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Photos Capture 3 Months of Political Unrest in Burundi

Phil Moore, a freelance photographer, examines the fragile political situation in Burundi

On April 25, Burundi’s President Pierre Nkurunziza said he would seek a third term in office—despite a constitution that limits the time spent in office for any one person to two terms of five years each. The announcement sparked violent protests among opposition supporters in the country, in the Great Lakes area of Africa. Freelance photographer Phil Moore, who also contributes to Agence France-Presse, arrived a few days later, on May 1, and what he saw there underscores the gravity of the situation.

In the first weeks of May, the protests remained largely localized in strongholds of the opposition outside of the country’s capital, Bujumbura. “The protesters were in the streets almost every day,” says Moore, “and the police were trying to prevent them from bringing the protests to the city center.”

In some cases, civilians were targeted when they were suspected of belonging to the ruling party’s Imbonerakure youth militia, as Moore’s colleague, Jerome Delay of Associated Press witnessed on May 7.

“After a while, the army was forced to come in to act as a buffer to defuse the tension,” says Moore.

The turning point came a few days later when former intelligence chief Godefroid Niyombare seized control of the capital’s airport and media assets in an apparent coup. For 36 hours, chaos engulfed the country as forces loyal to President Nkurunziza wrestled with Niyombare’s supporters. In the end, the coup failed, forcing Niyombare to flee the country.

“After that, the government used this attempt to portray protesters as dissidents and rebels,” says Moore. “Any sort of protests were violently put down, and that’s when the situation took an even more sinister turn as, in June, there was a series of grenade attacks throughout the capital before the parliamentary elections.”

Seen as a prelude and litmus test for last week’s presidential elections, those elections were conducted in an environment that was “not conducive for free, credible and inclusive elections,” according to the United Nations electoral observer mission. Last week, the U.N. renewed its condemnation — this time for the presidential elections, in which Nkurunziza won a third term with 69% of the vote. “Now, everybody is waiting to see what happens next,” says Moore.

President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda is now mediating Burundi’s crisis, leading negotiations between the government and opposition groups “to reach an agreement on issues affecting the political situation in Burundi and report back as soon as possible,” according to the Associated Press.

For Moore, this is only the start of his documentation of the country’s politics. In the future, he plans to take a deeper look at Burundi’s economic and social situation. “Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world,” he says. “I’ve been able to look at these other issues that underpin the problems the country is going through right now.”

And it’s not just Burundi: “It’s quite an important story not just because of what happening in Burundi, but also for what it means for the region,” Moore adds. “This talk of new presidential mandate is relevant in Congo as well as in Rwanda.”

Last week, the Rwandan government launched a national consultation as its president, Paul Kagame, sought to change the country’s constitution to scrap term limits and grant him a potential third term in office.

Phil Moore is a freelance photographer and contributor to Agence France-Presse based in Kenya and the U.K.

Mikko Takkunen is an Associate Photo Editor at TIME. Follow him on Twitter @photojournalism.

Olivier Laurent is the editor of TIME LightBox. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram @olivierclaurent

TIME Rwanda

Rwanda’s Head of Intelligence Arrested For War Crimes

Karenzi Karake is one of 39 Rwandans indicted in Spain for war crimes

The head of Rwanda’s intelligence service has been arrested in London, the BBC reports.

Karenzi Karake, who is wanted in Spain for war crimes, was detained when he arrived at Heathrow Airport on Saturday. He is due to appear in court in London on Thursday.

Louise Mushikiwabo, the spokeswoman for the Rwandan government called the arrest an “an outrage.”

Karake was indicted by a Spanish judge in 2008 for alleged war crimes along with 39 other current or former high-ranking Rwandan military officials. He was also accused of ordering the killing of three Spanish nationals working for Medicos del Mundo. The charges date from after the Rwandan genocide in which 800,000 people were killed by Hutu extremists. The dead were mostly from the minority Tutsi tribe. The killing ended when the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front, of which Karake was a member, invaded and overthrew the Hutu government.

Karake visited the U.K often and it is unclear why he was arrested at the weekend. Andrew Mitchell, the former U.K. minister for international development, told the BBC he thought the arrest was “completely wrong” and that the Spanish indictments were “un-researched, politically motivated and lacking in facts.”

[BBC]

TIME World

These 8 World Leaders Are Taking Major Steps Towards Gender Equality

From closing the pay gap to implementing board quotas to requiring all soldiers to take violence prevention courses, here's how 8 world leaders are embracing HeforShe

UN Women’s “He for She” initiative is in full swing, and on Thursday nine world leaders announced major steps they are taking to bring their countries to full gender equality. Each has pledged to champion HeForShe in their individual nations, and has outlined specific actions they’ll take towards ensuring equal opportunities for women.

The announcements are part of UN Women’s IMPACT 10x10x10 initiative, where 10 heads of state, 10 CEOs, and 10 university presidents commit to taking tangible steps to achieve gender equality, as part of the HeForShe movement that actress Emma Watson announced at the UN last year.

Here are some of the main commitments from 8 heads of state from around the world– the final two leaders will be announced at a later date.

Sauli Niinistö, President of Finland, has vowed to decrease violence against women by 5% over the next five years, partly by requiring all soldiers in the Finnish Defense Forces to learn about aggression control and violence prevention. Since Finland has universal male conscription, that means that almost all young men in Finland will be required to complete an education program on violence against women.

Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Prime Minister of Iceland, has committed to eliminating the gender pay gap in Iceland by 2022: currently, women are paid 6-18% less than men. The government will achieve this by conducting major audits of all companies in Iceland, to ensure that women are being paid fairly. Gunnlaugsson’s administration will also sponsor major reports on the status of women in media in Iceland, in order to achieve parity by 2020, and has pledged to make 1 in 5 Icelandic men commit to supporting HeforShe principals by 2016.

Joko Widodo, President of Indonesia, is pushing a to make the Indonesian parliament 30% female (up from 17%.) The government plans to promote more women to senior leadership positions, mandate gender training for all government institutions, and study trends in female voting and women who run for political office. Widodo also pledges to extend national health insurance coverage to reproductive and maternal health care, and improve sexual health services around the country. He also wants to fight violence against women, by launching a nationwide survey in 2016 that could help the government make targeted interventions to help the 3-4 million Indonesian women who face violence ever year. And, providing women migrant workers with financial literacy training is just one way they help give them more independence.

Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, is unrolling major reforms to support more women in the workforce. Abe is proposing a bill that would require all public sector institutions and companies with more than 301 employees to demonstrate concrete action plans to increase the representation of women. He’s also increasing nursery school capacity, and enhancing family leave policies. Japan is also leveraging $3 billion in international aid to enhance peace and security and ending sexual violence abroad.

Arthur Peter Mutharika, President of Malawi, is committing to fully ending child marriage in Malawi. Currently, about half of girls in Malawi are married before they turn 18– the government just passed a new law to address this problem, and Mutharika commits to fully implementing this law by creating new local marriage courts and improving marriage registration. Malawi is also making major steps towards economic empowerment of women, by requiring all commercial banks to develop lending options just for women by 2016, in order to increase the number of women accessing credit by 30%.

Klaus Iohannis, President of Romania, is launching a new nationwide analysis of violence against women, to make sure agencies and public institutions have the data they need to inform policy that could protect victims. Based on the data they find, Iohannis plans to create emergency shelters in every region of the country. Romania is also creating two entirely new professions — Expert in Gender Equality and Gender Equality Technician — to implement gender equality strategies, and 70% of Romanian public institutions are required to employ one by 2020.

Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda, is pledging to make sure women have equal access to technology and increase girls’ enrollment in tech fields. Currently, women represent only 20% of employees in the tech sector, and only 35% of women own mobile phones (compared to almost half of men.) Kagame also wants to get more girls enrolled in technical and vocational training programs by launching a national mentorship and career guidance program to encourage girls to take science and technology courses, aiming at 50% of eligible girls enrolled by 2020. Currently, only about 18% of eligible girls are enrolled. Rwanda is also rolling out an initiative to end gender-based violence, by building One Stop Centers all over the country to provide medical, legal, and psychological support to victims, part of what they call a “zero tolerance policy” towards sexual violence.

Stefan Löfvén, Prime Minister of Sweden, says Sweden already has a feminist government, but that more men need to stand up for gender equality. He promises to get more women into the workforce (64% of Swedish women are employed full time, compared to 69% of Swedish men) and close the wage gap– currently, Swedish women make only 87 cents for every dollar a man makes. Sweden has achieved a remarkable level of gender equality in government, but women are still under-represented in business and academia. The government has set a target that boards of top Swedish companies must be 40% female by 2017– if that goal isn’t met, the government will start implementing a quota.

Read more: Twitter, Vodafone and Georgetown University All Commit to Gender Equality

TIME Burundi

No Victor in Sight as Coup Unfolds in Burundi

Protesters, who are against President Pierre Nkurunziza's decision to run for a third term, gesture in front of a burning barricade in Bujumbura, Burundi on May 14, 2015.
Goran Tomasevic—Reuters Protesters, who are against President Pierre Nkurunziza's decision to run for a third term, gesture in front of a burning barricade in Bujumbura, Burundi on May 14, 2015.

Rival troops struggle for power in the East African country's capital, but with the President abroad in Tanzania, residents are left in a state of chaos

At what point does an attempted coup become a successful coup? Residents of the East African nation of Burundi woke up to that question on Thursday morning as fighting intensified in the streets of the capital, Bujumbura. Local radio stations, usually the most reliable source of information, offered no clarity for good reason: both independent and state-owned broadcasters were under attack Thursday morning as troops loyal to President Pierre Nkurunziza battled supporters of former intelligence chief Godefroid Niyombare for control of the airways and the opportunity to declare victory.

On Wednesday morning Niyombare announced the coup after the President flew to a meeting in Tanzania. The streets of the capital erupted in celebration as residents, who had been protesting the President’s decision to run for a third, and potentially illegal, term in office saw a chance for victory.

A protestor holds up a dead owl attached to a stick, intended to denigrate the ruling party whose emblem is an eagle, during a protest in Buterere neighbourhood of Bujumbura
Goran Tomasevic—ReutersA protestor holds up a dead owl attached to a stick, intended to denigrate the ruling party whose emblem is an eagle, during a protest in Buterere neighbourhood of Bujumbura, Burundi on May 12, 2015.

They sang, cheered, and shook the hands of pro-coup soldiers. One protestor lofted a dead owl in the air to mock the death of the President’s party, whose emblem is an eagle (owls being easier to come by than eagles in Burundi, apparently). But the celebration was short lived. Government officials announced Wednesday evening that the coup had been foiled, “and that these people, who read the coup announcement on the radio, are being hunted by defense and security forces so that they can be brought to justice.”

Niyombare responded by shutting down the country’s sole airport and closing all borders in the landlocked nation. Nkurunziza was locked out of his country and reduced to calling for calm from Tanzania via Twitter. “The situation is under control, there is no coup in Burundi,” tweeted the official presidential account in French. Overnight, loyalist forces in the military appeared to take the upper hand. Presidential supporter General Prime Niyongabo, the army chief of staff, announced “The attempted coup… has been stopped,” according to the BBC.

The coup attempt is the culmination of violent protests that have rocked the impoverished nation for more than two weeks since the ruling CNDD-FDD party announced that it had selected President Pierre Nkurunziza as its candidate for next month’s elections. The president has already served two five-year terms, the maximum allowed by the constitution, but his supporters claim that since he was not elected for his first term, but appointed by parliament, the first term doesn’t count. The country’s constitutional court supported the interpretation, but the one dissenting judge immediately fled the country for fear that his life was at risk, raising questions about the court’s impartiality. Opposition politicians fear that should he run again, his party will be able to rig the election in his favor. A born-again Christian that rarely travels without his personal choir, the President also believes that he was personally appointed by God to lead Burundi, according to his presidential spokesman. “Mr. Nkurunziza indeed believes he is president by divine will, and he therefore organizes his life and government around these values,” presidential spokesman Willy Nyamitwe told AFP in April.

At least 22 have been killed in protests that were often divided along ethnic lines. Scores have been injured, and some 50,000 Burundians have fled for neighboring countries, fearful that the 13-year-old civil war that ended in 2006 might reignite.

In announcing his coup, Niyombare, a former presidential ally who was dismissed in February, said that he had no intention of taking power himself, only that he wanted to work for “the restoration of national unity and the resumption of the electoral process in a peaceful and fair environment,” according to AFP.

Burundi may be small, with a population of 10.1 million, but heightened tensions in one of the most volatile areas of east Africa are cause for international concern. The U.S. Department of State urged Burundians to “lay down arms, end the violence and show restraint,” while the European Union and the United Nations appealed for calm. Neighbors Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo are also watching the events closely, though for different reasons. Both countries have upcoming presidential elections, and both have incumbents who are reaching the end of their constitutional term limits. But both Rwanda’s Paul Kagame and the DRC’s Joseph Kabila have hinted that they might seek a way to stay on. It’s not just Burundians who want to know whether or not the coup was successful; Kabila and Kagame are likely to be taking note as well.

TIME Innovation

Are We Breaking Up With Saudi Arabia?

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

These are today's best ideas

1. Is the special Saudi-U.S. relationship on the rocks?

By Ray Takeyh at the Council on Foreign Relations

2. Two-year degrees can really pay off.

By Liz Weston at Reuters

3. A self-contained urban farm, delivered in a box, could slash water use by 90 percent.

By Danny Crichton in TechCrunch

4. How a lake full of methane could power Rwanda and DR Congo.

By Jonathan W. Rosen in MIT Technology Review

5. Nope, we’re not going to live on crickets in the near-future.

By Brooke Borel in Popular Science

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME Rwanda

Scars and the Smell of Grass: One Survivor’s Lasting Reminders of Genocide

Survivors of the Rwanda genocide in 1994, which left hundreds of thousands of people dead, still grapple with its brutal legacy

More than two decades after the Rwandan genocide, the smell of grass in the summer still gives Consolee Nishimwe nightmares.

Between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, according to the United Nations. At 14, Nishimwe survived a brutal attack that left her emotionally and physically scarred for years. As a result of the assault, she is now HIV positive. Her father and brothers—aged 18 months, 7 and 9—were all killed.

“I will never forget what happened to me,” Nishimwe, who has vivid memories of hiding in the bushes from Hutu militias, told TIME in a recent interview. “Physical violence happened to me, and also living with HIV as a result of that, it’s something I will never forget—that will never go anywhere, that I have to live with.”

This week, as Rwanda’s government commemorates the 21st anniversary of the genocide, many survivors like Nishimwe are faced with unavoidable reminders of the physical and emotional toll of the conflict.

When asked about forgiveness, Nishimwe, who now lives in New York City, spoke of a work in progress. “That’s a really difficult word,” she said. “I think I did… I think 20 years is still early to me.”

Nishimwe’s book, Tested to the Limit: A Genocide Survivor’s Story of Pain, Resilience, and Hope, is an account of her experience as a survivor.

TIME Rwanda

Inside the Tech Revolution That Could Be Rwanda’s Future

Rwanda hopes a technological revolution will help transform it into a middle-income country

Correction appended: April 10, 2015.

Twenty-one years ago Tuesday, a genocide began in Rwanda that would claim as many as 1 million lives over the next 100 days. Today, the small East African nation has progressed remarkably from a history plagued with corruption, ethnic divisions and underdevelopment.

Under President Paul Kagame, who some credit for helping end the 1994 genocide, Rwanda has taken a number of steps to turn itself around. Provincial boundaries were redrawn, infrastructure was strengthened, a transitional justice system convicted the worst Génocidaires — even a new flag was unveiled to promote national unity and reconciliation. While some accuse Kagame of using his country’s history as a means of controlling its modern politics, there’s no doubting his country’s economic success.

But as Rwanda heals its past, the nation is also forging ahead — aggressively. A government initiative is underway to expand technology and connectivity, with the goal of transforming the agrarian economy into a highly digitized, middle-income country by 2020. With its population projected to reach 16 million by 2020, from 8 million in 2000, the country is looking beyond state funds and international aid to develop its economy: “While both of these must contribute, the backbone of the process should be a middle class of Rwandan entrepreneurs,” according the plan, called Vision 2020.

Vision 2020 is bold, but it’s working. And many outside Africa — and inside — are marveling at how an economy long-dominated by subsistence farming is becoming a high-tech hub — and one of the 20 fastest-growing countries in the world.

The Rwandan five hundred francs bill features students on laptops, representing the one laptop a child movement.
Cassandra GiraldoThe Rwandan five hundred francs bill features students on laptops, representing the one laptop a child movement.

“It’s apparent if you walk around [the capital city, Kigali]. They have currency with kids on their laptops. Everyone has a cell phone, and these cell phone companies have their advertisements painted all over the country, even if you drive into the rural parks,” says New York-based photographer Cassandra Giraldo, who took the images in this story during her February trip to Rwanda under the International Women’s Media Foundation’s African Great Lakes Reporting Fellowship. “It’s a very different narrative that we don’t see coming out of East Africa or Africa as a continent.”

The rapid adoption of mobile technology in particular has been vital in paving the way for a new generation of Rwandan entrepreneurs. In the early 2000s, Rwanda’s government kicked off Vision 2020 by linking the country to an international network of undersea cables and global wireless networks. The use of mobile phones has skyrocketed in Rwanda since then, so much that Nsengimana even launched the country’s first high-speed 4G LTE network last November:

One such entrepreneur working to drive Rwandan progress is social entrepreneur Aphrodice Mutagana. Mutagana, 30, is the founder of FOYO, a mobile pharmaceutical directory that provides education to Africans relating to medicine, including dosage information, drug-food interactions and side effects. Mutagana’s interest in healthcare has also led him to launch the Incike Initiative, a mobile crowdfunding app that raises funds for elderly survivors of the genocide, some of whom are the only remaining members of their families.

Last year, Mutagana raised 1.7 million Rwandan francs ($2,500), an amount he hopes to top in this year’s campaign, which launched this week and is timed to coincide with the national commemoration of the genocide from April to July. “We decided to dream big,” Mutagana says. “Technology is affecting everything, and now you can contribute in ways you didn’t have 20 years ago.”

Aphrodice Mutangana, 30, working at the kLab co-working space in Kigali.
Cassandra GiraldoAphrodice Mutangana, 30, working at the kLab co-working space in Kigali.

Like many Rwandan entrepreneurs, Mutagana frequently works at kLab, an open space for IT entrepreneurs to collaborate. kLab, which stands for “knowledge lab,” is designed to help students, new graduates and other innovators to turn their ideas into viable business models under experienced mentors and tech workshops. Other co-working spaces, like “The Office“, have given other entrepreneurs the tools to launch their ideas, including Clarisse Iribagiza, 26, CEO of software development company HeHe Labs.

With HeHe Labs, which was started in 2010 after development in an MIT-run startup incubator, Igibagiza offers a Code Club fellowship to recently graduated high school students, who serve as leaders and mentors in schools around Kigali. Her interest in inspiring Rwanda’s youth has also led her to actively encourage young girls to consider careers in technology, including having partnered with Nike to design the mobile software Girl Hub, which allows girls to use their mobile phones to provide feedback to weekly radio shows. “We want to create homegrown solutions and to focus on the now,” says Iribagiza.

Cassandra GiraldoHeHe Ltd. coding fellows Honoré Yves, 18, left and Yannick Kabayiza, 18, right at after school program at S.O.S. Kagugu Tecnhical High School.

As entrepreneurships emerge in Rwanda, the push for greater technological growth has also enticed multinational businesses, investors and institutions to establish a foothold in the country. Carnegie Mellon University, for example, opened a Rwandan campus in 2012 to attract students interested in the country’s efforts to boost its tech sector. Smaller companies like laptop and smartphone maker Gira ICT have partnered with manufacturers like Apple, Samsung, HP and Lenovo to offer customers a monthly payment system to boost affordability. Meanwhile, Rwandan partnerships with Microsoft and Intel have launched a number of educational initiatives in Rwandan schools to ensure a new generation is equipped with the skills to continue the technology initiative.

Still, some companies and investors treat Rwanda with caution. A high cost of credit has led to businesses paying upwards of 20% of interest on their loans to banks, despite the ease with which many entrepreneurs describe launching their companies. Additionally, some see Rwanda’s steady GDP growth — about 8% last year — as being possible only due to the country’s historic poverty. In fact, Rwanda is still classified as low-income country with a ways to go until it reaches a middle-class designation, according to the World Bank.

But in a small landlocked country lacking in natural resources, technology is one of the few domestic resources that Rwanda may be able to mobilize in order to decrease its high dependency on foreign aid. Even more visible changes may lay ahead with the last stage of Vision 2020, which uses the new infrastructure and technology to improve education, communities and the private sector.

“Not only are they reducing the cost of making technology accessible, they’re also creating jobs,” says IDC Sub-Saharan Africa analyst Mark Walker, who is based in South Africa. “Rwanda is neither mineral-rich nor oil-rich, and to that end, technology is a great enabler.”

Correction: The original version of this story incorrectly identified who was responsible for launching the Vision 2020 program. It was initiated by the Rwandan government.

Inventing Rwanda
Cassandra GiraldoThe land of a thousand hills. Rwanda is attempting to turn an agrarian society into a knowledge-based economy and instilling a sense of national identity and unity in Rwandans.
TIME HIV/AIDS

African Countries Should Spend More in AIDS Response, Study Says

A mother holds the hand of her Aids stricken son in Rakai, Ugand
Getty Images

To meet AIDS eradication goals, study says funding should be re-allocated

Twelve African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS are currently the largest recipients of international AIDS funding. But it’s now possible for many of them to make domestic spending on the disease a priority, a new study says.

As countries in sub-Saharan Africa gain better financial footing, funds from donor countries are tightening. Researchers from Harvard School of Public Health and the Results for Development Institute decided to test a couple of scenarios to see whether funding for the AIDS response could be re-allocated so African countries would finance a greater share.

Their results, published in the journal The Lancet Global Health, show that overall, the 12 countries—Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia—could provide a greater share of the costs of AIDS programs in their countries over the next five years. However, several countries will still need support from donors, even if they were to provide their maximum funds.

MORE: The End of AIDS

By looking at factors like expected growth and total government spending, and then comparing them to the countries’ AIDS needs, the researchers found that in most scenarios, AIDS expenditures for three of the upper-middle-income countries (Botswana, Namibia and South Africa) exceed their needs. In many cases, they found, these three countries could actually fund their needs solely from domestic resources. Other low-income countries like Mozambique and Ethiopia would still need to largely rely on donors.

Currently, the dozen countries are home to more than 50% of AIDS cases worldwide, as well as 56% of financial aid for the disease. They also account for 83% of funding from the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which makes up one of the largest shares of international donations. In 2014, the United Nations program UNAIDS estimated that a “fast-tracked” response to ending the AIDS epidemic would mean we’d need $35 billion each year by 202o, but in 2012, only $19 billion was available and almost half came from international sources. To meet such goals, the researchers suggest their new funding strategy.

Almost none of the 12 countries meet possible financing benchmarks that the study authors believe to be reasonable. If the countries spent more domestically, researchers say that self-funding could increase 2.5 times and could cover 64% of future needs. That would still leave a gap of about $7.9 billion.

“Coupled with improved resource tracking, such metrics could enhance transparency and accountability for efficient use of money and maximize the effect of available funding to prevent HIV infections and save lives,” the study authors conclude. Sharing the financial burden of AIDS more equitably may be one strategy for eradicating the disease faster.

TIME Rwanda

Rwanda Now Screening Travelers From The U.S. And Spain for Ebola

A New Jersey elementary school recently barred entry to two transfer students from the Ebola-free country

As mass panic over Ebola sweeps over the globe, resulting in widespread stigmatization of travelers to and from Africa, one Ebola-free East African nation is stepping up its precautionary approach toward people traveling to or from America and Europe.

Rwanda Tuesday began screening people who have been in the U.S. or Spain in the last two weeks. A handful of patients have been diagnosed with Ebola in both countries. Rwanda is already denying entry to visitors who have been in Guinea, Liberia, Senegal, or Sierra Leone in the last 22 days.

Coincidence or not, Rwanda’s new policy clips on the heels of a New Jersey elementary school that barred entry to two transfer students from Rwanda, even though the country is 2,600 miles from the closest Ebola-afflicted country.

Rwanda’s protocol is laid out on the U.S. Embassy’s website.

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: October 8

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

1. Quotas can cause lasting change. Rwanda’s new parliament is more than 60% female.

By Eleanor Whitehead in This Is Africa

2. With open communication and smart procedures, we can contain Ebola.

By Atul Gawande in The New Yorker

3. A simple plan to begin saving for college at kindergarten helps families thrive.

By Andrea Levere in the New York Times

4. Teach For America is sewing seeds for education reform in unlikely places – by design.

By Jackie Mader in Next City

5. How Bitcoin could save journalism and the arts.

By Walter Isaacson in Time

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

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