TIME Heart Disease

Here’s How Much You Should Stand Each Day

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More evidence suggests getting off your seat and moving around is good for your health

We know that the amount of time we spend sitting each day wreaks havoc on our health, and in a new paper, researchers show that spending just two hours standing or moving around instead of sitting may have a real positive impact on our health.

In the new study published Thursday in the European Heart Journal, researchers had 782 men and women wear activity trackers 24 hours a day for seven days. The monitors tracked how much time the men and women spent stepping, sitting, standing, sleeping or lying down. The participants also provided blood samples and other measurements like blood pressure and weight.

With the data gathered from the trackers, the researchers used a mathematical model to estimate how the allotted time in each condition would impact the men and women’s health. Interestingly, they found that spending two extra hours a day standing instead of sitting was linked to better blood sugar levels and lower levels of fat in the blood (triglycerides). Specifically, more time spent standing was associated with a 2% lower average blood sugar levels and a 11% lower levels of triglycerides. Cholesterol levels showed improvement as well.

The findings also showed that spending an extra two hours moving instead of sitting was linked to a significant lower body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference.

The study cannot definitely prove that these tweaks to the amount of time spent sitting directly causes improvements in health markers, but the researchers note that the findings do fall in line with what’s known about the impact on the body of being active (or at least not being sedentary).

More research is still needed, but the findings support the longstanding advice that moving around is better for our health than lounging around, and suggest that any decisions to purchase a standing desk are not made in vain.

TIME heart

This New FDA-Approved Cholesterol Drug Is a Game Changer

The FDA approved the first of a new class of drugs for treating high cholesterol. Here’s the story of how researchers went from a DNA mutation to a drug in 10 years

On Friday, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first new class of cholesterol-lowering drugs since the statins flooded the market beginning in the 1980s. Similar to the way statins work, by binding up cholesterol made in the liver so less of it circulates in the blood, this new class, called PCSK-9 inhibitors, takes advantage of genetic mutations that regulate the level of LDL receptors in the liver. Less PCSK9 leads to more LDL receptors that can soak up LDL and therefore leave less cholesterol in the blood.

The FDA approved alirocumab (Praluent), an injectable drug made by Sanofi and Regeneron, in people with familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic condition in which cholesterol levels are high, or those with a history of heart disease who can’t reduce their LDL levels enough with existing statin drugs. (Another PCSK9 inhibitor, evolocumab (Repatha) developed by Amgen, received approval in Europe but won’t be evaluated by the U.S. FDA until the end of August.)

MORE: The Next Big Drug to Treat Heart Disease

While PCSK9 drugs help to lower cholesterol, the story of how these medications developed began in a French family with the opposite problem. Their members had exceptionally high levels of LDL and greater than average rates of heart disease. But unlike others with similar cholesterol problems, this family did not have the usual mutations in cholesterol-regulating genes. Instead, French researchers studying them in 2003 found they had aberrations in PCSK9, a gene that produces a protein found primarily in the liver, kidneys and intestines.

An ocean and half a continent away, Jonathan Cohen and Dr. Helen Hobbs at the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas (coincidentally the same institute where scientists discovered LDL, or the heart-disease contributing cholesterol and earned the Nobel Prize for their work), read the description of PSCK9 and wondered whether those with lower levels of PCSK9 would show the opposite effect of the French family and actually enjoy decreases in levels of LDL in the blood.

MORE: New Class of Cholesterol Drugs Shows Promise For Heart Disease

Cohen and Hobbs were involved in a large heart disease study involving nearly 15,000 participants, and decided to look for the PCSK9 mutations among their participants. They homed in on those with the highest and lowest levels of LDL cholesterol, and sequenced their genomes to see if any patterns emerged. Sure enough, they found 33 people whose LDL levels were about 40% lower than average and who shared mutations that effectively silenced PCSK9. Essentially, their LDL amounts were about the same as those who relied on statins to drop their cholesterol.

These PCSK9 mutations associated with the lowest LDL appeared predominantly in African-American participants. Those with one copy of the mutation in this gene showed an 88% lower risk of heart disease. Another mutation in the same PCSK9 gene that appeared more commonly in whites had the same effect, but to a lesser extent, dropping LDL by 15% and the risk of heart events by 47%.

“The results were quite compelling,” says Cohen, who published the findings along with his colleagues in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 2006. “They told us that PCSK9 was likely an attractive therapeutic target.” Even more encouraging, in all of the people with the mutations and lower LDL levels, there didn’t seem to be any significant side effects. For all intents and purposes, these participants were healthy and had the added advantage of being at very low risk of heart disease.

To confirm this, Cohen searched for anyone in the study with two copies of the mutation, to see if having double the effect would trigger any adverse events. He found one woman, a 32 year old daughter of one of the participants, who had two different mutations in each of the PCSK9 copies she inherited from her mother and father. The result? An LDL of 14 and no other health problems. “If you measure the amount of PCSK9 in her blood, it’s basically absent, you can’t see any,” says Cohen. That contributed to an unprecedented low level of LDL cholesterol as well.

So far, he says, only one other individual has been described with two mutant copies of PCSK9, a 21 year old woman living in south Africa with an LDL of 20.

Those descriptions piqued the interest of researchers at Regeneron, a biotech company that specializes in turning genetic discoveries like this one into drugs. To confirm and better understand the effects of PCSK9, researchers there studied the effect of human versions of PCSK9 in mice, and then began trials of antibodies they developed that inhibit the function of this gene, much like the mutations do, in several thousand people.

Those results, published in the NEJM last April, showed that PCSK9 inhibitors can lower LDL cholesterol by an additional 60% on average beyond that achieved by statins. Those findings formed the basis of the companies’ application to the FDA for approval of these first-in-class drugs.

For now, the agency says the drugs should only be prescribed to people with familial hypercholesterolemia, or those who have failed to reduce their LDL levels sufficiently using statins. For many, the new drugs will be taken in combination with statins and a heart-healthy diet. But doctors say they anticipate many patients outside of these groups, who have family histories of heart disease or other risk factors, such as hypertension or diabetes, may start asking about the medications. For them, doctors will have to weigh how well they are doing on statins before considering adding a PCSK9 inhibitor.

TIME space

New Horizons Finds Second Mountain Range in Pluto’s Heart

New Horizons Pluto Heart Mountain Range
NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute A newly discovered mountain range lies near the southwestern margin of Pluto’s heart-shaped Tombaugh Regio (Tombaugh Region), situated between bright, icy plains and dark, heavily-cratered terrain.

The newly discovered peaks are as high as the Appalachian Mountains

Pluto’s heart continues to divulge its secrets as NASA announced the discovery of a new mountain range on the lower-left edge of the planet’s heart-shaped region.

These frozen peaks are estimated to be one-half mile to one mile high, which is about the same height as the Appalachian Mountains, NASA has revealed in a new image.

The newly discovered peaks, which have yet to be named, are located about 68 miles northwest of the Norgay Montes, the frozen mountains that were discovered on July 15 in the first series of photographs that New Horizons beamed back to Earth.

“There is a pronounced difference in texture between the younger, frozen plains to the east and the dark, heavily-cratered terrain to the west,” said Jeff Moore, leader of the New Horizons Geology, Geophysics and Imaging Team at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. “There’s a complex interaction going on between the bright and the dark materials that we’re still trying to understand.”

NASA believes that Sputnik Planum, the left lobe of Pluto’s heart-shaped region, was formed less than 100 million years ago while the darker region, seen on the newly-released image, is probably older by billions of years.

TIME Heart Disease

Why You (Yes, You) Need to Learn CPR

Two new studies says CPR saves lives — no mouth-to-mouth with strangers required.

New research shows bystanders who offer CPR to a person in need can improve survival rates and reduce neurological issues, such as brain damage, that can result from cardiac arrest.

The new study, published in the journal JAMA, looked at 4,961 cardiac arrest cases between the years 2010 to 2013 in North Carolina. During that time period, the state launched a campaign called The HeartRescue Project, which encourages bystander chest-compression CPR—the new gold-standard form of resuscitation—and the use of automated external defibrillators. There was a greater likelihood for both survival and survival with positive neurological outcomes among people who received CPR from a bystander.

The data also shows that during the time frame, the number of people with cardiac arrest who got bystander CPR and use of defibrillators by first responders increased from around 14% in 2010 to 23.1% in 2o13. The researchers only observed an increase in positive neurological outcomes among patients who received bystander CPR, underling the importance of the procedure.

Prior research has shown chest compressions alone—which is different from the CPR many people have been taught—can save brain damage and lives. (See how to do it with this video from the American Heart Association.)

The study is limited since it was observational, but the researchers still conclude that during the period, the number of people that received bystander CPR increased—as did their survival rates. In an email to TIME, study author Dr. Carolina Malta Hansen of the Duke Clinical Research Institute said that while they can’t give a definitive reason for the association, it’s possible that when a bystander steps in, a person receives CPR much faster than if a bystander doesn’t, and that could make a difference.

A second study also published Tuesday in JAMA looked at 167,912 patients with bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 2005 and 2010. During the time period, they found that the number of events increased, as did the rate of bystander chest compression and bystander defibrillation (many public places have defibrillators on site). Additional defibrillation from first responders also went up. The researchers also noticed an association between these higher rates and a small increase in the likelihood that people survived without neurological damage.

Some of the study authors of the first study have received funding from medical device companies, and the North Carolina program was funded by the Medtronic Foundation. The researchers say the funders had no other role in the study.

TIME medicine

Memory Loss Not Caused By Cholesterol Drugs After All

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Chris Gallagher—Getty Images/Photo Researchers RM

Some cholesterol-lowering drugs, called statins, could contribute to short-term memory lapses, but new data suggest that risk may not be real

About 25 million Americans currently take a drug to lower their cholesterol, so it’s no surprise that the most popular among them, statins, consistently top the list of best-selling prescription medications. But recent studies hinting that they were associated with memory problems have led some patients to shy away from them.

According to the latest data, though, there’s probably no need to avoid taking statins for this reason if a doctor prescribes them to protect against heart disease. In a report published in JAMA Internal Medicine, Dr. Brian Strom, chancellor of biomedical and health sciences at Rutgers University, and his colleagues say that while statins may contribute to short term memory issues, these tend to resolve over the long term and that such memory problems are not unique to the statins.

MORE: Who Really Needs To Take a Statin?

Previous studies had reported a possible connection between statins and memory loss, but those studies compared statin users to non-statin users. In his study, Strom included another group for comparison: people prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs that were not statins. Among a large group of 482,543 statin users, 26,484 users of non-statin cholesterol-lowering drugs and 482,543 controls who weren’t on any drugs, Strom and his team found that both cholesterol-lowering drug groups showed short-term memory problems in the first 30 days after they started taking their medications compared to the controls. For statin users, the increased odds of memory lapses was four-fold, and for the other drug group, nearly the same, at 3.6-fold.

Because both groups taking drugs showed similar memory effects, Strom says that it’s unlikely that statins are uniquely to blame for the short-term cognitive issues. And because statins and the other cholesterol-lowering drugs work in vastly different ways, it’s also unlikely that the effect can be blamed on the drugs themselves. Strom proposes that the groups’ short-term memory issues, which were recorded by doctors in the patients’ medical records, is more likely the result of these patients simply being more aware of and sensitive to any changes in their functions after starting a new medication. In other words, people may have been having memory issues before they started their medications, and the problems might have occurred if they had not started taking them, but the symptoms became more noticeable because the users were more attuned to changes after filling their new prescription. The control group might have been experiencing similar memory issues but didn’t report them to their doctors; therefore, the issues might not have been recorded. “People on new medicines are more likely to notice a problem, more likely to blame problems on the drug and more likely to go back to the doctor and report these problems,” Strom says.

MORE: Statins May Seriously Increase Diabetes Risk

While it’s possible that the drug-taking group is also at higher risk to begin with for memory-related problems, since they have more potentially vessel-blocking cholesterol in their blood that can also impede blood flow to the brain, the results remained strong even after the group adjusted for risk factors such as diabetes and other blood-related conditions.

What’s more, Strom and his team also looked at users who might have been prescribed statins, stopped taking them because they were uncomfortable with the short-term memory issues, and then were prescribed them again at a later time. These patients did not report memory problems at the same rate, suggesting that the effect has less to do with the drugs themselves than with a hyper-vigilance for any changes associated with new drugs—the second time around, the drugs weren’t novel any more. “If the memory problems were real, we would expect that those who took statins for the second time would develop memory problems again,” he says. “The fact that we saw this as a problem so infrequently in this group suggests that it was more because the statins were a new drug the first time around.”

Based on the results, Strom says he informs his own patients that for some, statins may be linked to a short-term memory issue but that these tend to disappear over the long term. He also warns that even the short-term problems may not be a true effect of the drugs but rather a misinterpretation of the studies. “People should not steer away from statins because of a fear of short-term memory problems,” he says, “because they probably are not real.”

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: March 13

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

1. Amid the rancor and theatrics in Washington, it’s easy to forget how remarkable it is that the U.S. and Iran are talking at all.

By George Perkovich at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

2. A critical step in drug research is understanding the impact on the heart. That’s why bioengineers built a beating heart on a silicone chip.

By Sarah Yang at the University of California at Berkeley

3. Americans are quitting their way to a stronger economy.

By Aaron Nathans in the Daily Economy

4. Just because we’re able to edit the DNA of tomorrow’s children, does that mean we should?

By Antonio Regalado in MIT Technology Review

5. America has its own ion collider, and its funding is in danger.

By Natalie Walchover in Quanta

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME Heart Disease

7 Weird Things That Can Mess With Your Heartbeat

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Heart symptoms should never be taken lightly, but factors as innocent as caffeine and thirst may be the cause

A few weeks ago I thought I was having a heart attack. My morning started out normal: I woke up at my usual hour, feeling what I thought was a little bit of tiredness. But as I went about my morning routine, things grew scary. I broke out in a cold sweat as I brushed my teeth. My skin turned white as paper. And then, scariest of all: my heart was pounding like crazy. As a health writer I know these aren’t textbook signs of a heart attack, but I also know that dangerous cardiovascular events in women can be more subtle than those in men.

Later that day I went to urgent care, but an EKG and blood tests showed nothing out of the ordinary. Turns out my heartbeat went haywire as a result of a side effect from a medication. The technical term for this: heart palpitations, which can be brought on by many things.

“When a person says they’re having heart palpitations they’re referring to a sensation of their heart beating differently. Or they may simply have an awareness of their heart beating,” explains Shephal Doshi, MD, director of cardiac electrophysiology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.

Learn about some top triggers of palpitations, plus what to do about them.

Read more: 9 Subtle Signs You Could Have a Heart Problem

Panic attacks

If you feel as if your heart is racing like it’s going to beat out of your chest, it could be a panic attack, Dr. Doshi says. Shaking, sweats, and an overwhelming feeling of impending doom are also common symptoms. Panic attacks are generally not dangerous, though they can feel absolutely terrifying. “Sometimes you may have an arrhythmia [an abnormal heart rhythm caused by a disruption in the heart’s electrical signaling] that’s actually causing the panic attacks, so see a doctor to rule out something more serious,” Dr. Doshi adds. Otherwise, recurring panic attacks can be treated with talk therapy to identify triggers and anti-anxiety medications.

Read more: 12 Signs You May Have an Anxiety Disorder

Caffeine

So your heart’s beating faster than normal. Before you start worrying, did you just have a big cup of Joe? “Caffeine is a stimulant,” says Brian Kolski, MD, an interventional cardiologist with St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, California. This means that it “stimulates the autonomic nervous system (the involuntary nervous system which controls heart rate and more), which can cause an increase in palpitations.” Dr. Kolski recommends seeing your doctor if palpitations become excessive or are accompanied by dizziness, lightheadedness, or chest pain—even if you suspect it’s caused by caffeine.

Read more: 12 Surprising Sources of Caffeine

Decongestants

Decongestants such as pseudoephedrine (the active ingredient in Sudafed) are also stimulants. “Some people who may be sensitive to these drugs can experience heart palpitations,” adds Dr. Doshi. Over-the-counter meds are usually safe, but you should talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you have any other medical conditions. If you have a heart arrhythmia, for example, your doctor may advise against taking certain decongestants, Dr. Doshi says.

Read more: 10 Products to Help You Find Sinus Relief

Dehydration

Losing too much fluid, not drinking enough, or a combination of the two can quickly lead to dehydration, which, when severe, can lead to heart palpitations along with dry mouth, dark urine, and muscle cramping. “Dehydration can cause changes in your body’s electrolytes and also lowers blood pressure,” Dr. Doshi says. “This puts stress on the body and, as a result, could cause an abnormal heartbeat.” Prevent it with regular trips to the water cooleryour body needs 2.2 liters (or about nine cups of fluid) every day to function properly, per the Institute of Medicine.

Read more: 7 Easy Ways to Drink More Water

Prescription meds

Many prescription medications, including those for asthma or thyroid problems, can cause palpitations, says Dr. Kolski. “Some medications affect how other medications are metabolized, while others cause changes in the electrical conduction system of the heart.” These heartbeat changes aren’t normally a cause for alarm, but they can be bothersome. Make sure your doctor knows about every drug or supplement you’re taking before you start any new medications. Also, pay close attention to the possible side effects listed on the drug information that comes with your medicine when you pick it up from the pharmacy, so you won’t freak out if it happens. If your regular medicines are messing with your heartbeat day-to-day, talk to your doctor to see if there’s a different drug that might work better for you.

Read more: 19 Signs Your Thyroid Isn’t Working Right

Anemia

Most commonly caused by iron deficiency, anemia means your body isn’t making enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues. Although it doesn’t always cause heart palpitations, people with anemia may sometimes feel their heart beating harder, says Kolski. “Since you have fewer red blood cells, a faster heart beat increases oxygen delivery when you’re anemic.” Other symptoms include fatigue and hair loss.

Read more: 15 Signs You May Have an Iron Deficiency

Heavy metals

People who work in construction, as metal workers, or in other industrial settings can be exposed to mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals regularly. Long-term exposure can lead to inflammation, blood clots (thrombosis), and other heart-related problems. “Heavy metal exposure can be directly toxic to heart muscle,” Dr. Kolski says. “[It] can also cause problems with electrolytes. Anything that causes a derangement in electrolytes can cause heart palpitations.”

Read more: 10 Best Foods for Your Heart

In general, heart symptoms should never be taken lightly; if you ever feel like something’s up with your heart, see a doctor ASAP (in the ER or an urgent care center) for a full evaluation.

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

TIME Heart Disease

This Makes Your Heart Attack Risk 8 Times Higher

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A new study links high levels of anger to an increased risk for heart attack

Getting very angry isn’t just off-putting to the people around you, it may also significantly increase your short-term risk for a heart attack, according to new findings.

Having an episode of intense anger was associated with an 8.5 times greater risk of having a heart attack during the following two hours, a new study published in The European Heart Journal Acute Cardiovascular Care showed. The new findings add to prior research that has suggested high levels of anger may spur a heart attack.

The study looked at 313 people who were being treated in a hospital for a heart attack. The men and women were asked to fill out a questionnaire about the level of anger they experienced in the last 48 hours based on a number scale:

  1. Calm.

  2. Busy, but not hassled.

  3. Mildly angry, irritated and hassled, but it does not show.

  4. Moderately angry, so hassled it shows in your voice.

  5. Very angry, body tense, maybe fists clenched, ready to burst.

  6. Furious, forced to show it physically, almost out of control.

  7. Enraged, out of control, throwing objects, hurting yourself or others.

An anger level greater than five was reported among seven of the people in the study in the two hours prior to their heart attack, and up to four hours prior for one person. An anger level of four was reported among two people within the the two hours before heart attack symptoms, and among four hours before for three people. According to the researchers, the results come to a 8.5-fold increase in relative risk of a heart attack in the two hours following severe anger. People who reported high levels of anxiety, also had a higher risk.

The study is small and therefore it’s still too early to know how great of a factor intense anger is in predicting heart attack onset. The anger levels are also self-reported and could differ person to person. But the study does provide experts with information about what emotional factors could trigger a heart attack. For instance, the researchers found that some of the greatest reported anger was due to arguments with family members followed by arguments with non-family members, work anger and driving anger. “Our findings highlight the need to consider strategies to protect individuals most at risk during times of acute anger,” the authors conclude.

Exactly how anger could trigger a heart attack still remains unknown, but the researchers speculate that the stress may stimulate activity in the heart like increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction, a plaque rupture, and clotting which could eventually lead to a heart attack.

“I think this study is very helpful in many ways because it’s validating to what we already know. Anger is not what we would call a traditional risk factor because it’s so hard to measure,” says Dr. Curtis Rimmerman a cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic who was not involved in the study. “It highlights the importance of paying attention to a patient’s wellbeing.”

TIME heart

High Cholesterol Can Be Dangerous Even If You’re Young

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High cholesterol levels in older age are a familiar risk factor for heart attacks, and doctors warn that the danger can start much sooner for many. But how soon should you start worrying?

Most of us know that too much cholesterol in the blood can bring on dangerous clots that lead to heart attacks and stroke. And recent studies show that the build up of these fats in the blood vessels doesn’t happen overnight — it takes years of gradual deposits to narrow a vessel. So in 2013, when heart experts expanded the criteria for who over the age of 60 should consider taking cholesterol-lowering statins, Michael Pencina, a professor of biostatistics at the Duke University Clinical Research Institute, began wondering about those, including himself, who were younger. How long should they wait before taking the drugs?

In the latest study of healthy people who were followed for about 15 years on average, researchers report Monday in the journal Circulation that having even mildly elevated cholesterol levels can increase risk of having later heart problems by as much as 40%.

The researchers argue that having high cholesterol for many years—even if it starts when you’re young—should be a new risk factor that doctors and patients consider when discussing their risk of heart disease.

Even people with moderately high levels of lipids, who might not qualify for treatment for high cholesterol levels, could be at higher risk of heart attacks later in life simply because they harbor these elevated lipid levels for a long period of time.

MORE: Should I Take a Statin? What You Need to Know About the New Cholesterol Guidelines

Among a group of 1,478 people aged 55 years old from the Framingham Heart Study’s Offspring Cohort, those who had higher cholesterol levels for 11 to 20 years (beginning when they were about 35 years old) had a 16.5% higher risk of having a heart attack about 15 years later, compared to a 4.4% risk for those whose cholesterol levels never veered beyond the normal range during middle age. That’s an almost fourfold greater risk, and one that Pencina and his colleagues argue might be reason enough to be more aggressive in discussing ways to lower cholesterol with these patients so they can reduce their risk of heart trouble later on.

MORE: New Cholesterol Guidelines May Put 13 Million More on Statin Drugs

“We identified a patient population whom the guidelines might miss,” he says. It’s another dimension of cardiovascular health that needs to be looked at, and yes, I would say that it should be considered a risk factor.” In the study, the researchers considered LDL levels above 130 mg/dL as elevated, which falls into line with previous professional heart organization criteria.

But he stresses that this factor won’t fall easily into a threshold below which patients won’t need to worry about their cholesterol and above which they will. “There are so many components like family history and other factors that go into the decision of what kind of intervention people may need, such as lifestyle, diet or pharmacologic,” says Pencina. “But if you are measuring your cholesterol, even if it’s fine at an early age, it lets you build that history.”

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Older Adults May Be OK to Eat More Salt Than Previously Thought

New study takes a look at sodium recommendations

It’s currently recommended that adults aged 51 and older consume less than 1,500 mg of sodium a day for better heart health. Since that’s less than one teaspoon of salt, it can be hard to achieve if fast or processed food is part of their diets. But now a new study shows that consuming up to 2,300 mg of salt isn’t associated with greater mortality, cardiovascular disease, or heart failure in older adults.

The study, published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine, doesn’t refute Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations that older people should consume less than 1,500 mg of sodium a day, but it shows there also isn’t harm if people consume up to 2,300 mg (which is the CDC’s recommendation for the general population).

The authors note that a limitation of the study is that the amount of sodium consumed was self-reported, and people generally tend to underestimate their sodium consumption.

There did seem to be a greater risk for heart-related health problems among people who consumed more than 2,300 mg, but the numbers were not statistically significant.

To reach these findings, the researchers looked at the self-reported diets of 2,642 adults between ages 71 to 80, and followed-up 10 years later. The researchers found that 10-year mortality rates were 33.8% among people consuming less than 1,500 mg a day, 30.7% among people consuming 1,500 to 2,300 mg, and 35.2% among people consuming more than 2,300.

The CDC recommendations offer a bit more leeway for people two and older who are supposed to consume 2,300 mg of sodium or less. But the American Heart Association has a 1,500 mg a day recommendation for all ages. Both recommendations have been disputed, with some experts arguing there’s a lack of evidence that people really need to be aiming for that little sodium, and that it’s a goal that most people cannot realistically meet.

“In older adults it’s probably ok if you stick with the general recommendations of one teaspoon (2,300 mg),” said study author Dr. Andreas P. Kalogeropoulos of Emory University. “If you reach 70 and are free of cardiovascular disease or heart failure, these people are probably going to do ok with the standard recommendations. But know that anything over one teaspoon is bad for your health.”

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