TIME pay

Why Rebellious Kids Make More Money Later In Life

JGI/Jamie Grill—Getty Images/Blend Images Boys displaying their messy hands.

Not listening to your parents may be profitable, research shows

Who knew not listening to your parents as a kid could pay off?

New research published in the journal Developmental Psychology found that children who didn’t listen to their parents growing up ended up with a higher income, according to Quartz.

“We might assume that students who scored high on this scale might earn a higher income because they are more willing to be more demanding during critical junctures such as when negotiating salaries or raises,” the researchers wrote in the published study.

Additionally, they noted that those who were more likely to push back against their superiors as children “also have higher levels of willingness to stand up for their own interests and aims, a characteristic that leads to more favorable individual outcomes—in our case, income.”

“We also cannot rule out that individuals who are likely or willing to break rules get higher pay for unethical reasons,” the researchers added.

As Quartz notes, this isn’t the first time a study like this has linked childhood troublemaking to wages in adulthood. In fact, “agreeableness” has been found previously to equate to a lower income.

The research — conducted by the University of Luxembourg, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and The Free University of Berlin — analyzed data from 745 children in Luxembourg from 1968 to 2008.


Why Nebraska Has The Lowest Unemployment Rate in the US

Welcome to Nebraska street sign
Thinkstock—Getty Images

Hint: It was largely spared from the housing market crash in 2007.

During the Great Recession, North Dakota was the nation’s golden child, where the unemployment rate never topped 4.3% even as joblessness across the rest of the country reached double digits. But as the economic recovery has played out, another state has undercut North Dakota’s impressively low rate: Nebraska.

At 2.6%, the state’s unemployment rate is the lowest in the nation. The rate for June is also Nebraska’s second lowest rate recorded in more than a decade and lower than North Dakota’s 3.1% rate, according to monthly local unemployment data released Tuesday by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

While North Dakota can attribute its low unemployment rate to the state’s fracking boom, the reasons for Nebraska’s low joblessness are less clear. However, one explanation could be that the state’s job market didn’t suffer as much as the rest of the country during the dark days of the recession.

“In Nebraska, it was just a bad recession rather than a Great Recession,” says Eric Thompson, director of the Bureau of Business Research at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. “We were hit hard by the recession, but not nearly as hard as many other states.”

What’s more, Nebraskans have their state’s diverse economy to thank.

“There’s not one segment of the economy that dominates the state, such as automobile manufacturing in Michigan. We don’t have anybody that big,” says John Albin, Nebraska’s commissioner of labor. And it didn’t hurt that agriculture, the industry that contributes the most to the state’s GDP, “was going through a boom time right when the rest of the economy was tanking,” he says. Crop prices were up thanks to a falling dollar and robust overseas demand. Corn, for instance, reached $7.50 per bushel in early 2008. That meant “manufacturers were still making farm equipment and car dealerships were still selling pickups,” Albin says. “In this last recession, that cushioned us a lot.”

The state was largely spared from the housing market crash, too. “Construction activity, including home building, did drop sharply during the Great Recession. However, our home prices had not risen that much and therefore did not fall much during the housing crisis,” Thompson says. The median property value in Nebraska was $122,600 between 2007 to 2009, according to the U.S. Census. Between 2010 to 2012, it increased to $127,800. (By comparison, Florida, among the states hardest hit by the housing market crash, saw median property value drop from $210,800 to $154,900 during the same period.)

Nebraska’s geography was a factor in its dodge of that crisis. The state’s landlocked location in the midwest means it has few natural barriers to population growth. Oceans and rivers limit housing expansion in places like California, New York City, or Massachusetts, which saw rapid increases in home values before the housing market crashed. “In Nebraska, if demand is there you can always just convert more farmland to housing,” Thompson says.

In explaining the state’s current 2.6% jobless rate, Thompson points to what he says is Nebraska’s high quality labor force. At 88.5%, Nebraska ranks second nationwide in high school graduation, according to the most recent data released by the Department of Education. (First place is neighboring Iowa, where the rate is 89.7%.). According to the Census, 28.5% of Nebraskans 25 years of age and older hold a bachelor’s degree or higher, just under the nationwide rate of 28.8%.

“In short, Nebraskans have good resumes in terms of education and history—these are the types of workers who generally have lower unemployment rates and also fair well during a recession. Employers try to find ways to keep such employees and when workers with good resumes do lose their jobs, they are usually able to find one quicker,” Thompson says. Indeed, in June, the national unemployment rate among high school graduates was 5.4%, according to the BLS figures. For individuals without a high school diploma, it was 8.2%.

To be sure, not everyone is convinced that the state’s super low unemployment rate is a sign of a healthy economy. A closer look at job growth “portrays an economy that’s not as healthy as when just unemployment is considered,” says Ernie Goss, an economics professor at Creighton University in Omaha. In the past three months, payrolls in the state have dropped from just over 1 million in April to 999,300 in May to 997,000 in June. Goss pegs that dip to the same factors that buoyed Nebraska’s economy during the recession—commodity prices, which have declined with the strengthening U.S. dollar. “You can trace slowing job growth to the farm economy,” Goss says. BLS employment figures don’t capture farm jobs, but they would reflect a slow down in the services that support the agriculture industry.

Nebraska’s low jobless rate and decreasing employment is certainly a disconnect—you’d expect unemployment to increase as employment shrank. There are a few theories to explain the rift: For one thing, Nebraskans have a propensity to hold multiple jobs—7.9% do so, compared to 4.9% nationally—which means if a worker with two jobs loses one, she would be considered unemployed. Goss says that workers who lose a job could be leaving the state or returning to work on farms — both scenarios would mean they wouldn’t budge the state’s jobless rate.

This article originally appeared on Fortune.


7 High-Paying Jobs That Don’t Require a Bachelor’s Degree

Monty Rakusen—Getty Images

An associate's degree in web development or nursing can set you up for a career that pays well and is in high demand.

A college degree is a standard ticket to higher-paying jobs, but that degree does not necessarily have to be a four-year bachelor’s degree or higher. There are plenty of associate’s degrees that lead to decent paying jobs and can ultimately give you a good return on your college investment — potentially even better than a bachelor’s degree.

Below are some of the two-year programs that represent excellent job opportunities according to data on average salaries and projected job openings from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The title of the degree may vary slightly by institution, so we are listing them with respect to the careers they enable.

Note: The BLS wage data is from 2012; projections are slightly overstated as they also reference a ten-year period from a 2012 study. The job openings include replacement needs as well as projected growth.

  • Registered Nurse – RNs are almost always in demand, and that is likely to increase with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, expansions in medical services, and an aging population. There are over a million projected job openings in the field through 2022 with a median salary of $65,470.
  • Dental Hygienist – Similarly to nurses, dental hygienists are in significant demand. They perform cleanings and other preventative tooth care, as well as assisting dentists with fillings and procedures that are more complex. Median salaries are just over $70,000, and BLS expects 113,500 job openings through 2022.
  • Engineering Technician – This field has multiple specialties with their own degree programs and projections, including aerospace, electrical/electronic, avionics, geological/petroleum, mechanical, electromechanical, and industrial technicians. The tasks vary widely by field but they all involve engineering support functions, anything from design to troubleshooting to repairs to field work. Median salaries are between $45,000 and $62,000, and the collective job projections through 2022 are near 90,000.
  • Respiratory Therapist – Respiratory therapists tend to work with the extremes of the age spectrum, from the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or other respiratory ailments, to premature babies with lungs that have not completely developed. Median salaries are $55,870 according to BLS, and over 40,000 job openings are expected through 2022.
  • Computer Network Support Technician – Somebody’s got to do the dirty work of keeping complex computer networks running. Why shouldn’t it be you? Median salaries in the field are just over $59,000 and there are almost 40,000 job opportunities projected by 2022.
  • Web Developer – Given the massive growth of Internet sites and mobile apps, there is a strong need for good web developers. Projected job openings exceed 50,000 by 2022, and median wages are $62,500.
  • Diagnostic Sonographer – Most of us think of sonography as the ultrasound images taken during pregnancy, but there are other medical uses for the technology that keep the demand high. Median salaries are relatively high at $65,860 and there are 35,300 expected job openings through 2022.
  • Air Traffic Controller – Air traffic controllers draw the highest median salary available for an associate’s degree at $122,530, with 11,400 job openings expected through 2022. It is also a high-stress, high-burnout position — but if you have the correct temperament, it is the most lucrative of the associate’s degree positions.

If you are curious, you can find out all the BLS job projections, typical wages, and necessary degrees, experience, and training on the BLS website. The data is quite comprehensive, covering occupations from accountants to zoologists.

Even if the occupations above do not strike your fancy, you may find a different occupation that a two-year degree would accommodate — perhaps a veterinary technician or a draftsman? The choice is yours.

Read next: The 10 Worst-Paying Jobs that Require a Master’s Degree

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TIME law firms

Why This Law Firm Refuses To Hire Ivy League Grads

Harvard Law School
Darren McCollester—Getty Images People walk outside Harvard Law School's Langdell Hall on May 10, 2010 at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass.

Real estate lawyer says students from second-tier schools are harder working.

There’s few doors that a Harvard law degree won’t open for you, up to and including the oval office.

Though the opportunities for Ivy League law grads mights seem infinite to those of us with less elite pedigrees, there is one law firm that won’t even consider hiring these folks.

In a blog post published this week on The Huffington Post, Adam Leitman, attorney and founding parter of real estate law firm Adam Leitman Bailey, P.C., writes that, “In order to strive to become one of New York’s best real estate law firms we do not hire law school graduates from Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Columbia or any of the other traditional highest tier schools.”

Instead, Leitman hires from, “the top of the classes of the second, third or fourth tier law schools.” He finds that these graduates are, “more ambitious and more hungry to excel in the legal profession.” And that, “They are hard-working and usually grew up with a middle or lower class upbringing.”

Another problem Leitman has with going after students from the most elite law schools is that students from these schools have all the power once they’ve secured summer associate positions with large law firms. “In order for the top law firms to attract the brightest students they must also show that in past years all of the candidates received job offers,” Leitman writes. “Failure to get an offer practically requires an obscene action or complete breakdown such as at a firm social outing.”

Of course, it’s not entirely clear what came first, Leitman’s aversion to Ivy League grads or their disdain for Leitman. In the post, he also admits, “The top students from these law schools have no interest in applying for a job at our firm.”


TIME Starbucks

Starbucks-led Coalition Promises to Hire 100,000 Young Workers

Starbucks Holds Annual Shareholders Meeting
Stephen Brashear—Getty Images Starbucks Chairman and CEO Howard Schultz.

Target, Walmart, Macy’s also involved in effort

Starbucks and more than a dozen U.S.-based companies have outlined a plan to hire 100,000 young people over the next three years, specifically looking to provide jobs and training for those that face systemic barriers to such opportunities.

The hiring spree aims to make a dent in the stubbornly high unemployment rate for America’s youngest potential employees. In total, there are 5.6 million people between the ages of 16 to 24 who are out of school and not working, Starbucks said.

Under a platform called the “100,000 Opportunities Initiatives,” Starbucks and other firms promised to help thousands of young workers build skills and ultimately secure a job. The coffee giant said the problem is an issue on a few levels: young people aren’t ware of opportunities and don’t always know the best steps to get a job, while employers aren’t always successful at recruiting, training and retaining this work force.

Starbucks was jointed by a handful of founding companies that are also serving as partners to the mission, a group that includes JP Morgan Chase, Macy’s, Target and Walmart.

This is the second time this year that Starbucks notably stepped outside its comfort zone of selling coffee and teas and angled to address a broader social matter. Earlier this year, it launched an initiative called “Race Together,” which received a lot of criticism on social platforms like Twitter and Facebook, as well as by members of the media, who questioned if asking baristas to talk with customers about the sensitive subject of race was a wise decision.

But in a New York Times op-ed written by Starbucks Chairman and CEO Howard Schultz and his wife Sheri, the couple showed their full commitment to the latest initiative by promising $30 million on behalf of their family foundation to help young people enter the work force. That money will go towards “hard” skills for fields like technology and retail and “soft” skills like teamwork and time management.

MONEY Workplace

Do This If You Hate Your Job

Author Kerry Hannon has a few good tips.

The immediate thought may be, simply, to quit. For most of us, that’s not feasible option in the heat of the moment. So what do you do?

Kerry Hannon, author of Love Your Job: The New Rules for Career Happiness, says you could start by trying to clean the clutter out of your office. “When you start to clear out your office, you’re making decisions about your life,” says Hannon. “This is important to me; this is not important to me.” She also says you could try asking for new responsibilities; “I find the one reason people don’t love their jobs is because they’re bored.”

When it all does become too much, and you know you have to leave, it’s time to start making a plan. Start looking on the down-low, build up your network and start investigating what opportunities there are for you.


How Much Do Snake Milkers Earn?

Snake milking
Getty Images

Salaries for 10 dangerous jobs.

Have you ever been sitting in your cubicle at work, bored to tears with your humdrum job, and decided to chuck it all away to become a skydiving instructor or to extract venom from poisonous snakes? No? Just in case you change your mind and want to research the compensation first, we present salaries from the ten most extreme jobs reported by YourTradeBase.com.

  • Crocodile Physiologist – At $62,500 per year, crocodile physiologists capture and bring crocodiles into onshore settings to observe their habits and perform other studies, then release them back into the wild. We suspect to avoid being bitten you may have to be a crocodile psychologist as well, or at least a crocodile mind reader.
  • Skydiving Instructor – To teach and assist novice skydivers in safely getting from the plane to the ground, you can expect a salary around $24,000 per year. Jumping out of a perfectly good plane: priceless.
  • Smoke Jumpers – These front-line fighters of forest fires jump from planes into remote areas to halt the spread of wildfires. For this incredibly dangerous task, you can expect $33,000 per year. Adrenaline rushes are free and frequent.
  • Safari Guide – Safari guides earn $73,000 per year by being responsible for tourists in wilderness areas, protecting them from the wild animals (and vice versa). You will also teach the tourists about the ecosystem they are currently in, and fend off endless questions about when the cheetahs are going to catch and eat a gazelle.
  • Mountain Guide – Assisting mountain climbers nets only $5,000 per season at Mount Everest according to YourTradeBase, which seems incredibly low for the risk involved, even prior to the recent earthquakes in Nepal.
  • Whitewater Rafting Guide – Whitewater guides earn $6,675 per season, which probably varies greatly depending on the state of the water and the length of the rafting season. You get the positives of a beautiful working environment along with the negatives of fishing little Johnny out of dangerous rapids after he ignored your commands to sit down.
  • Venom Milker – What better way to spend your day than handling dangerous snakes and massaging their venom glands to harvest the poison? As a bonus, you get $30,000 per year and all the antidote that you need (we hope). We’re guessing snakes don’t enjoy the milking process and won’t hesitate to let you know.
  • Cave Diver – You can earn $58,640 per year by diving into water-filled caves that are totally devoid of sunlight and discover new species of living organisms, most of which are unlikely to kill you. Most.
  • Professional Stuntman – Why be an amateur stuntman, hurting yourself regularly and posting the video on YouTube? Go pro and earn $70,000 per year. You can coordinate or perform dangerous stunts and meet famous actors who are grateful you’re there, but wonder what’s wrong with you, while they watch you blow yourself up and fly through glass doors.
  • Storm Chaser – For $60,968 per year, you can experience the thrill of chasing storms around the Midwest to report on tornadoes and other threatening weather conditions, and place sensors near the storms to gain information. Before you sign up, we suggest you watch the movie Twister.

How’s that cubicle and office job looking now? Certainly, there are other extreme jobs out there if you are still motivated to change, but as you search, keep one thing in mind — very few of the people with extreme jobs are doing them for the money.

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Finally, Some Better News For Job Seekers

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Getty Images

There are more jobs, and they're paying better

If you’ve looked for work within the past several years, you know the job market offers pretty slim pickings, even more so if you’re not in a highly-sought-after field like technology. There finally seems to be a light at the end of the tunnel, though: A new survey of employers finds that more of them are optimistic about the future and plan to grow their head count. Even better is the news that a substantial number of them are willing to pay more to do so.

CareerBuilder released its mid-year jobs forecast Thursday, and it definitely paints a sunnier picture than we’ve seen in a long time. For starters, roughly half of the 2,300 HR and hiring managers surveyed say they plan to hire full-time workers in the second half of 2015, an increase over 2014. Just over a third plan to hire temps, and 28% will add part-time workers, both increases from a year ago.

What’s even better news is that more HR departments are willing to pay to attract this new talent. Almost half of respondents say they’ll raise starting salaries in the next year, an increase of four percentage points in a year, and about one in six say they’ll hike what they pay new hires by more than 5%.

“This is the best forecast from our survey since the recession,” says CareerBuilder spokeswoman Jennifer Grasz. “Companies are hiring across industries, company sizes and geographies.”

The industries that plan to pick up the pace the most are a diverse lot: IT and healthcare are at the top of the heap, but not all of the fast-growing fields are just for high-skill workers. Hospitality and retail are also outperforming the average. Even embattled industries like financial services and manufacturing are enjoying better-than-average hiring rates.

Hiring is expected to be especially strong at small businesses and tech companies, the survey finds. Although 62% of big companies will add workers, compared with 37% of businesses with fewer than 250 workers, the increase in hiring is rising faster at smaller firms. “Enterprise organizations bounced back first and are considerably more likely to hire, but what’s encouraging is that small businesses have gained confidence every year, and that’s translating into more robust job creation,” Grasz says.

And while the picture is pretty good across the U.S., the Northeast has the biggest uptick: 52% of companies say they plan to add people in the second half of 2015, up from 48% last year. Grasz says the growing investment in technology in this part of the country is one reason for the acceleration, along with other regionally strong industries like healthcare and financial services continuing to rebound.

“This is a very different scenario for the labor market than four or five years ago,” Grasz says. It’s definitely a market job seekers of all types are likely to greet with a sigh of relief.

MONEY Student Loans

Get Your Student Loan Forgiven With These Jobs

Americorps Teachers Help DC School Students
The Washington Post—The Washington Post/Getty Images Americorps reading tutor Kelly Meany gives one-on-one reading instructions to 7-year-old 2nd grader Madissen Moody at C.W. Harris Elementary School on Friday, September 19, 2014, in Washington, DC. Working for AmeriCorps is one way to get student loan forgiveness.

Public interest careers can slash your student loan obligations.

After seven years as a social worker, Megan Kent knew she wanted to make the switch to public interest law. But she also knew it wouldn’t be cheap.

“There’s a lot in the media right now, and there has been for a few years now, about how expensive law school is and what it means to take on that level of debt,” says Kent, 34.

That’s where the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program comes in. Created as part of the College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007, the program makes your remaining loan balance disappear if you’ve made 120 payments on your student loan while working in a qualifying public interest job.

Kent graduated from Lewis & Clark Law School in Portland, Oregon, last spring. “The 2007 loan forgiveness program was a huge factor in that decision,” she says of her choice to enroll.

She’s now an Equal Justice Works AmeriCorps Legal Fellow at OneJustice in Los Angeles, and she also has about $160,000 in student loan debt. But the one-two punch of income-based repayment and Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) is reducing her current payments and will eventually allow the remainder of the debt to be forgiven. Here’s how you too can make the most of these programs so your desire to help others helps you.

Careers that qualify you for loan forgiveness

After you graduate from college or grad school, you’re eligible for PSLF if you take a full-time job at a federal, state or local government agency; at a 501(c)3 tax-exempt nonprofit; in the military; or in an AmeriCorps or Peace Corps position. Workers who qualify include military personnel, teachers, social workers, emergency medical technicians, police officers, firefighters, librarians and nurses. A campaign by the National Young Farmers Coalition is also underway to add farming to the list of PSLF-eligible jobs.

The key to PSLF is that it doesn’t matter what you do at a nonprofit or in government, as long as you work for an entity focused on public service. So you can be an administrative assistant at a public school, not necessarily a teacher, and still qualify. You can also work for a private organization that’s not a 501(c)3 as long as your job falls into the buckets of public safety, public health, public education or library services. Jobs at religious or political organizations or labor unions aren’t eligible.

Check in with the human resources representative at your job, or have him or her read through the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s tool kit for employers, to see whether you can certify as a public service employee.

How it works

Beyond choosing a career in public service, you’ll have to jump through a few additional hoops before you’re mercifully debt-free.

Make sure the loans you took out fit the criteria. Only federal loans, not those you received from a private bank or financial firm, qualify for PSLF. They must be in the form of a federal Direct Subsidized Loan (which the government pays the interest on while you’re in school) or a Direct Unsubsidized Loan (you pay the interest while in school and during your grace period).

You can repackage other types of federal loans, including Perkins and Federal Family Education (or Stafford) loans, into a Direct Consolidation Loan so they can be forgiven under PSLF. Consolidation is free and will not only make you forgiveness-ready, but it will also bundle your loans into a single, less-complicated monthly payment.

Enroll in a qualifying repayment plan. You have a lot of options for how much you pay per month on your federal loans and for how long. But only some of those options make sense for PSLF. For instance, you can choose the 10-Year Standard Repayment Plan, which breaks your total loan balance into 120 separate payments. But by definition you won’t have any loans to pay off once PSLF kicks in after 120 payments. So it’s a better idea to sign up for an income-driven repayment plan.

Income-based repayment lets you set aside 10% to 15% of your disposable income, instead of a flat amount, to pay off your loans each month. On a day-to-day basis, that’s what allows Kent to live on her current salary, she says.

“If there weren’t income-based repayment plans, I wouldn’t be able to afford my monthly payments,” she says. “It would be very difficult to work in public interest even if you knew you could get those loans forgiven in 10 years.”

Apply for forgiveness after making 120 on-time monthly payments. For most borrowers, that means 10 years of loan payments at the amount you’ve signed up for. Submit to the federal government an employment certification form annually, or any time you switch public service jobs, to keep track of your employment as you pay off your loans. Keep your W-2 wage statements and pay stubs from work organized so you’re easily able to recertify each year.

You’ll officially apply for forgiveness after you’ve made your 120th payment. PSLF requires you to work in public service during both the application and forgiveness stages, so make sure to stay in a qualifying position until your loan balance has been completely dissolved. Then get ready to celebrate: After working for a good cause and being debt-free, you’ve earned it.

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