TIME Education

This Is How Long Your Teen Needs to Spend on Homework to Be Better at Math and Science

It's not that long, but long enough

How much time to spend on homework has always been a major sticking point between teenagers and their teachers and parents. And many teenagers will agree that spending time on math and science is the worst.

But a group of researchers in Spain has arrived at an optimum time that should be spent on that kind of homework — an hour a day.

The researchers, from the University of Oviedo, analyzed the academic performance of 7,725 students for their paper, which was published in the American Psychological Association’s Journal of Educational Psychology. The students answered questions on how often they did homework and what the distribution of subjects within that time was, following which they were given a standardized test for math and science performance.

“The data suggests that spending 60 minutes a day doing homework is a reasonable and effective time,” said the study’s author Javier Suárez-Álvarez.

Suárez-Álvarez and his co-lead author Rubén Fernández-Alonso found that the average amount of homework assigned is about 70 minutes a day, while some teachers raised that duration to 90 to 100 minutes. However, the researchers found that students’ math and science scores decline with a greater amount of homework.

“Assigning more than 70 minutes of homework a day does not seem very efficient,” Suárez-Álvarez added.

So teens can take heart from the fact that they don’t have to spend more than an hour on math and science homework. As for parents, well, even getting them to spend that much time will be a win.

[Science Daily]

TIME Marriage

Indian Bride Ditches Groom After He Flubs Math Test at Their Wedding

wedding
Getty Images

He failed to add 15+6, and she wasn't having it

Here’s an easy math problem: two lovebirds, minus one bride, is one lonely groom. That’s what happened after an Indian bride ditched her soon-to-be groom at their wedding ceremony for failing to answer a simple arithmetic problem.

At her wedding ceremony in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh Wednesday, the bride posed the following math problem to the man she was due to wed: 15 + 6 = ?

The groom answered 17, and the bride fled. The groom’s family tried to get her back, but she refused to marry someone who couldn’t add.

“The groom’s family kept us in the dark about his poor education,” Mohar Singh, the bride’s father, told the Associated Press. “Even a first grader can answer this.” The two families returned all the gifts that had been exchanged before the wedding, and the bride is presumably now looking for someone who knows all their multiplication tables.

According to Indian tradition, most marriages are arranged by the families of the bride and groom, and the pair rarely get to actually meet before the wedding. So the fact that the bride and groom had just met wasn’t that unusual — but the math quiz certainly was.

[AP]

MONEY Millennials

This One Question Can Show if You’re Smarter than Most U.S. Millennials

Millennial office
Leonardo Patrizi—Getty Images

Young people in the United States ranked nearly last in a new international test of skills. See how you compare by answering this one question.

Let’s say you see an advertisement that reads:

Apply for a loan
Up to $70,000
Terms of the loan
Pay only $103 per month for each $1,000 borrowed
Payable in 12 equal monthly payments

What’s the annual simple interest rate on the loan?

If you answer correctly—you’ll have to read on to find out—you’re ahead of the curve when it comes to marketable job skills.

According to a new report from Educational Testing Service (ETS), which designs the GRE and other exams, American millennials lag far behind young people in other countries when it comes to all the top skills that employers seek.

Those include literacy, ability to follow basic written instructions, problem-solving while using technology—and math.

To arrive at these findings, ETS administered a new test called the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies to thousands of people across 22 developed countries.

Out of all millennials, Americans ranked last for numeracy, tied with Italians and Spaniards. Gen Y-ers stateside also got lower reading comprehension scores than peers in 15 of the 22 countries. (Japan ranked number one across all categories.)

That sample question you saw above was described by ETS as 5/5 on the difficulty scale for numeric literacy. The answer, by the way, is around 24%.

You can see a longer list of sample questions here and read the full report on the ETS website.

More from Money.com:

Most Americans Fail This 3-Question Financial Quiz. Can You Pass It?

Europe Just Got Even Cheaper for U.S. Travelers

This Is How You Write a Perfect Interview Thank You Note

MONEY stocks

3 Simple Equations All Investors Should Know

hand doing math equations on chalkboard
Getty Images

You might be wasting money on high fees in your 401(k) or chasing the wrong stocks. This easy math will bring you back down to earth.

Whether you love to buy and sell stocks or barely understand what’s going on in your retirement account, there’s a good chance you could benefit from learning more about the math behind the stock market.

Here are three fundamental equations that the savviest investors know. Relatively easy to understand, they will help you choose the right stocks and funds and, most important, keep your expectations about future returns grounded in reality.

Equation 1

S&P 500 dividend yield + about 4.5% = the expected long-term return on stocks

This formula, known as the Gordon equation, assumes stocks get their ultimate value from being able to one day return earnings to investors. (That’s true whether or not a company currently pays a dividend or reinvests in the business.) Anything above or below that is a result of investor sentiment.

You can look up the current S&P 500 dividend yield, which is about 2% now, at multpl.com; the 4.5% is how much you can expect dividends to grow based on the past. So today the expected long-run return is 6.5%. Adviser and author William Bernstein says thinking about this number brings you down to earth in boom years, and can reassure you when the market is down.

Equation 2

A 1.5% expense ratio = more than 40% of your money after 40 years

Mutual fund and adviser expenses seem so tiny— just 1% or so. But math professor Jordan Ellenberg, author of How Not to Be Wrong, says that over many years “expenses add up—or, more mathematically precisely, they multiply up.”

Put $100,000 into a fund with a 1.5% expense ratio, assume a 6% underlying return, and you’ll get about $560,000 after 40 years. With the same pre-expense return in a very low-cost index fund charging 0.1%, you’d have $990,000. To see for yourself the true long-term costs of a fund you are considering, use the mutual fund fees calculator at Bankrate.com.

Equation 3

Net income / shareholder equity = return on equity

Return on equity is a classic measure of a company’s ability to put shareholders’ money to good use. (Equity is roughly the cash investors put into the business, plus retained earnings.) Calculate a stock’s ROE using the balance sheet and income statement.

Looking for consistent ROE of 15% or more “helps steer you toward profitable companies and away from speculation,” says Robert Zagunis of the Jensen Funds, which screen for stocks with 10 years of high return on equity, like 3M.

Read more investing fundamentals from Money 101:
How do I know if I should buy a stock?
Should I invest in stocks or in a stock mutual fund?
How often should I check on my retirement investments?

Correction: This story has been updated to reflect the current S&P 500 dividend yield.

MONEY women

5 Ways Women in Tech Can Beat the Odds

150304_CA_WOMENTECH
Corbis

The biases many female technologists face are unfair — but women in STEM fields can still get ahead by using smart, unintuitive strategies.

These are tough times for women in technology. Female workers are flooding out of tech company jobs, a phenomenon blamed in part on the industry’s patterns of sexism.

A recent Center for Talent Innovation study found that women in science, engineering, and technology are 45% more likely than male peers to leave their industries. Many cite a feeling of being stalled in their careers and excluded from their workplace’s culture; a whopping half say their coworkers believe men have a genetic advantage in math and science. And 44% agreed with the statement, “A female at my company would never get a top position no matter how able or high-performing.”

Meanwhile, a gender discrimination trial now under way has highlighted the ways female employees can be shut out of high-level positions in Silicon Valley. Reddit interim CEO Ellen Pao is suing her former employer, venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, alleging that senior managers systematically excluded her and other women from promotions available to less-accomplished male colleagues.

Though it’s unclear whether Pao will win—the bar is high to prove gender discrimination, and the firm is arguing that she simply was not qualified for the role—her story has undoubtedly struck a chord among many women with experience in the tech world.

If these scenarios resonate with you (or someone you care about), there’s still some good news: Despite the odds against women in technology, both research and anecdotal evidence suggest there are approaches female techies can use to rise up. Here are five of them.

1. Be Assertive, Not Aggressive

Most women in tech are pretty used to holding minority status at work. But that doesn’t make being the only female among many male peers any easier, says Kellye Sheehan, a Hewlett Packard senior manager and president of professional association Women in Technology.

“A lot of times I would be the only woman in the room, and I would notice patterns of male colleagues testing me,” Sheehan says. “One once tried to steal my employees and give me bad business advice.”

Being put in that sort of situation can feel like a Catch-22: If you fight back, you might be seen as overly sensitive or shrill, but if you do nothing, you could come off as weak.

Indeed, a recent study suggests that women with more “masculine” traits like self-confidence are seen as more competent than stereotypically “feminine” women—but they are also seen as less “socially skilled” and therefore suffer backlash effects.

The good news? The researchers found that when a “masculine” woman also exhibits social grace and self-awareness, she gets more promotions than other women and men. So while both men and women should of course keep it classy when they stand up for themselves, women have even more to gain by doing so.

As for Sheehan? She held off on responding right away and chatted with her husband, a fellow engineer, about how he’d handle the situation. He suggested she “throw a brushback pitch,” a move pitchers make in baseball to get batters to stop crowding the plate. That advice worked out, says Sheehan.

“In front of the group I said, ‘No, you can’t have Joe and Tom, and here’s why your advice doesn’t make sense,'” she says. “I spoke plainly and wasn’t overly aggressive and he stepped back immediately and said, ‘No harm meant.'”

2. Dream Big

A common mistake that female entrepreneurs make, says Women Who Code CEO Alaina Percival, is getting too hung up on the plausibility of their ideas. It makes sense: Being prepared with facts and figures seems like an important defense against those who don’t take you seriously.

“Women pitching to investors can be overly analytical, focusing more on reality than their vision,” says Percival. “The truth is you have to embrace a kind of ‘fake it til you make it mentality’ in tech. If you say your idea is worth 100 million dollars, an investor won’t ever imagine it as one billion.”

In fact, pitching yourself as a risk taker can really be a great move for women leading startup companies, a new study suggests. Researcher Sarah Thébaud of U.C. Santa Barbara found that switching a male name for a female name on a business pitch made people rate the idea lower, suggesting a bias against female entrepreneurs. But when she did the same experiment using proposals for especially unusual or novel startup companies, that bias was reduced significantly.

Such a finding is not immediately obvious. You might think that if a woman presents “a business idea that’s particularly risky, it might further undermine her ability to gain credibility and support,” says Thébaud. But instead, she found, “innovation signaled possession of the stereotypically ‘entrepreneurial’ traits and abilities women are otherwise perceived to lack.”

The takeaway? Don’t be afraid to share your bigger visions—they might just earn you big money.

3. Don’t Promise—Surprise

Conventional career wisdom is that you should always underpromise and overdeliver when trying to impress at work. That may seem especially true for women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields, who already have to overcome beliefs that they are less competent as leaders.

“You’ll often see, in a meeting of equal engineers, that women are asked to take notes,” says Percival. “Or when discussing a new position, people will use gendered language and say, ‘We need to hire a really awesome layout guy.'”

As a consequence, women may feel they have to do additional work to get the same recognition a man would get. But all extra effort is not created equal: Recent research suggests that you aren’t helped by going above and beyond what you commit to doing. That’s because the very act of making a promise mutes the potential happiness your boss or client will feel when you deliver—even if you exceed expectations.

The solution, according to study authors Ayelet Gneezy of U.C. San Diego and Nicholas Epley of University of Chicago: When you really want to impress, hold back on making any promises and just surprise people with your finished product.

4. Brag Better

It is often said that women in technology need to be better at “selling themselves” to compete with male peers, who typically find it easier to trumpet accomplishments. But that is easier said than done.

“Women are culturally expected to still come off as especially humble,” says Percival. “That makes it hard to overcome the embarrassment associated with bragging.” Sheehan agrees: “We stay quiet and hope that if we work hard and have lots of output, we will get promoted.”

The problem is that staying silent about your accomplishments often means you’ll get passed over, as others are rewarded with more responsibility and higher salaries.

Of course, the idea of boasting might make you uncomfortable—and rightfully so. (One of the criticisms Ellen Pao faced from her employer was that she was arrogant.)

One way to overcome your discomfort with bragging is to do it in writing, suggests Sheehan. You could send your boss an email, for example, documenting your team’s successes for the year, making it clear that you played a leading role. The benefit of email is that you can have a few trusted friends or colleagues read over it first, to help you fine-tune your tone.

And worst-case scenario, if you ever find yourself having to prove you were the victim of discrimination, it can’t hurt to have messages about your accomplishments—as well as your boss’s response—in writing.

5. Find Sponsors, Allies, and Resources

Many accomplished women in tech cite mentors and “women-helping-women” channels as key factors in their success. But getting ahead takes more than a little networking or advice. Having good relationships with your colleagues in general and garnering support from higher-ups makes a huge difference, says Sheehan.

“A mentor is someone who will teach you and help you learn and grow,” she says. “A sponsor is someone convinced of your abilities high up in the organization who will advocate for you when you are not there.”

A key factor in winning the support of bosses and coworkers is showing you are a team player and have a thick skin. Society teaches women to be sensitive to criticism, Sheehan says, so it’s especially important to show you are the bigger person after a disagreement. You might even want to take a page from the stereotypically male playbook and invite a difficult colleague (plus a group, if that’s less awkward) to grab a beer after work, which could allow you to hash things out in a more laid-back way.

Finally, consider the power of new female-friendly initiatives sprouting up all throughout the tech world. Half of women who leave the science, technology, or engineering industries keep using their training, whether at a startup, government or nonprofit job, or working for themselves. That suggests that opportunities outside of the box are growing more common.

For example, there’s PowerToFly, a company that matches women in technology with jobs they can perform remotely. Cofounder Katharine Zaleski has explained that she created the business in part because she felt biased against mothers in the workplace—until she became one herself.

“There’s a saying that ‘if you want something done, then ask a busy person to do it.’ That’s exactly why I like working with mothers now,” she wrote this week in a FORTUNE commentary. “If they work from home, it doesn’t matter if a kid gets sick.”

If you have tech skills you want to improve or showcase, there are engineering schools explicitly for women, such as Hackbright Academy, and contests like a new hackathon restricted to female entrants—starting today, March 6—in which women can compete for prizes like a MacBook Air or iPhone 6.

And when all else fails, don’t overthink it.

As Kelly McEvers at NPR wrote, perhaps the best way for women in tech to approach obstacles isn’t to “Lean In,” but “Lean To The Side, And Let It Pass By.” If you’re tired of all the unsolicited advice given to women in tech—as well as the balancing acts you’re asked to perform—just take a breath and remember you’re already beating the odds.

Read next: The 5 Best Ways Men Can #LeanInTogether to Help Women Get Ahead

MONEY College

Graduates of These Colleges Make the Most Money (and It’s Not Just the Ivies)

150305_FF_RETURNONDEGREE
Lawrence Sawyer—Getty Images

Party schools do better than you'd think—but there's a twist.

Far and away, the nation’s science, math, technology, and Ivy League colleges produce the highest-earning graduates, according to PayScale.com salary data released today.

The average grad of math- and science-heavy colleges such as Harvey Mudd, CalTech, and the Georgia Institute of Technology out-earned grads of any other type of college, netting $677,000 more in earnings over 20 years than someone who didn’t attend college at all (minus the cost of attending the college).

Graduates of the Ivy League came in a close second, netting $650,000 in extra earnings over the first 20 years of their career. Both groups of schools report returns on investment that are at least 80% higher than any other type of school in PayScale’s analysis.

Hope if You’re Hopeless at Math

But what if you’re not a math genius, or lucky enough to get into an Ivy League college?

PayScale says the next-highest-earning group of colleges are so-called “party schools,” such as the University of Florida, Syracuse University, and Penn State, whose graduates’ salaries over 20 years added up to a net extra $354,000.

Graduates of research universities, such as large private universities and flagship public schools, and so-called “sober” schools, such as religious schools, commuter colleges, and military academies, earned just slightly less, on average, than party school alums.

Graduates of arts and liberal arts schools reported comparatively low salaries, notching a return on investment over 20 years of about $200,000. Music school graduates had the lowest average 20-year return of just $128,000 over their costs.

So Party On?

PayScale spokeswoman Lydia Frank says neither parents nor students should take the party school findings too seriously, however. “That was just a fun comparison and kind of surprising,” she says. “Apparently there is some studying happening in between partying.”

What’s more, the salaries reported on PayScale.com are only for college graduates whose education ended with a bachelor’s degree and who work full-time. All the students who couldn’t balance partying with class work and dropped out aren’t counted.

That could be a big number. There is plenty of research that shows that students whose partying involves lots of drinking flunk or drop out at a higher rate than those who have more moderate social habits. And federal earnings data show that college dropouts have a harder time finding jobs, and earn less, than college graduates do.

Meanwhile, other studies shows that the more time undergraduates spend intensely studying–especially studying alone–the better their odds of getting a good job after school.

Scott Carrell, an economist at UC Davis who has studied how alcohol use affects academic performance, says that the PayScale findings could reflect one important truth: Students who manage to graduate from a party school may have developed self-restraint, social skills, and networks of friends that help them find better paying jobs after graduation.

But Carrell also questioned the accuracy of Princeton Review’s labeling of selective universities such as the University of Florida and UC Santa Barbara as “party schools” over less selective and, perhaps, jollier schools such as Chico State University.

The bottom line, Carrell says, is that students shouldn’t conclude from the PayScale data that it pays to go to a “party” school because, he says, “you don’t know if you will be the one who drops out.”

The Top 10

These 10 colleges were ranked highest in PayScale’s latest return on investment analysis: the total average earnings for each school’s graduates over 20 years, minus the cost of attendance and the average pay of someone who didn’t attend college.

College 20-year ROI
Harvey Mudd College $985,300
California Institute of Technology (Caltech) $901,400
Stevens Institute of Technology $841,000
Colorado School of Mines (in-state) $831,000
Babson College $812,800
Stanford University $809,700
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) $798,500
Georgia Institute of Technology $796,300
Princeton University $795,700
Colorado School of Mines (out-of-state) $771,000

Money uses PayScale.com earnings data as a part of its college rankings, but balances that data with graduation rates, student loan repayment rates, educational quality indicators, and value-added measures. See which colleges Money judges offer the best value overall.

TIME Research

Mindfulness Exercises Improve Kids’ Math Scores

Child Math
Getty Images

Fourth and fifth graders who did mindfulness exercises had 15% better math scores than their peers

In adults, mindfulness has been shown to have all kinds of amazing effects throughout the body: it can combat stress, protect your heart, shorten migraines and possibly even extend life. But a new trial published in the journal Developmental Psychology suggests that the effects are also powerful in kids as young as 9—so much so that improving mindfulness showed to improve everything from social skills to math scores.

Researchers wanted to test the effects of a program that promotes social and emotional learning—peppered with mindfulness and kindness exercises—called MindUP. Developed by Goldie Hawn’s foundation, it’s used in schools across the U.S., Canada and beyond.

The study authors put 99 4th and 5th grade public school students in British Columbia into one of two groups. One group received four months of the mindfulness program, and the other got four months of a standard “social responsibility” program already used in Canadian public schools.

In the mindfulness classrooms, the program incorporated sense-sharpening exercises like mindful smelling and mindful eating, along with cognitive mindfulness exercises like seeing an issue from another’s point of view. Children did a three-minute meditation three times a day focusing on their breathing. They also acted on their lessons by practicing gratitude and doing kind things for others.

For the four months, researchers analyzed all kinds of in-depth measures, like behavioral assessments, cortisol levels, children’s self-reports of their own wellbeing, reviews from their peers about sociability and the objective academic scores of math grades.

The results were dramatic. “I really did not anticipate that we would have so many positive findings across all the multiple levels we looked at,” says study co-author Kimberly A. Schonert-Reichl, a developmental psychologist at the University of British Columbia. “I was very surprised,” she says—especially considering that the intervention took place at the end of the year, notoriously the worst time for students’ self-control.

Compared to the kids in the social responsibility program, children with the mindful intervention had 15% better math scores, showed 24% more social behaviors, were 24% less aggressive and perceived themselves as 20% more prosocial. They outperformed their peers in cognitive control, stress levels, emotional control, optimism, empathy, mindfulness and aggression.

The program also may have had an unintended effect—one the researchers didn’t measure, but now want to. “Anecdotally, teachers tell us that the program helped them calm down more—by doing the program and integrating these mindful attention practices and being more aware and thinking more about others, that they actually become less stressed,” Schonert-Reichl says. “That has huge implications, and a further area of research is needed.”

More research is needed, but mindfulness interventions like these are promising. “Doing these kinds of programs in school does not take away from academics,” Schonert-Reichl says. “It adds to a growing research literature that’s showing, actually, these kinds of programs and practices increase academic gains. By adding this on, you not only create more academically capable, successful students, but actually create more caring, less stressed, kind students.”

Read next: Energy Drinks May Drive Kids to Distraction

Listen to the most important stories of the day.

TIME Math

Today is the Last Sequential Date of the Century

1897 Calendar with Parading Cats
Corbis

12/13/14. Enjoy it while it lasts.

Today, December 13, 2014, is the last day this century that the date as rendered by Americans will read in sequential order: 12/13/14.

The next time you’ll be able to write the date in the United States by simply counting up won’t come until January 2, 2103: 01/02/03. That’s 89 years from now—probably outside the lifespan of anyone reading this now but certainly a goal worth striving for. In any case, not to worry. Smithsonian has a nifty write up of upcoming dates of mathematical significance that some of us may yet live to experience.

In countries outside the U.S. where the date is rendered Day/Month/Year, this auspicious occasion passed last year on 11 December 2013: 11/12/13.

TIME Education

How Sports Can Help Your Kids Outsmart Everyone Else

Houston Astros v New York Mets
Alex Goodlett—Getty Images Children yell to players after a game between the New York Mets and Houston Astros at Citi Field on September 28, 2014 in the Flushing neighborhood of the Queens borough of New York City.

Jon Wertheim is the executive editor at Sports Illustrated. Tobias Moskowitz is Fama Family Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago.

The playing field provides the ideal context for learning fractions, probability, equations, risk assessment, principles of finance, behavioral economics and even multi-variable calculus

Correction appended October 16, 2014

In her excellent book, Building A Better Teacher, the journalist Elizabeth Green tells a story of a new hamburger that the A&W Restaurant chain introduced to the masses. Weighing 1/3 of a pound, it was meant to compete with McDonald’s quarter-pounder and was priced comparably. But the “Third Pounder” failed miserably. Consultants were mystified until they realized many A&W customers believed that they were paying the same for less meat than they got at McDonald’s. Why? Because four is bigger than three, so wouldn’t ¼ be more than 1/3?

Green uses this example as one more piece of evidence that Americans suffer from a collective case of innumeracy, the math equivalent of not being able to read. But the A&W anecdote could also be used to underscore another national crisis: financial illiteracy. Even after a catastrophic recession—prompted, in part, by millions of us not grasping the terms of adjustable mortgages or the perils of an economic bubble—the subject of finance might as well have an “R” rating affixed. Come and see what all the fuss is about once you turn 18. It is the rare high school—much less middle school—curriculum that offers economics, and the rare K-12 curriculum that imparts simple lessons, such as the promise of compound interest or the peril of spending more income than you earn.

Put a dozen educational consultants in a room, ask them how to teach financial literacy, and you’ll get at least a dozen responses. There was once consensus that relevance and context are key. Show a sixth grader a supply and demand curve, it’s unlikely to be effective; instead, ask that same 11-year-old, “If the ice cream store has a line around the block, what would happen if they raised their prices?” But even that is up for debate. “The work often overwhelms the interest of the context,” says Dan Meyer, a former math teacher now studying math education at Stanford. “Calculating—putting numbers into a formula and then working out the arithmetic—is boring. Important, but boring. The interesting work is coming up with the formula.”

However, we would contend that there’s one context, popular among kids (increasingly of both genders), that is tailor-made for introducing basic concepts of economics and math, and a lot less boring: sports.

Just as a game is packed with fractions, probability, equations and even multi-variable calculus if you’re so inclined, so too is it a laboratory for risk assessment, principles of finance and behavioral economics—an emerging field that looks at the effects of psychology and emotion on economic decision-making.

In the aisles of Walmart or the listings for real estate, round numbers are powerful motivators, either to hit or to avoid. We’ll buy a 99¢ Coke, but are less inclined when it’s $1. We take pains to list homes for $99,999, not $100,000, when the difference is laughably negligible. And we do the same in sports. We hand a fat contract to a .300 hitter, but are less likely to do so to a batter that hits .299, never mind that the difference could be as little as two hits (or official scorer decisions) over the course of a season.

Sports also provide a context for probability. Broadcasters may ask questions hypothetically, but real answers exist. Jones is only a 40% free-throw shooter but he makes both. What are the odds of that?

If only one day a response would come: Well, I’ll tell you, Bob. Forty percent is 4/10. Multiply that twice for the two shots. 4/10 x 4/10 = 16/100 or 16%. Not good odds, but not extraordinarily rare, either.

And there are other examples. What is cutting a player from a roster if not taking a short position? A balanced line-up is a classic diversification strategy. Drafting a player at the same position as your star can be seen as a hedge against asset depreciation. That the baseball season started in Australia is a vivid example of international expansion and an attempt to alter consumer habits. Basic probability will explain why no one came close to winning the Billion Dollar Bracket Challenge that Warren Buffett sponsored during last March’s NCAA Tournament.

As Meyer notes, coming up with a formula might be more important than mere calculating. But, here again, sports can help. Sabermetrics in baseball and advanced stats in other sports are based on the premise of improving predictive models and deriving formulas. Half the fun of winning your fantasy league is the implication that you outsmarted (came up with a better formula than) everyone else.

If nothing else, any kid who’s been to both a hockey game and a basketball game knows the difference between thirds and quarters, and, in turn, would have picked the right burger.

Correction: The original version of this post misstated the title of Elizabeth Green’s book. It has been corrected.

Jon Wertheim is the executive editor at Sports Illustrated. Tobias Moskowitz is Fama Family Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago. Their 2011 book Scorecasting was a New York Times bestseller. Their new book, The Rookie Bookie, attempts to combine sports, statistics and financial literacy for kids.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: September 30

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

1. China’s real battle is for the hearts and minds of Hong Kong. And China is losing.

By Rachel Lu in Foreign Policy

2. California’s new ‘Yes means yes’ consent law is an important first step toward ending America’s campus sexual assault epidemic.

By Robin Wilson in the Chronicle of Higher Education

3. The English language makes it harder for students to learn math.

By Sue Shellenbarger in the Wall Street Journal

4. Long lines at polling places dampen turnout and disproportionately hit poor and minority communities. States must devote the resources to making voting work.

By Chris Kromm in Facing South

5. To direct financial aid where it is most needed, colleges should focus on first-generation students.

By Tomiko Brown-Nagin in TIME

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

Your browser is out of date. Please update your browser at http://update.microsoft.com