TIME Religion

5 Lessons America Can Learn From Black Churches

Obama's eulogy for the Rev. Clementa Pinckney offered an illuminating glimpse into African American religious life

When President Obama sang the first few notes of “Amazing Grace” on Friday at the memorial service for Rev. Clementa Pinckney and the other 8 victims of the Charleston massacre, the mourners inside the church weren’t the only ones who rose to their feet and joined him. In that moment, much of America stood to her feet as well, supported by the smooth notes of the organ; united, comforted and hopeful.

It’s safe to say that for that brief moment, America went to black church.

And it isn’t the first time. Every so often – when tragedy strikes or when politicians perform – the nation gets a peek into the pews of a place that has for centuries uplifted spirits and soothed broken hearts, even those broken by hatred and evil. At times like this, even in the rich tapestry of our multi-ethnic, multi-racial, religiously pluralistic society, there remains a distinct appreciation for the colorful, thick threads of the black church. It is, in this way, among many others, an authentically American institution.

But outside of these galvanizing, transcendent events, it’s an institution that gets very little love and even less respect.

The mainstream narratives about the black church range from civil rights era relic to a manipulative made-for-tv mega-church. In TV and movies, on Twitter and Vine, it is a hilarious punchline full of shouting, dancing and excessive displays of emotion. In either case, it is rarely more than a caricature, one that either comforts, humors or repels.

As a pastor’s daughter, church leader and passionate, card-carrying lifetime member of the big, diverse community we call the black church, I know how deeply sad this reduction is. To see people misunderstand an institution that taught me my history, grounded me in my identity and gave me the tools to grow into a woman as well as a civic and moral being, is to see millions of people misunderstand the most valuable gift I have ever been given – and miss out on so much more.

So if, after turning off the TV you’d like to take some souvenirs home from the space that our ancestors spent years building and that today many (myself included) still fiercely love and find sacred, here are five that mean a bit more than just an organ and a drumbeat:

1. How to build community. Born at a time where there were few other places for African Americans demonstrate their full humanity with one another, today, the black church is where the hard work of building beloved community never stops. Where people show up for one another and have hard conversations. Where people offer money, food, emotional care, physical presence and touch. In an era when support often means no more than a tweet or a text, the black church is one of the few places where people still regularly come together to nurture one another, grow together and meet each other’s needs. It is where people share stories, wrestle with ideas, fight, forgive, break bread, and,literally and figuratively, wash one another’s feet. Where tears flow freely and accountability matters. The American community could learn so very much from this model and how wonderful would it be if our human community did the same?

2. How to honor the young and the old. This one seems oddly specific, I know, but in a society that often patronizes the young and isolates the old, the church is one of the few spaces that brings both together and holds each up on a pedestal of preciousness. How many other public spaces in America would have found a 26 year old out with his 87 year old aunt on a Wednesday night as was the case with Charleston victims Tywanza Sanders and Susie Jackson? Where else in America facilitates regular intergenerational dialogue and lift up the voices of both in the process? In the black church, each generation is appreciated for its unique wisdom and insight. Both the very young and the very old typically have seats reserved for them, are encouraged to take on roles of leadership and esteem. And most importantly, their happiness and engagement are seen as key measurements for the health of the community as a whole. Would that society at large operate the same way.

3. How to survive. This one speaks for itself. In the face of bombings, fires, shootings and attacks of all kinds, the people remain. Many black churches, still today meet in basements, movie theaters, schools, warehouses and storefronts. They push through obstacles and hardships to come together and commit to never letting go of their faith, their community, and most importantly, the act of living. This doesn’t just “happen”. It isn’t some superhuman, magical force that allows black churches to bounce back and hold on. They practice the deliberate, strategic art of survival every single day.

4. The nobility of faithfulness. How easy it is for us to abandon the hard things today. Work, relationships, causes that don’t yield immediate results – all can be discarded and replaced with the click of an email. But from the black church we learn the importance of commitment and faithfulness. The practice of showing up Sunday after Sunday, Wednesday after Wednesday, week after week and year after year, come rain or come shine builds the character necessary to stick with the fights that our livelihood and democracy depend on.

5. How to fight a righteous fight. I am not sure when or where the narrative of the “prayerful and passive” church mother came from, but I’m convinced it was created by the same kind of people who created the pernicious welfare queen stereotype (Don’t quote me on that. It’s my own personal conspiracy theory.) The idea of the black church only bowing on our knees in times of hardship, is not only a historical and theologically inaccurate, but it flies in the face of those who, like Rev. Clementa Pinckney did, work every day to combat injustice armed with faith and sharp, strategic action. From time immemorial, the black church has known how to fight and has been inherently activist and political, even in its very formation. It is that same history that has always made the church such a beacon for those who have wanted to engage large swaths of black America in campaigns – and also for those who want to stop it’s powerful civic organizing through efforts as subtle as voting rights restrictions and as extreme as shocking acts of violence. It is this history that makes me hopeful about those within the church who lift up their voices against sexism, patriarchy, homophobia, and all other forms of oppression that still exist.

These lessons are certainly not unique to the black church or to religious institutions in general for that matter. But they are central to the identity of a place that is often only acknowledged for it’s music and jubilee with no regard for the experiences and practices that root said joy.

All of this is of course, when the church is at its best. The black church is, like most American institutions, deeply flawed. For as many for whom it represents freedom and love, it also represents pain and shame. Anyone who has been hurt by abuses of power and dangerous religious interpretations that shackle and bind instead of liberate has also learned lessons worth sharing. That history too, must be reckoned with. But even for those who longer call it home, the church will always be more than a caricature. It will always be more than something to watch and admire for it’s “soul”. If you dare look a little closer, you will find a well of joy that most only briefly drank from last Friday. Underneath the surface you will find that the black church in America is so, so much more than just a funeral and a song.

TIME Crime

Thousands Expected For Obama’s Tribute to Charleston Victims

Gary Washington
David Goldman—AP Gary Washington holds up a rose before placing it on the casket of his mother, Ethel Lance, following her burial service, June 25, 2015, in Charleston, S.C.

"A hateful, disillusioned young man came into the church filled with hate ... and the reaction was love"

(CHARLESTON, S.C.) — The first black president of the United States is coming to Charleston to eulogize the victims of a mass shooting at a historic African-American church — a tragedy that one civil rights activist said was a sign of “how far yet” the nation has to go to put racial tensions behind it.

Thousands of mourners were expected to gather Friday to hear President Barack Obama pay tribute to the pastor and eight parishioners of the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church. The nine were slain at the church during a Bible study session last week in what authorities are investigating as a racially motivated attack.

Friday’s service for the Rev. Clementa Pinckney, who was also a state senator, promised to be another wrenching but cathartic occasion for the community to say goodbye to the victims.

Police planned to close several streets around the college arena in downtown Charleston, and said they expect anyone who wants one of the more than 5,000 seats to be there by 9 a.m. The funeral was scheduled to start two hours after.

The first two funerals, for Ethel Lance and Sharonda Coleman-Singleton, were held Thursday, with tight security and emotional responses to the eulogies and hymns.

Attendees included South Carolina Gov. Nikki Haley, Charleston Mayor Joe Riley, U.S. Rep. Mark Sanford, the Rev. Jesse Jackson and the Rev. Al Sharpton.

Sharpton noted that on the day of the shootings, he was in Washington watching Loretta Lynch being sworn in as the nation’s first black female attorney general. “That morning, I saw how far we have come,” Sharpton said. “That night,” after the shooting, “I saw how far yet we have to go.”

Police officers stood guard and checked bags as mourners filed in for the funerals, which were held as the debate over the Confederate flag and other Old South symbols continued around the region. A growing number of leading politicians said Civil War symbols should be removed from places of honor, despite their integral role as elements of Southern identity.

“A hateful, disillusioned young man came into the church filled with hate … and the reaction was love,” Riley said at the funeral for Coleman-Singleton, 45. “He came in with symbols of division. The Confederate battle flag is coming down off our state Capitol.”

Before the second service, more than 100 members of Coleman-Singleton’s Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority formed a ring around the main part of the large sanctuary as part of an Ivy Beyond the Wall ceremony. One by one, the women, clad all in white, filed past the open casket with green ivy leaves, then clasped hands and sang.

Lance had served as a sexton at Emanuel for the past five years, helping to keep the historic building clean. She loved gospel music, watched over a family that grew to include her five children, seven grandchildren and four great-grandchildren, and pushed them to earn advanced degrees.

“I want my grandmother’s legacy to be what she stood for,” said granddaughter Aja Risher. “She is going to be a catalyst for change in this country.”

Haley started the groundswell against Confederate icons Monday by successfully calling on South Carolina lawmakers to debate taking down the Confederate battle flag flying in front of the Statehouse. Then Alabama Gov. Robert Bentley, also a conservative Republican, brought down four secessionist flags at the Capitol in Montgomery.

Some authorities have worried openly about a backlash as people take matters into their own hands.

“Black Lives Matter” was spray-painted on a monument to Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Richmond, Virginia, on Thursday, only the latest statue to be defaced. On Tuesday and Wednesday, African-American churches in Charlotte, North Carolina; and Macon, Georgia; were intentionally set afire.

But in Charleston, the early gestures of forgiveness by the victims’ families toward a shooting suspect who embraced the Confederate flag set a healing tone that has continued through a series of unity rallies.

The suspect, 21-year-old Dylann Storm Roof, appears with a Confederate license plate, waving a Confederate flag, burning and desecrating U.S. flags, posing at Confederate museums and with the wax figures of slaves on a website created in his name months before the attacks.

Attorney Boyd Young, who represents Roof’s family, issued a statement saying they will answer questions later, but want to allow the victims’ families to grieve. “We feel it would be inappropriate to say anything at this time other than that we are truly sorry for their loss,” the statement said.

TIME White House

Watch a Mashup of President Obama Getting Heckled

"As a general rule, I am just fine with a few hecklers—but not when I’m up in the house"

President Obama is no stranger to hecklers.

But, every man has his limits. Watch the video above to see how the Commander-in-Chief has responded to various interruptions throughout his two terms in office.

One key takeaway: You can heckle him all you want, but when you’re an invited guest to the White House, too much heckling can get you thrown out.

As Obama said after being heckled at a recent event at 1600 Pennsylvania: “I am just fine with a few hecklers—but not when I’m up in the house. You know what I mean? You know, my attitude is if you’re eating the hors d’oeuvres—you know what I’m saying?”

 

TIME Iran

Why the Nuclear Experts Who Sent an Open Letter to Obama Are Really Talking to Iran

Ali Khamenei
AFP/Getty Images Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, addresses country's top officials during a meeting in Tehran in which he restated his country's red lines for a nuclear deal with world powers on June 23, 2015.

In the Iran nuclear talks, your intended audience isn't always who you think it is

Much is made of how skillful the Iranians are at negotiating—and they are. But the Americans aren’t bad either, at least by the evidence of the latest news from the nuclear talks: an open letter signed by 18 former U.S. officials and experts, including five former advisers to President Obama, warning the president against accepting a deal that fails to include certain vital elements, such as inspections of Iranian military bases and ensuring that relief from sanctions comes only after Iran complies with an agreement.

It’s not the kind of thing you see much in American foreign policy—a group advisory like this, setting out red lines and reminding the nation’s leader of his obligations. You do, however, see it all the time somewhere else—in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Iran’s news media is lousy with these things: Sober, sage proclamations directed to the pinnacle of the political leadership. People talk about the opacity of Iran’s governing structure, and it’s true that between the Council of Guardians, the Assembly of Experts and the Expediency Council—just to name three of Iran’s non-elective bodies —there are more moving parts than a Rube Goldberg mousetrap. But that doesn’t mean things are opaque—just complicated. Ultimate power may rest with the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, but his own political survival requires consultations with the groups and individuals who make up his own political base, and a sound reading of the larger Iranian society that ultimately will find a way to hold him accountable. So decisions by Iran’s leaders often take a long time to gestate, and sometimes even longer to emerge.

But that process is more public than you’d think for an official theocracy. Iran has a lot of newspapers, several TV stations and its share of news sites. Most may be linked to the state, but they fairly throb—or pulse, at least—with the words of a governing structure talking to itself. Most of the chatter is in Persian, of course, but it’s all public. That means it has to be read, and the State Department has people just across the Persian Gulf, in Dubai, to follow a lot of it. State quietly pays people in Iran to translate even more, so that folks back in Foggy Bottom can read it too. (“Intelligence” is a sexy word, but the CIA itself says that up to 95 percent of what it knows it finds out by reading the papers—known in the spy game as “OSINT,” for Open Source Intelligence.)

The point, though, is not what American officials read, but what Iranian officials read: “The Public Statement on U.S. Policy Toward the Iran Nuclear Negotiations Endorsed by a Bipartisan Group of American Diplomats, Legislators and Experts,” the heading of the open letter compiled by the impressive, and impressively bi-partisan group assembled by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a think tank. It’s the kind of discourse that speaks to Iranians, relatable and familiar. Which is fortunate, because while its authors addressed it to President Obama, the real audience was Khamenei and the rest of the government of Iran.

The June 30 deadline for a final nuclear pact is just days away, and Khamenei on June 23 delivered a speech that cast the entire enterprise into doubt—reinforced the next day with a helpful chart listing “Major Red Lines in Nuclear Negotiations,” posted on Twitter with the words “Red Lines” in red type. His timing was impeccable. The Leader pounced six days after Secretary of State John Kerry showed a bit of weakness, suggesting publicly that in a final deal Iran might not have to account for past research on a nuclear weapon.

Knowing when to exploit an opening is, of course, one mark of a formidable negotiator. But another is speaking to the other side in a language it understands—which is exactly what the U.S. side is doing with its own Open Letter.

TIME Foreign Policy

White House to Release Review of Hostage Policies

US-IRAQ-SYRIA-CONFLICT-FOLEY
Dominick Reuter—AFP/Getty Images Diane Foley, mother of James Foley, pauses for a moment during an interview at her home in Rochester, N.H. in 2014.

According to reports, the president will also make it easier for the federal government to communicate with families of hostage victims

The White House will release a long-awaited review of U.S. hostage policy on Wednesday, spokesman Josh Earnest confirmed Tuesday.

Earnest said the report would include a policy directive and an executive order from President Obama, months after the White House ordered the review in response to several brutal murders of Western hostages by the terror group the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria, or ISIS.

At Tuesday’s press briefing, Earnest confirmed several media outlets’ reporting that the report would be released, but refused to offer details on what it does—and does not—specifically change. Families of some citizens held hostage, Earnest said, would be meeting with members of the Obama Administration who had worked on the report on Tuesday in an effort to “give them the opportunity to see for themselves the contents of the report.”

“Our goals entering into this process was to both better integrate the variety of federal government resources dedicated to securing the safe return of American hostages,” Earnest said Tuesday. “And also to improve communication with families of those held captive overseas.”

Though Earnest wouldn’t go into detail, several media outlets have already reported details of the coming directive and report. According to Foreign Policy, which reported the story on Monday, the new policy would make it clear that families should not fear prosecution for paying ransoms.

The Wall Street Journal says the White House will also establish an office to ease communication between the government and families of American hostages based at the Federal Bureau of Investigations known as thr “hostage recovery fusion cell.”

The New York Times reports that though the directive will not backtrack on the U.S.’s long-held “no-concessions” policy to keep funds out of the hands of terror groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS, it will clarify that family members and the government can communicate and negotiate with groups holding Americans hostage.

Elaine Weinstein, whose husband Warren was taken hostage by Al-Qeada and killed in an American drone strike, released a statement Tuesday calling their interactions with the government while Warren was held hostage “inconsistent at best and utterly disappointing.”

“This review will not bring Warren back, she said. “It is our most sincere hope that it was conducted fully and frankly so the U.S. Government can have an honest conversation about the areas where it falls short. Our benchmark for this review’s success will be the actions arising from it more than its specific findings.”

TIME White House

Obama to Deliver Eulogy for Rev. Clementa Pinckney

Services will be held on Friday, June 26

President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden will travel to South Carolina for the funeral of Rev. Clementa Pinckney on Friday, a White House official confirmed to TIME. President Obama will deliver the eulogy.

The services for Rev. Pinckney, one of the nine victims of last week’s massacre at Emanuel A.M.E. Church in Charleston, will be held this Friday, according to the Post and Courier. Pickeney served as the senior pastor at the church, affectionately called “Mother Emanuel,” and was a Democratic state senator.

Further details of the president’s travel will be released at a later time, but a White House official tells TIME First Lady Michelle Obama will also attend the services.

The Post and Courier first reported the news of the president’s travel.

Read Next: The Pastor Killed in Charleston Had Been State Senator for 14 Years

TIME White House

White House Defends Obama’s Use of the N Word in Interview

The White House stands by President Obama’s use of the N word in his interview on the WTF podcast released Monday.

Press secretary Josh Earnest told reporters the President does not regret using the word and its use was justified in the context of his response on American race relations with host Marc Maron.

While addressing last week’s massacre in Charleston, S.C., during the interview, Obama said the ugly racial hatred that has existed throughout American history persists, despite the progress we’ve made as a nation.

“Racism — we’re not cured of it,” he said. “It’s not just a matter of it not being polite to say n—-r in public. That’s not the measure of whether racism still exists or not. It’s not just a matter of overt discrimination.”

Earnest spent a significant portion of Monday’s press briefing responding to questions about the President’s use of the word: Why did he do it? Did he know it would be provocative? Did he set out to use it before participating in the interview?

Earnest said there was no decision going into the interview on whether or not Obama would say the word, which he can also be heard uttering in the audiobook of his memoir Dreams From My Father.

Earnest also said that while it’s “understandably notable” that the President used this word — which is increasingly apparent in the amount of attention that this slither of the interview has garnered — the overarching point he was making was one he’s made repeatedly in the past.

“The argument that the President has made in the context of this interview is consistent with arguments that he’s made in other settings,” Earnest said.

TIME politics

Exclusive: Girl Who Asked Obama to Put Women on Bills ‘Really Excited’ About a Woman on the $10

She doesn't care that it's not the $20

No one is perhaps more excited about the Treasury’s announcement Wednesday that a woman will be featured on the $10 bill than a 10-year-old named Sofia.

The fourth grader in Massachusetts wrote a letter to President Obama last year asking why there weren’t any women on American bills. In the year since, a grassroots campaign called Women on 20s started a massive online petition to get a woman on the $20 bill instead of Andrew Jackson. In May, Women on 20s announced more than 600,000 people had voted in their poll, and that Harriet Tubman emerged as the winner. On May 12, leaders delivered petitions demanding she appear on the $20 to the White House Council on Women and Girls and to the office of U.S. Treasurer Rosie Rios.

Some have argued they’d rather see a woman featured on the $20 bill instead of Jackson, saving Alexander Hamilton’s likeness on the $10 note, but the Treasury made clear in the announcement that no decision to fully remove him had been made: “There are many options for continuing to honor Hamilton. While one option is producing two bills, we are exploring a variety of possibilities.”

Regardless, Sofia says she’s thrilled. “I’m really excited that they’re going to truly get a woman on currency,” the junior ambassador for Women on 20s tells TIME. “I don’t care that it’s not the $20, I just want a woman on currency.”

Earlier this year, Sofia and her family visited the Treasury to learn more about how money is printed. While there, she left a note for Treasury Secretary Jack Lew, asking him to consider putting a woman on paper bills:

Courtesy of Sofia's mom
Courtesy of Kim B., Sofia’s mother

Rios personally called Sofia on Wednesday to tell her the Treasury would move to introduce a bill featuring a woman in 2020, a century after women were guaranteed the right to vote.

Sofia says she hopes that woman is Anne Hutchinson, the Puritan freedom fighter who inspired her to write Obama in the first place. She’d also be happy to see Rosa Parks on the $10 bill, since she was the person who she voted for out of the four finalists in the Women on 20s poll.

Her role in the movement has caused quite a stir in her fourth-grade classroom. “Whenever there’s a report or something about me, I always show it to all my classmates and share it, because my teachers let me,” she says. “They say it’s really cool and really awesome.”

It has also taught her the importance of speaking up. “I really think that if anyone has an idea that they think would be important or something they think needs to change, then they should do something about it,” she says. “They can do a lot of things, even if they’re kids.”

Read next: What Happened When the U.S. Decided to Put a Woman on Currency in 1978

TIME White House

President Obama Calls for Reflection on Gun Control After Charleston Shooting

President Obama spoke after the shooting at a South Carolina church

President Obama called for Americans to think hard about gun control in the country as he addressed Wednesday night’s massacre at a historically black South Carolina church, which left nine people dead.

Too many times, Obama said Thursday, he has had to speak in the aftermath of the murder of innocent people at the hands of a gunman.

“At some point we as a country will have to reckon with the fact that this type of violence doesn’t happen in other advanced countries,” Obama said, speaking for several minutes from the White House press briefing room. “It doesn’t happen with this sort of frequency.”

“There’s something particularly heartbreaking about [this] happening in a place in which we seek solace, in which we seek peace,” Obama added of the shooting at the historic Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, S.C. “This is a sacred place in the history of Charleston, in the history of America.”

Shortly before the president spoke, news broke that authorities had captured the suspect the shooting, 21-year-old Dylann Roof.

The U.S. Department of Justice is investigating the case as a hate crime, Attorney General Loretta Lynch said in a press conference earlier Thursday.

“Acts like this one have no place in our country and no place in a civilized society,” Lynch said.

In his remarks, Obama also offered condolences to the victims’ families and said he and the First Lady personally knew several members of the Emanuel AME Church community.

The fact that the church is historically black and located in the South “raises questions about a dark part of our history,” Obama said.

Yet in noting the adversity the church has faced in its past—from racial injustice to natural disaster—Obama he is confident that the church will “rise again now as a place of peace.”

TIME Money

U.S. to Put a Woman on the Redesigned $10 Bill in 2020

The Treasury Department will announce whose face will grace the currency at a later date

The U.S. plans to put a woman on the $10 bill, announcing Wednesday that the next $10 bill will feature the likeness of a woman who has played a major role in American history and has been a champion for democracy.

The new note, anticipated to be released in 2020, would be unveiled just in time for the 100th anniversary of the passage of the 19th Amendment, which secured women’s suffrage. “America’s currency makes a statement about who we are and what we stand for as a nation,” Treasury Secretary Jack Lew said on a call Wednesday.

Just who the woman will be, however, has not been determined yet. The Department of Treasury launched a campaign to garner public input on what the next bill should look like. Over the summer, the Treasury Department will host town-hall meetings and engage with the public digitally about the bill’s design.

“The public outreach is going to give us a chance to hear from the American people about their ideas for what kind of symbols, ideas, and representation should be on the $10 bill,” Lew said.

While the outreach to the public is novel and in line with the bill’s theme of “democracy,” the final selection of look will be traditional. After public comments close, the Department will make the ultimate decision of what the bill looks like and Lew later announce whose face will be featured. The new bill will also include enhanced security components and a new feature that will make it easier for the blind and visually impaired to handle.

For months, there’s been a large movement to get a woman on the bill, including a charge led by a 9-year-old girl, who wrote a letter to President Obama asking why American currency was so male-dominated. The advocacy group Women on 20s, however, has been calling for a woman’s face to appear on the $20, in part due to Andrew Jackson’s role in the slave trade and the killing of many Native Americans.

Lew said while there is a “happy coincidence” in the timing of their announcement and the calls for action, the $10 bill had been set to undergo a redesign for some time. “The Women on 20 campaign reflects the best tradition of American democracy,” he said. “The planning of this has gone back several years.”

And the change has been a long time coming.

Alexander Hamilton has been the face of the $10 bill since 1929 and, according to the Federal Reserve, there were 1.9 billion bills in circulation at the end of 2014. The last woman to appear on a bill, however, dates all the way back to the 19th century, when Martha Washington appeared on the $1 silver certificate from 1891 to 1896. Before that, Pocahontas appeared in a group photo on the $20 national bank note.

“Our Democracy is a work in progress. We’ve always been committed to becoming a more perfect union,” Lew said. “This decision of putting a woman on the $10 bill reflects our aspirations for the future as much as a reflection of the past.”

U.S. Treasurer Rosie Rios, however, says for many in the U.S. it will mean a bit more.

“For many of us who have daughters, who have sisters, aunts and mothers, I think for all of all us — we go with what we know. Having something on the note that touches the American public every day is very symbolic not just for today, but for our future,” she said.

The public is being invited to engage in the discussion on who is on the next bill online through the website thenew10.treasury.gov and using the hashtag #TheNew10. The main criteria for the next portrait is the subject must be deceased.

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