By John Markoff in the New York Times
By Maysa Jalbout at the Brookings Institution
By Fred Pearce in New Scientist
By Peter Salisbury in Vice
By Randall Kempner and Peter Roberts in the Wall Street Journal
The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.
TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email email@example.com.