s moving ahead; how great everything is. He does not have a deep understanding of what is happening,” Pugachev says. “Putin’s close circle understands that he likes good news, so they always bring him good news. Whatever is happening, it’s good. For him, it’s enough to be in a good mood.”

Putin has now acquired a taste for power, Pugachev says, and warns that his former boss shows no signs of departing the political scene in the near future.

“It has become clear Putin does not intend to go to some island, to lie down and spend his money somewhere,” says Pugachev. “After all that has been done in the last 15 years, he cannot imagine life without Russia or power.”

Read next: Cease-Fire in Ukraine Fails and Preparations for War Begin

TIME China

China’s Pollution Problem Killed 670,000 in 2012, Study Says

Thick smog covers northern regions
High-rise residential buildings are seen in heavy smog in Shenyang city, northeast China's Liaoning province on Oct. 8, 2014. Yan bo—Imaginechina

Study urges Beijing to raise taxes on coal-burning by up to 10 times

A new study has revealed the staggering cost of China’s dependence on coal to power its economy: 670,000 deaths in one year alone.

The study, by Tsinghua University associate professor Teng Fei, lays bare the extent of the country’s pollution problem that is the darkest side effect of the country’s rapid growth over the last 20 years: over 70% of China’s 1.4 billion population are exposed to pollution levels above national regulatory norms, and over 10% are exposed to concentrations of harmful particles 10 times the level considered safe by the U.N.’s World Health Organization.

The study underlines how immediate and pressing pollution and public health issues are driving the discussion in China over industrial emissions, in contrast to considerations of long-term climate change prevalent in the West. It’s also a powerful reminder of why Beijing is trying to re-orient its economy away from energy-intensive, export-oriented manufacturing.

Coal, by far the “dirtiest” of the major fossil fuels in terms of emissions, accounts for over two-thirds of China’s primary energy supply. Although Beijing has taken tentative steps to reduce its importance, such as banning the development of new coal mines in the country’s more developed eastern provinces, coal will still be over 50% of total energy supply even in 2040, according to official U.S. estimates.

Teng’s study will strengthen the arguments of those pressing the government to do more, faster. Teng suggested that taxes on coal need to be raised between five and ten times to reflect the real cost of burning it, according to the South China Morning Post.

The study found that tiny particulate pollutants, especially those smaller than 2.5 micrograms (known as PM2.5), were linked to 670,000 premature deaths from four diseases – strokes, lung cancer, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – in China in 2012.

But the actual cost is probably far higher, the SCMP quoted Li Guoxing of Beijing University’s School of Public Health as saying.

“The health cost [of the study] is only based on the premature death figures due to the limitations of our research data,” said Li. “It could be way higher if we also include medical costs for other chronic illnesses.”

The study found that in 2012, more than 70% of the population was exposed to annual PM2.5 pollution levels higher than 35 micrograms per cubic meter, the country’s benchmark for healthy air quality. And 157 million people lived in areas where the annual PM2.5 concentration was higher than 100mcg/cubic meter – 10 times the WHO’s recommendation.

According to the China National Coal Association, the country’s coal consumption totaled 3.03 billion metric tons in the first nine months of this year, down 1.2% from a year earlier. Domestic production fell to 2.85 billion tons, according to the Xinhua News Agency.

This article originally appeared on Fortune.com

TIME United Kingdom

European Migrants Contribute $32 Billion to U.K. Economy, Study Says

Polish workers on Braeburn apple orchard at Stocks Farm in Worcestershire, England on Aug. 7, 2014.
Polish workers on Braeburn apple orchard at Stocks Farm in Worcestershire, England on Aug. 7, 2014. Joe Giddens—PA/AP

E.U. migrants pay out more in taxes to the U.K. than they receive in benefits

European migrants to the U.K. contribute $32 billion (£20 billion) to British revenues according to new research which rejects claims that new arrivals are a drain on the health and social security system.

The Guardian reported that between 2000 and 2011, migrants from countries such as Germany and Romania contributed far more than they claimed in health insurance and unemployment and other benefits.

Professor Christian Dustmann, co-author of the study, says that one of the greatest concerns in the public debate on migration is “whether immigrants contribute their fair share to the tax and welfare systems,” he said, “This latest study paints a largely positive picture of immigration’s fiscal effects on the U.K.”

European immigrants appear to make the most substantial contributions because of “their higher average labor market participation compared with natives and their lower receipt of welfare benefits,” says the report.

Migrants from the original 15 European Union countries, including France and Germany contributed $24bn more in taxes than they got in benefits while migrants from eastern Europe contributed $8bn more.

The researchers, say their findings showed that the U.K. has continued to attract highly educated and skilled immigrants and immigration’s positive net contribution has helped to reduce the tax burden on native British workers.

[The Guardian]

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