TIME

Many Young Adults Need Parents’ Help to Buy a Home

Mortgage Bankers Association To Release Weekly Mortgage Market Index June 12
Daniel Acker—Bloomberg /Getty Images

At least they’re out of the basement

Three out of four young adults who recently bought their first home needed their parents’ help to afford the down payment, closing costs or other expenses, a new survey finds.

Interest in homeownership is picking up, especially among first-time buyers, and mortgage lender loanDepot LLC commissioned a survey to find out how today’s millennials — 97% of whom will take out a mortgage to buy their homes — plan to pay for their investment.

It seems the “bank of mom and dad” is a fallback most count on, with 75% of young adults who recently bought a home saying their parents helped them out. Another survey, this one from BMO Harris Bank, finds that about a quarter of first-time homebuyers expect to get money from their parents or other relatives.

Among parents of future would-be homebuyers, 17% of respondents to the loanDepot survey say they expect to have to chip in, up four percentage points from five years ago — a gap that suggests a number of today’s wanna-be homeowners expecting financial assistance probably shouldn’t hold their breath.

There are some indications that, even as young adults expect more assistance from their parents, the older generation has a dwindling amount of resources they can use to help. Over the past five years, just under three-quarters of parents who helped their kids buy homes used their savings, but that number is expected to fall to about two-thirds in the future, according to the survey. Instead, more parents will refinance their own homes, take out personal loans and borrow against their 401(k)s — potentially risking their own financial security.

And parents are digging deeper into their pockets to help out in other ways, too: Almost a third say they’ll pay some of their kids’ other expenses to help the younger generation save money, and 18% plan to help their kids pay down their student loans. Of the parents who are contributing to their kids’ investments, half say they’ll help their kids make the down payment, 20% say they’ll help with closing costs and 20% say they’ll actually co-sign the loan.

This might be reasonable in markets where high down payments are the norm, but experts warn that parental assistance sometimes can mask the fact that the home just isn’t affordable for the aspiring homebuyers. “One of our clients helped the child buy into the same neighborhood they lived in. The parents were excited, but it turned out to be a huge burden for the kids,” Brett Gookin, principal at wealth management firm Aspiriant, told SFGate.com last year. (San Francisco has the second-highest average down payment in the country, just behind New York City.)

MONEY credit cards

Can You Pay Your Mortgage With a Credit Card?

best travel rewards credit card
Robert Hadfield

Sometimes, lenders allow you to pay one debt with another, but there are a lot of things to know before you charge a mortgage.

You can use a credit card to pay many kinds of bills, and if you have a rewards credit card you pay in full every month, you can use those payments to increase your rewards. It’s a common strategy.

Still, just because you have the ability to pay a bill with your credit card doesn’t mean it’s a safe tactic. Some consumers are tempted to use their credit cards to make mortgage payments, if they have that option, because large transactions generate more rewards, but doing that might actually cost you, rather than save you money.

It’s not very common to have the option to pay your mortgage with a credit card, but if you have the ability to do so, you’ve probably wondered about the risks and rewards of paying a loan with a credit card.

What to Ask Your Lender

If you can use your credit card to pay your mortgage, find out if there are fees associated with the transaction. Credit card transactions can be very expensive to process — it depends on the card you’re using — so the lender may charge you that fee so they don’t have to foot the bill

If there’s a fee, compare that to the rewards you might earn by charging your mortgage payment. Say you’re using a card that offers 1.5% cash back on all purchases — any processing fee exceeding 1.5% means you’re paying to pay your mortgage.

You should also ask how that transaction will be processed. A Reddit user recently posted about paying a mortgage with a credit card, and the payment went through as a cash advance on the card. Cash advances start accruing interest as soon as the transaction clears, which means they can get extremely expensive. Also, cash advances generally carry a higher interest rate than normal credit transactions, hitting you with a double-whammy of higher interest that starts accruing immediately.

Should your lender not charge fees in excess of your rewards, and if it codes the mortgage payment like a regular credit transaction, the strategy could work in your favor.

At the same time, you may set yourself up for some serious financial damage if you miss a payment on the card and have to pay interest on what might end up being a very large balance. You can see how your mortgage is impacting your credit scores for free on Credit.com.

More from Credit.com

This article originally appeared on Credit.com.

MONEY Warren Buffett

Airbnb Will Let You Stay in Warren Buffett’s Childhood Home

Warren Buffett's childhood home
Airbnb

Assuming you’re a Berkshire Hathaway shareholder.

One lucky Berkshire Hathaway shareholder will get to spend a weekend in Warren Buffett’s childhood home, Airbnb announced Tuesday.

The contest comes after the legendary investor and Berkshire CEO said room rental service Airbnb was a good option for company shareholders looking to travel to Omaha for an annual shareholder meeting.


The Buffett contest is only open to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders. Anyone interested has to do the following:

Provide your name and address and a few creative answers to the following questions:

(a) What are you most excited to experience in Omaha? (200 words max)
(b) What are you most looking forward to at the Berkshire Hathaway Shareholders Meeting? (200 words max)
(c) What’s your favorite Airbnb experience? (200 words max)
(d) What’s next on your travel bucket list? (200 words max)

While a stay in Omaha, Neb. may not seem like much of a travel weekend to some, for fans of the Oracle of Omaha it’s akin staying a night in the Lincoln Bedroom. No word on whether people staying in the house will be required to stick to the Buffett diet, largely made up of Utz Potato Sticks, ice cream and Coca-Cola products.

This post originally appeared on Fortune.com.

TIME

No Money For a Down Payment? Here’s Where to Move

Mortgage Bankers Association To Release Weekly Mortgage Market Index June 12
Daniel Acker—Bloomberg via Getty Images A "for sale by owner" sign stands outside a home in LaSalle, Illinois, U.S., on Friday, June 7, 2013. The Mortgage Bankers Associations weekly mortgage market index, which measures mortgage loan applications for purchases and refinancings, is scheduled to be released on June 12. Photographer: Daniel Acker/Bloomberg via Getty Images

…Along with places you should just avoid entirely

The logjam in real estate seems to be coming unstuck, with Zillow.com predicting that 5.2 million renters are going to buy homes in the next year, a nearly 25% jump from last year.

“Many current renters clearly seem to be re-thinking their attitudes toward homeownership, and are expressing more confidence in the overall housing market as a result,” Zillow chief economist Stan Humphries says in a post on the site’s blog. The site finds that the confidence of prospective buyers is on the rise from Dallas to Detroit.

But average down payments have a huge amount of variability across metro areas, new research from RealtyTrac.com finds, and that can be the make-or-break factor for first-time homebuyers. People who expect to buy in top-priced real estate markets like New York City and San Francisco had better bring their checkbooks: The average down payment in San Francisco is right around 30%, while it tops 37% in New York. And in both places, thanks to the high prices of homes in general, that adds up to an eye-popping $300,000-plus — more than the cost of a home in many parts of the country.

The rest of the top five markets with the highest average down payment percentages are more of the same: Marin and San Mateo Counties in the Bay Area, and Kings County — otherwise known as the borough of Brooklyn — in New York.

If that’s not your speed, how do you feel about Ohio or Michigan? Four of the five lowest-priced markets with the lowest down payments by percentage are in those two states, along with Macon, Georgia. In these places, down payment dollar amounts fall in a much more reasonable range, from just under $4,500 to a little over $7,000.

Of course, there are lots of other factors homebuyers have to take into consideration like the availability of jobs and quality of life. RealtyTrac also looked for the lowest down payments in what it calls “millennial magnet markets” where large numbers of young adults have moved over the past several years.

Here there’s a little more variety in terms of geographic location as well as the type of community: Towns in the metro areas of Fayetteville, N.C., Clarksville (on the Kentucky-Tennessee border), Little Rock, Des Moines and the Washington D.C. bedroom communities of Arlington and Alexandria all make the cut. The average down payments range from around 9% to just under 12.5%, and with the exception of the pricier Virginia ‘burbs, the average dollar amounts all clock in below $20,000.

Clarksville and Des Moines also make RealtyTrac’s list of the top markets for first-time homebuyers, along with Durham, N.C., Philadelphia and Davidson County outside of Nashville. All five have average down payment percentages lower than the national average of 14%, and have seen an increase in the number of millennial residents since the end of the recession.

MONEY real estate

Why This Incredible Maine Mansion is Selling for $125

The Center Lovell Inns owner, Janice Sagan, is selling the inn, the same way she bought it 22 years ago, with an essay contest.
Carl D. Walsh—Portland Press Herald via Getty The Center Lovell Inns owner, Janice Sagan, is selling the inn, the same way she bought it 22 years ago, with an essay contest.

It’s gorgeous—and there’s nothing wrong with it.

The owner of a bed & breakfast in Maine is handing off her property to whoever who writes the best 200-word essay and submits a check for $125.

Janice Sage first came into possession of the Center Lovell Inn in 1993 when she won an essay contest set up by the owners at the time, Mental Floss reports. But now, Sage is ready to retire—and pass on the property much the same way she came about it.

Sage told the Press Herald: “There’s a lot of very talented people in the restaurant business who would like to have their own place but can’t afford it. This is a way for them to have the opportunity to try.”

The business-savvy Sage is not doing this without cashing out. She hopes to get over 7,500 contest entries, which would mean she would collect $900,000— the price at which real estate agents in the area say she could expect to sell the property, according to Mental Floss.

Entries must be postmarked by May 7. The winner is expected to be announced on May 21st. There’s more information on the contest’s website here.

The Professional Association of Innkeepers International says that the bed & breakfast industry is estimated to be worth $3.4 billion, with as many as 17,000 inns in the U.S. The average daily rate for a room is $150, according to the association’s website.

MONEY First-Time Dad

Why This Millennial Is Kissing the City Goodbye

Luke Tepper
This time next year, Luke will hopefully be playing on grass.

MONEY writer and first-time dad Taylor Tepper announces his retirement from urban living.

Renters in New York City have a uniquely dysfunctional relationship with real estate: The more time we spend living in some of the most desirable housing in the world, the less happy we become. Or maybe that’s just me.

My wife and I pay $2,100 a month for what seems like two square feet and minimal natural light in a converted hospital in a cool Brooklyn neighborhood. There’s an artisanal pizza shop, hole-in-the-wall cafe, and kid-friendly beer garden right around the block. I’m a 15-minute walk from a major metropolitan museum, botanical gardens, and the best park in all of New York. When it’s warm I bike, toss the frisbee, and drink whisky on rooftops. The beach is only 30 minutes away.

Unfortunately, warmth doesn’t last forever, and when it gets cold outside—say, from Thanksgiving to Easter—I spend more time indoors. Which means I’m trapped with a 21-pound baby monster who smashes, grabs, and pounds anything he can get his hands on, from cellphones to lamps. As a result, I’m slowly devolving into madness. Spending hours upon hours inside with two other people, only one of whom yields to reason, punctuated by intermittent excursions into tundra-like conditions, makes it seem as if the walls are slowly inching in on themselves.

Don’t get me wrong—I love the city, I went to school in New York, I’ve lived here for almost the entirety of my adult life. But after 13 months as a father and 19 months as a husband, I’m ready to escape to the land of malls and carpool lanes, single-unit houses and trees, the land of my birth: suburbia.

That said, it’s one thing to want move, it’s another to actually do it. Here’s a window into my thought process—and that of other millennials facing the same decision.

We’d Still Be Renters

Years of high rent and monthly student loan bills, combined with the cost of childcare, made it next to impossible for us to save up for a down payment. So we’re looking to rent wherever we go, which should mean more money left over for us. According to NerdWallet.com’s cost of living calculator, we could reduce our housing costs by about 25% if we moved to northern New Jersey or Long Island.

Even if we had enough funds stashed in our joint bank account, there are a couple of reasons why a home purchase would be a poor move. For one, conventional wisdom states that your target property should be no more than two and a half times your gross income. The odds that we’d find a New York-area home in the $300,000 range that’d we’d actually want to live in are low.

OK, let’s say that we had the savings and lived in a less expensive city. Should we jump into the market then? Not necessarily, says Pensacola, Fla.-based financial planner Matt Becker.

“Don’t rush to buy a house just because you want to go the suburbs,” Becker says. “That can lead to a quick financial decision as opposed to a good one.” Since transaction costs are so high, we’d need to stay in the home for a number of years to for buying to make financial sense. And who knows if we’ll want to live in a particular town for that long? My wife and I are still early on in our careers, we could end up lots of places.

Even Though Now Is a Good Time to Buy

If your bank account is fatter than ours and you’re ready plant some roots, buying might make sense. In fact, if you can get a mortgage, now is a great time to buy, since 30-year mortgage rates are absurdly low. Mortgage behemoths Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac announced late last year that they would allow down payments of as low as 3% on some mortgages. (These moves were directed at people who haven’t owned a home for three years, or are in the market for their first house.)

Once you’ve made the decision to move, you need to think about where you’d like to spend the next seven to 10 years. While we need more space, I don’t want to give up some of the best aspects of the city—good restaurants, a sense of community, hipster/independent movie theaters—in the trade. In that regard I’m like a lot of young buyers, says Greensboro, N.C.-based Realtor Sandra O’Connor. “There’s real movement among millennials who are looking for places to live with walkable areas,” she says. “They don’t want to always be in their car.”

If you’re still undecided about whether renting or buying is the better choice for you, check out Trulia’s rent or buy tool. Those who fall in the rent camp should understand that finding rental units outside of cities can be a lengthy process, per O’Connor and Becker.

All Suburbs Are Not Created Equal

So I want to move, but where should I go? I put the question to Alison Bernstein, president of the Suburban Jungle Realty Group, a firm that specializes in helping its clients find the best New York City suburb for them. Bernstein says that city dwellers eager to jump need to “understand that a house is a house, but the dynamic of a town is very difficult to grasp.”

To that end, Bernstein laid out a number of questions that anyone thinking about relocating needs to consider:

How many working moms are in town? What type of industries are there? What’s the breakdown of private versus public school? Even if the schools are highly ranked, there are towns where there is a lot of momentum to send kids to private schools and this does change the personality of the town quite a bit. What do you do over the summer? Does the entire town empty out? Does everyone hang out at the pool? Who is moving to the town? How will that change the school system and the vibe over the next 10 years?

Bernstein has also noticed a few trends with today’s younger buyers. “They are happiest with a smaller piece of property, a more modest home, and being in a more cosmopolitan suburb. Also they are not plowing every last penny into their house. They are still budgeting for travel.”

The Costs of Commuting

Right now I pay $112 a month (soon to be $116) for a 30-day subway pass to get to the office. We are only a 20-minute drive from my wife’s work, which means we shell out a very reasonable $50 a month on gas. When we move to the suburbs we will pay more. For the sake of argument, let’s say that we end up relocating to Pelham, New York, just north of the city. My monthly bill rises to $222, while my wife’s morning drive will consume almost twice as much gasoline, meaning our monthly outlay will jump by about $160.

But that’s just the money. The time we spend going from home to work and back will grow as well. Doing some back of the envelope calculations, my in-transit time will increase by 10 minutes each way, while Mrs. Tepper will spend an additional 20 minutes or so in traffic. Combined we’ll endure about an hour more per day on our commute, which sends shivers down my spine.

There are a few positives about the longer commute, though. For one, car insurance is generally cheaper outside of the city. According to CarInsurance.com, the average rate in my neighborhood is a little less than two times that of Pelham’s. While I wouldn’t necessarily expect to cut our car insurance costs in half, this savings would take a bit of the sting out of much higher commuting costs.

Aside from lower insurance rates, we could also dedicate a portion of our new abode as a work space. As Mrs. Tepper and I advance in our careers, we hope to have more leeway in terms of a flexible work arrangement. While our commute might be longer, we’ll most likely have to do it less often. And each saved car ride is more money in our pockets.

The Tradeoffs

Getting older involves a series of decisions that have the net effect of limiting one’s personal freedom. I became a journalist, which means I couldn’t be a doctor (leaving aside the question of whether or not I had skill to do it in the first place). Marrying one woman, and being keen on staying married, means I can’t marry a different one. A life in one town is a life not lived in another.

Which is all to say that I’ll miss living in Brooklyn. Despite the hipster clichés, I really do enjoy artisanal, delicious, overpriced hamburgers and 17 different IPA varieties at my bars. I like walking everywhere, even if we have a car, and a touch of self-righteousness about your home is good for the soul.

But I think of my sojourn in New York’s best borough as I think of college: I wish I could stay forever, but it’s time to move on.

Financial planner Matt Becker understands my dilemma. He recently moved from Boston to suburb-rich Pensacola and is still adjusting to his new life. He walks less and drives more. While his young family has more space to play and grow, that also means he has more house to furnish and air condition, which means more costs. I imagine we’ll encounter something similar.

The combination, though, of high rent and minimal space has lost its luster. Even if we end up breaking even in our move, or only saving a little bit, our dollars will go further. We can have a backyard for our son and our dog and us. We’ll have a laundry machine on the premises, so we don’t have to lug 20 pounds of clothes a couple of blocks through the snow. We’ll have a full-size dishwasher.

I proudly proclaim without regret what might have depressed my younger self: these amenities are more appealing than staying in Brooklyn.

More From the First-Time Dad:

TIME World

This Indonesian House Is for Sale and Comes With a Pond, a Backyard and … a Wife

If you don't talk the price down, you can marry the owner

A homeowner in Indonesia has put her house on the market, and herself with it.

The two-bedroom, two-bathroom home in Sleman — a sleepy district near the Javanese city of Yogyakarta — comes with a fishpond, spacious backyard and a chance to ask 40-year-old owner Wina Lia for her hand in marriage.

The asking price is the rough equivalent of $76,500. “Buyers who don’t negotiate the price,” the sales literature says, “can ask the owner to marry (terms and conditions apply).”

Wina’s online ad went viral, prompting a local news outlet to track her down and confirm that the offer was genuine. “Indeed it’s true, Wina is ready to be married by a house buyer,” the headline says, as tweeted by Sleman’s unofficial Twitter account.

Dian Purna Dirgantara, the realtor who concocted the plan, tells TIME that his advertisement is working.

“Since yesterday morning there are continuous calls, I don’t count how many, there must be dozens or even hundreds.” He clarifies that marriage isn’t a must. “If someone just wants the house, they can have that,” he said.

Wina, a single mother, told news outlet Kompas.com that the idea was dreamed up when she mentioned her desire to once again find a partner.

“Dian suggested I put up the tagline ‘Buy the house and marry the owner at the same time.’ And I said O.K. to it. I’m looking for a husband anyway,” she said.

Read next: Watch This Guy Propose to His Girlfriend 365 Times Without Her Knowing

Listen to the most important stories of the day.

MONEY home improvement

7 Things Every Remodeling Contract Must Have

Q: The builder who’s doing my family room addition handed me a fill-in-the-blanks form contract with handwritten details and numbers. It looks about as unofficial as can be. Is that a problem? What should a remodeling contract include?

A: A contract doesn’t have to be printed off a computer—or contain a bunch of legalese—to get the job done. But it should clearly state the arrangement that you and your contractor have about the project, and it sounds like this document probably doesn’t do that very well.

“Putting everything in writing helps clarify both parties’ expectations at the beginning,” says Fairfield, Conn., construction attorney Neal Moskow. “And it’s much easier to fulfill your expectations at the end if they’re clearly stated from the start.”

The safest bet is to have your attorney draw up a contract for you. But even if you choose a less formal approach, here are the basic elements Moskow recommends including—either by typing up a new document or just making handwritten changes on the existing form, as long as both you and the contractor initial each change.

 

1. A description of the project. The contract should include a project description that thoroughly outlines all of the work, materials, and products that will go into the job. That includes everything from what will be demolished to what will be constructed—and each different material and fixture that will be used, with its associated cost. It should also specify that the contractor will obtain all of the necessary permits (and close them out by getting the required certificates of occupancy) and dispose of the debris properly, and that the project is covered by his liability and workman’s compensation insurance.

2. How (and how often) the contractor will be paid. Not only should the contract state the total project price, but it should also outline the timing and amount of installment payments based on project milestones, such as when the foundation is completed, the rough plumbing and electricity are installed, or the wallboard and trim are done. Your initial payment at the start of the job should be no more than 10% of the project cost. If the contractor has to immediately place orders for expensive items such as windows or cabinets, offer to pay the supplier directly. The final payment should be at least 10%, payable only when the “punch list” (the roundup of final project details) is completed to your satisfaction.

3. Lien waivers. Here’s a scary thought: Any worker who comes to your house as part of a remodeling crew could place a lien on your property, claiming he was never paid for his work—even if you have paid the contractor in full. So write into the contract that your contractor must provide you with a “lien waver” for each installment before you pay the next one. What that means is that the invoice for each payment needs to include a signed statement indicating that the contractor used your previous payment to pay for the labor and materials described in its invoice. That gives you some legal protection against liens from him or his employees and subcontractors.

4. Approximate project dates. Discuss approximate start and end dates for the project with your contractor and write them into the contract. The point is not to hold him to an exact date but to ensure that you both have an understanding of when work will commence and—barring weather interruptions or major plan changes—about when it will be completed.

5. A procedure for changes. Write in that no changes to the original plan can commence until the contractor has given you a clear description of the new work, how much it will cost, and how it will affect the schedule—and until you have given written approval. Change orders should be done with pen and ink (or by text or email). If you ever make a verbal agreement on the fly, follow up with an email to the contractor restating the details and your approval, and ask him to respond with a confirming email that you got the details right, so you have a written record.

6. An escape hatch. Some states’ consumer protection laws give homeowners three days to rescind a contract without penalty. And it’s a good idea to write in just such protection for yourself if you’re not in one of them. This prevents you from losing your deposit if, for example, you sign the contract and then find out that there’s a problem with your credit line and you don’t have the funds you thought you did.

7. Signatures. A contract isn’t a binding legal document unless it’s signed by both parties—and in some states, it also must include the contractor’s license number and both of your addresses.

Read next: What Your Contractor Really Means When He Says…

 

TIME real estate

This Is The Salary You Must Earn to Afford a Home in America

Home
David Papazian—Getty Images

A homebuyer needs to earn $48,603 to afford a median-priced property, report says

To afford a typical house in the U.S., a homebuyer needs a minimum salary of $48,603 as well as a 20% downpayment, according to new research from mortgage publisher HSH.com.

HSH.com calculated the minimum salary a buyer must earn to pay the principal, interest, insurance and taxes associated with home purchases across 27 metropolitan areas, using fourth-quarter data from the National Association of Realtors (NAR) and average interest rates for fixed-rate, 30-year mortgages.

“Home prices in metro areas throughout the country continue to show solid price growth, up 25% over the past three years on average,” NAR chief economist Lawrence Yun told HSH.

San Francisco continues to top the list of most unaffordable cities, requiring a buyer to be paid $142,448, while New York City only requires $87,535; Boston, $80,049; Washington, D.C., $77,394 and Chicago $54,346.

If you want the most bang for your buck, head to Pittsburgh, where you’ll be fine with $31,716; Cleveland, $32,010; St. Louis, $33,323; or Cincinnati, $33,485.

Take a look at the complete list here.

Read next: These Are the Best (and Worst) States for Business

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MONEY real estate

The Pre-Recession Housing Problem That’s About to Slam Homeowners

aerial view of subdivision
David Sucsy

Millions of homeowners face major payment increases when their HELOCs reset in 2015-2016. Here are your options if you face massive HELOC payments.

The home equity line of credit (HELOC) had been around for many years before it became a hugely popular financial product in the early 2000s. When the financial crisis happened in 2008, drastically lower home valuations put a stop to the HELOC boom, and today we see far fewer being issued by lending institutions. However, millions of homeowners still have this type of contract and will face major problems when their HELOCs reach a 10-year reset point in 2015-2016.

The Office of the Comptroller of Currency (OCC) defines a HELOC as “a dwelling-secured line of credit that generally provides a draw period followed by a repayment period.” If you don’t know what these terms mean, then it’s time to have a fresh look at your contract. As a debt relief consultant who includes second mortgage and HELOC settlement negotiations in my practice, I routinely encounter clients who are worried about their homes having negative equity, but seem completely unaware of their looming reset problem.

There are numerous types of HELOC agreements, but one common variation is the 25-year contract, with a 10-year borrowing period and a 15-year repayment period. Let’s say you obtained a HELOC in 2005 that was structured this way, and borrowed $50,000 on your house to pay off other bills, do some home improvements, and so on. This whole time you’ve been paying interest-only at 6%, which is high compared to today’s rates, but since you are only paying interest on the principal balance, the payment is still manageable at only $250 per month.

What will happen at the end of your 10-year borrowing period? The line-of-credit feature of the HELOC will expire and the payments must then increase during the repayment period to cover repayment of the principal balance (plus ongoing interest). At a 6% annual percentage rate, the $250 per month payment will suddenly spike to $492 and remain at that level until the $50,000 is paid off (assuming a fixed interest rate).

This of course illustrates a 15-year repayment period, which is already greatly compressed compared to a traditional 30-year mortgage. Worse, some HELOC products were set up for a total contract duration of 15 years, meaning a 10-year borrowing period followed by only a 5-year repayment period. With such a short period of time to repay principal, the monthly payment in our example would jump to $967 after reset, almost four times the interest-only level. Talk about payment shock!

Still other types of HELOC contracts carry no repayment period at all. They were set up for a borrowing period of 5, 7 or 10 years, and at the end of that period the entire principal amount falls due in the form of a single lump-sum balloon payment. Using our same example, at the end of 10 years, instead of paying $250/month, you now owe $50,000 in a single payment.

Such financial products were built on the crucial assumption that real estate values would continue to rise, which would allow qualified borrowers to refinance to more favorable terms within a few years anyway. Essentially, these products were designed with the expectation that borrowers would extinguish the loans before reaching the point of reset, especially if there was a balloon payment rather than a reasonable repayment period.

Fast forward a few years, and the steep plunge in real estate values has left countless homeowners in a position where traditional refinancing is simply not available, thus exposing them to future payment shock when their HELOCs reset in 2015 or beyond. Since so many HELOCs were issued in 2004 through 2008 compared to prior years, the “HELOC reset” problem has the potential to affect America’s housing recovery for years to come.

According to the OCC, in 2012 approximately $11 billion in HELOC loans reached reset point, with “reset” defined as the point where the borrowing period ended and the repayment period began. By 2014, that figure had grown to $29 billion. It will nearly double again to $53 billion in 2015 and could exceed $111 billion by 2018. Between 2014 and 2017, approximately 58% of all HELOC balances are due to start amortizing.

HELOC-OCC

In the next few years millions of homeowners will face the HELOC reset problem and resulting payment shock. Many will have the ability to accept the higher payment after reset, or they will refinance to a new mortgage with more favorable terms. Others may already be planning to sell the home, either via traditional or short sale. But there will still be a large pool of homeowners who find themselves facing a true financial dilemma — a contractual trap based on a product designed years ago in a different banking era, before the “new normal” of underwater property values and strict loan-to-value ratios.

Options If Your HELOC Loan Is Due to Reset in 2015 or 2016

With all that in mind, let’s focus on potential solutions for homeowners facing HELOC reset. First, if you are not sure whether this is happening with your loan, please take a close look at your agreement document. Look for the dates pertaining to the Borrowing Period and the Repayment Period, bearing in mind your contract might use slightly different terminology. If you took a loan in 2005, for example, it’s likely the reset will happen in 2015.

Once you have confirmed the date on which your HELOC will reset, the next step is to determine the new payment schedule including principal. If you have not already received a notice from your lender with this information (many lenders are sending these out well in advance to warn consumers about the pending payment increase), then you should be able to determine the new payment from the contract terms and the help of a loan or mortgage calculator. Or, perhaps much easier, you can simply call your lender and ask them what the new payment will be after reset.

1. Absorb the New Payment

Using our first example above, some household budgets can tolerate a payment spike from $250 to $492 per month. If you can fund the new payment and otherwise don’t have any refinancing options available to you, then why not give the new payment a try for 12 months? See how you do before considering an aggressive solution that may entail serious credit damage.

2. A Traditional Refinance

Some homeowners facing HELOC reset will be able to obtain new mortgage financing that solves the problem. By combining the original first mortgage and the HELOC balance into a new single mortgage, all risk associated with the HELOC reset is extinguished with closing on the new note.

Of course, many homeowners will be blocked from this solution, based on three key factors:

  • Lenders require a loan-to-value ratio of 75-80%, so the property has to be worth enough at market value to offset the two combined notes and still leave 20-25% equity as a cushion. Many homes are still upside-down in value, worth less than the two note balances combined, or perhaps worth less than the first mortgage alone.
  • Your credit score has to be in excellent shape to qualify for the best rates. (You can see two of your credit scores for free on Credit.com.)
  • Your income has to support the new revised mortgage payment, based on strict debt-to-income ratio formulas.

Unless all three conditions are in place, a traditional refinance solution won’t be available to you.

3. Modify Your First Mortgage Under HAMP, or Second/HELOC Under 2MP

Although it was announced with some press attention a few years ago, it’s rare to see the government’s Second Lien Modification Program (2MP) discussed in the context of the HELOC reset problem. Government sponsored programs like the Home Affordable Mortgage Program or Home Affordable Refinance Program (HAMP and HARP) targeted mainly first mortgages, in an effort to stabilize payments so people could stay in their homes or refinance away from toxic mortgages.

While HAMP and HARP have helped millions of homeowners over the past half-decade, the 2MP has been something of a mystery. It’s common to hear someone report having successfully modified a first mortgage via the HAMP solution. Yet reports of successful second lien modifications under 2MP are quite rare. If HAMP modifications have proceeded like a gushing pipeline, 2MP modifications are more like a tiny trickle.

According to the Department of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) website, you may be eligible for 2MP if your first mortgage was modified under HAMP and you have not missed three consecutive monthly payments on your HAMP modification. What this should mean, at least in theory, is that once you have finished making your three trial payments under an approved HAMP modification, then your second lien should be reviewed for a corresponding modification.

Check with your lender directly to see if they are participating in the Second Lien Modification Program. I would also encourage readers looking for more information on the government-sponsored programs like HAMP, HARP and 2MP to call a HUD agency counselor at 1-888-995-HOPE (4673). There is no cost to you, and the HUD counselor can help determine eligibility for one of these programs.

4. Modify Your First Mortgage, Then Apply the Savings to the Payment Spike

A successful loan modification on your first mortgage can result in significant monthly savings. If you modified under HAMP but your second lien did not qualify for 2MP, or you did a non-HAMP modification directly with your mortgage lender (also called an in-house or a private modification), then your first mortgage payment should now be lower than it was previously.

In some cases, the difference may be sufficient to offset some or most of the expected payment spike associated with a pending HELOC reset. Your budget will naturally determine this. If you pursued the modification due to financial hardship, then it may be that even with a lower first mortgage payment you still can’t handle the increased HELOC payment after reset. But others will find that the savings achieved through the first mortgage modification provides enough relief that the payment increase on the HELOC will no longer cause such a severe budget problem.

5. A Loan Modification Directly With the HELOC Lender

There are many situations where none of the above solutions will apply. What if you can’t absorb the new payment after reset or you have a balloon payment coming up? What if traditional refinancing is not available to you because the house doesn’t meet the required loan-to-value ratio? What if none of the government programs apply? What if modifying your first mortgage won’t or can’t work, now what?

Lenders do not want a default to occur. A logical step would be to determine precisely what in-house programs your creditor is willing to offer and see if any of these options look realistic to you. Financial institutions have been issued a strongly worded guidance by the OCC on the subject of HELOC reset, and they want servicers to work with customers to salvage these loans. So it makes sense to find out what the servicer is offering for modified terms and then compare to the original payment spike.

To get anywhere with a loan modification application, be prepared to submit two years of tax returns, bank statements, pay stubs and a personal financial statement. Be patient and polite. Do your own math before you approach the servicer for a modification. Know what you want in terms of a payment and loan duration, including possible principal deferment or even principal reduction, before you enter the negotiation. You may or may not get exactly what you want, but it pays to know your own figures and to be able to argue your case effectively.

6. Strip the Lien via Chapter 13 Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is an aggressive solution that would only apply in specific circumstances. I mention Chapter 13 bankruptcy specifically because it has a unique feature that allows a second lien to be stripped from a property. This can only happen if the property appraises for less than the balance owed on the first mortgage, and of course with the court’s approval. If the lien strip is approved, the HELOC or second mortgage balance then becomes an unsecured debt co-equal with other unsecured debts like credit cards, medical bills and so on. The debt is then discharged after the case is completed, with five years being the typical Chapter 13 case duration. The advantage of this solution is that it yields a one-mortgage property with no further threat of foreclosure or potential litigation. It’s crucial to get the advice of a good bankruptcy attorney if your intention is a lien strip via Chapter 13.

7. Lump-Sum Settlement

Settlement is also an aggressive strategy that comes with credit damage and only applies in specific circumstances. There are tax consequences of settlement, in the form of a 1099-C for the forgiven balance, taxable income unless an exemption applies.

During the peak years of the real estate crisis many homes plummeted in value to a level below the balance owed on the first mortgage alone. That left second lien holders in a position without collateral, i.e., “underwater.” Under such conditions, many homeowners were able to settle their HELOCs for 10-20% of the balance after having defaulted for an extended period.

While HELOC settlements are still happening in 2015, conditions have changed considerably. We are now in an era of rising property values, and creditors are more reluctant to absorb a loss when the property underwater today may be “in the money” again before too long.

As a debt consultant, I find I’m recommending the settlement strategy for HELOCs much more selectively than I did in prior years. It does still work quite effectively in many situations, but it’s important to have a clear view of the risks before attempting a hardball negotiation strategy like debt settlement on a second mortgage or HELOC.

The bottom line is there is no single best debt relief solution for the problem of HELOC reset. I’ve presented seven potential strategies above, but each of those will only apply under specific financial conditions. Aside from the sister program to HAMP, the 2MP for second liens, there are no “Obama programs” for HELOC relief, and no bank sponsored programs to enroll in. Based on hundreds of consultations with consumers struggling with HELOC issues, my experience has been that creditors are taking a battlefield management approach, with the goal of stemming further losses. So beware of companies or services claiming they can have your lien extinguished, or have your HELOC note declared invalid. The growing HELOC reset problem presents a new opportunity for debt relief scammers to pitch bogus programs that promise to “make your HELOC go away.” Buyer beware!

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This article originally appeared on Credit.com.

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