TIME Google Doodle

New Google Doodle Honors Duke Kahanamoku, the Father of Surfing

The Hawaiian first built his reputation as a swimming champion

Monday’s Google Doodle wants to wish a big happy birthday to Duke Kahanamoku, the father of surfing.

Known as the Ambassador of Aloha, Kahanamoku traveled the world, bringing surfing to the likes of California, Australia and New Zealand over his lifetime. Aug. 24 marks what would’ve been Kahanamoku’s 125th birthday — he passed away in 1968.

On his native Hawaii, Kahanamoku was known for much more than just riding waves. He first built his reputation as a swimming champion, winning five Olympic medals over the course of his career. His success also enabled him to raise the profile of Hawaii’s true passion of surfing.

Kahanamoku was also elected the sheriff of his home county 13 times and starred in over a dozen movies. Most importantly, he is credited with helping the Hawaiian islands achieve statehood in 1959.

For Monday’s Google Doodle, illustrator Matt Cruickshank decided to honor Kahanamoku’s birthday by sketching his 16-ft. wooden surfboard along with a friendly likeness of the icon’s face.

Read next: How Duke Kahanamoku Saved Lives With His Surfboard

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TIME Economy

How Statehood Changed Hawaii’s Economy

Gamma-Keystone / Getty Images Aug. 21, 1959: The President of the United States Dwight Eisenhower signing the act which declares the islands of Hawaii as the 50th state of the United States of America.

Aug. 21, 1959: Hawaii becomes the 50th state, by Eisenhower’s executive order

Mainland Americans have been making their mark on Hawaii — in ways both welcome and unwelcome — since the early 1800s, when Protestant missionaries first landed there and, per TIME, “devised a Hawaiian alphabet, soon printed a speller… promoted monogamy, [and] introduced the spare, hardy architecture of New England whaling ports.”

While the U.S. annexed Hawaii as a territory in 1898 under somewhat shady circumstances — and over the objections of many Hawaiians — by the 1950s most Hawaiians were in favor of being admitted as a state. When the state reached that milestone, on this day, Aug. 21, in 1959, just seven months after Alaska had joined the Union, Hawaii underwent immediate and radical change, largely in the form of unprecedented economic growth.

The cluster of islands that comprise America’s 50th state are some of the world’s most isolated: 2,390 mi. from the West Coast and 4,000 from Japan. But with statehood came a proliferation of commercial flights that connected Hawaii to the mainland and brought a massive influx of tourists.

Three days after Hawaii was admitted to the Union, Pan American became the first airline to provide jet service to the newest state, according to the Los Angeles Times. This convenience changed the face of Hawaiian tourism entirely. “The islands, which had been the playground of well-heeled visitors, most of whom traveled by ship, began welcoming middle-class travelers,” the LA Times notes.

As TIME reported in 1966, the years after statehood became a “jet rush,” in which the number of passengers arriving annually at Honolulu’s airport more than doubled — many of them vacationers who snapped up $100 tickets for the five-hour flight from Los Angeles or San Francisco. TIME observed:

No fewer than 18 airlines are begging the [Civil Aeronautics Board] to let them put new flights on the Honolulu route. Already, tourists spend $300 million a year, making tourism Hawaii’s largest civilian source of income, larger than the pineapple and sugar businesses combined. To accommodate them, some $350 million worth of hotel construction has gone up in the past five years. The boom has also created new jobs to absorb the unemployment created by automation on the plantations.

This jet-fueled increase in tourism was not Hawaii’s only area of growth. The state also saw a rapid expansion in light industry — companies producing “everything from muumuus to mirrors,” per TIME — and diversification in agriculture. The flurry of commercial activity led to a corresponding boom in development: In 1964, construction spending was up nearly 20 percent from the previous year, and included a $27 million high-rise on Waikiki Beach that was then the world’s largest single-unit apartment building, according to TIME.

Additional projects included a $14 million business complex in downtown Honolulu as well as freeway expansions and new planned communities. Other signs that 1964 was a banner year for the Hawaiian economy, by TIME’s account: “Four new mattress factories have been opened, and Schlitz is about to build a 100,000-barrels-a-year brewery near Pearl Harbor.”

Read more from 1959, here in TIME’s archives: Hawaii: The Big Change

TIME Great Places

The Beautiful Half-Truth of the Hawaiian Melting Pot

On the anniversary of Hawaii's statehood, a look back at a LIFE photo essay depicting the territory's racial harmony--and the story it left out

In November of 1945, LIFE Magazine declared Hawaii “the world’s most successful experiment in mixed breeding, a sociologist’s dream of interracial cultures.” The islands—which would become the 50th American state on Aug. 21, 1959—were populated by more than a dozen ethnic groups. Intermarriage was common, and from the children produced by those marriages, LIFE declared, “a new race is emerging and stabilizing.”

Photographer Eliot Elisofon’s portraits of the people of Hawaii serve as a visual aid to the magazine’s utopian perspective on the territory. A young white girl and a young Chinese girl hold hands as they play together. A white man from Indiana and his Chinese wife pose for a sweet family photo with their two young daughters. A series of attractive young women are presented with captions that describe their racial makeup: “Caucasian-Hawaiian,” “Asiatic-Caucasian,” “Asiatic-Hawaiian.” All are smiling, windswept, a picture of harmony.

Though the magazine doesn’t completely evade mention of racial tensions—the story acknowledges that some upper class whites worked to maintain subtle color lines—the tone is overwhelmingly sunny. Despite their origins in Japan, China, the Philippines, Puerto Rico and elsewhere, the magazine explained, the territory’s 430,000 residents were unified by English as an increasingly universal language, by church communities and by American schools. “There are so many races, pure and mixed,” LIFE declared, “that prejudice for or against any one of them is simply impractical.”

Impractical as it may have seemed from the outside, that prejudice certainly did exist, and the omission of this more troubling side of Hawaii’s history of race relations is not unique to this LIFE photo essay. Depictions of Hawaii, particularly by outsiders, have historically done a thorough job recounting the islands’ superficial qualities—laid back tropical vibes, idyllic scenic beauty—and glossing over the more troubling elements of the island’s history, like marginalization of the native Hawaiian population, internment of Japanese Americans during World War II and discrimination against Filipino laborers.

Perhaps this is why many Hawaiian residents receive the state’s annual statehood anniversary celebrations with lukewarm enthusiasm. Despite the fact that the vast majority of registered voters favored statehood in 1959, members of Hawaiian sovereignty groups still believe that the political and cultural silencing of the Hawaiian people was set in motion in 1893, when the U.S. overthrew the kingdom of Queen Lili’uokalani for control of the islands’ sugar plantations. Complex debates about sovereignty, recognition and a just path forward continue in full force today.

Elisofon’s photographs beautifully illustrate a story of unity and respect for differences. And that story is true—it’s just not the only one.

Liz Ronk, who edited this gallery, is the Photo Editor for LIFE.com. Follow her on Twitter @lizabethronk.

TIME hawaii

Man Trying to Stop Teen From Committing Suicide Plummets to His Death

Dorm Death
Jennifer Sinco Kelleher—AP The Hale Wainani dormitory is seen at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu on Aug. 17, 2015.

Both men fell from a University of Hawaii dormitory and were critically injured

(HONOLULU) — Two men fell from the 14th floor of a University of Hawaii dormitory — one of them to his death while trying to pull the other from a ledge, Honolulu police said.

The 24-year-old man who died was trying to bring inside an apparently distraught 19-year-old who went out a window onto the ledge early Sunday, authorities said.

Both men fell to the ground and were critically injured, police said in a statement. They were taken to a hospital, where the older man was pronounced dead. An autopsy was scheduled for Monday.

The 19-year-old remained in critical condition Monday, police said.

Neither man was a University of Hawaii student, school spokesman Dan Meisenzahl said.

A student who lived at the dorm had people over, and the two men were among them, Meisenzahl said. Their names were not released.

The university is investigating whether any violations of the student code occurred, Meisenzahl added.

“It’s a terrible tragedy — the last thing we want to happen … whether they are students or not,” he said. “Of course, our condolences go out to their friends and family.”

The school year hasn’t started yet, so only about 20 students — those in need of transitional housing between semesters — were living in the two towers that make up the Hale Wainani dorm. They were scheduled to move out Sunday for cleaning ahead of the fall semester. The university has contacted all of them and offered them counseling, Meisenzahl said.

Counseling is also available to other students, he said.

During the school year, the dorm houses more than 600 students. Those arriving for the upcoming semester are scheduled to move in to the dorms Tuesday and Friday.

On Monday afternoon, there were mostly maintenance workers and cleaning staff outside Hale Wainani getting ready for students to move in.

The university’s flagship campus in Honolulu’s Manoa neighborhood is generally a commuter school without much of a fraternity scene, Meisenzahl said. About 4,000 of 18,000 students live in campus housing.

TIME neil young

Why Neil Young Is Selling this $24.5 Million Estate in Paradise

Neil Young Opening Night Reception For "Special Deluxe" Art Exhibition
Angela Weiss—Getty Images Musician Neil Young.

It's a shrewd business move

Neil Young doesn’t want to wait until after the gold rush, so he’s selling his Hawaii estate before the market tops.

According to a report in Bloomberg, the legendary rock musician is listing his nearly 3,000 square-foot, five-bedroom, four-and-a-half-bath estate on the Big Island of Hawaii. The property also features two guest cottages, and “830 feet of prime ocean frontage is located on the Kohala Coast near the world class surf break and white sandy beach known as 69’s,” according to the listing.

The likely reason Young is selling the estate–on an island he once wrote had powers of “magical healing,” is simply business. According to Bloomberg:

Homeowners in Hawaii are seeking to capitalize on demand from wealthy California technology executives by listing opulent estates, leading to a record number of $20 million-plus homes for sale . . .

Just as the Hamptons have long been a retreat for Wall Street executives, Hawaii is becoming a favored playground of Northern California’s wealthy digerati, though they have to get on a plane rather than drive a couple of hours. Property prices in the Aloha State have soared past the heights of the last housing boom as buyers seek island getaways.

TIME hawaii

Remains of Missing WWII Marines Brought Back to Pearl Harbor

Pacific Battle Remains
Marco Garcia—AP U.S. Marines carry the remains of 36 unidentified Marines found at a World War II battlefield during a ceremony at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, July 26, 2015, in Honolulu.

The 36 Marines were listed as missing in action during World War II

Correction appended, July 28, 2015

The remains of three-dozen U.S. Marines missing in action during World War II were brought back to U.S. territory on Sunday in the largest single recovery of U.S. MIAs.

The 36 Marines were listed as missing in action at the World War II Battle of Tarawa and repatriated during Sunday’s ceremony, held at Pearl Harbor. Among them was 1st Lt. Alexander Bonnyman Jr., a recipient of the Medal of Honor, reports Hawaii news channel KHON2.

“We stand here humbled before you today to receive, honor and commemorate our fallen courageous Marine Corps warriors who on the field of battle fought and died to preserve our freedom,” said Capt. Mark Hendricks, U.S. Marine Corps Pacific Chaplain.

The remains were recovered by a non-profit called History Flight, which has been sending teams of scientists and historians to Tarawa for the last decade.


Correction: The original version of this story misstated the number of Marines whose remains were returned to the U.S. on Sunday. It was 36.

TIME space

Scientists Emerge After Eight-Month ‘Trip to Mars’

Mars Mission Simulation
Neil Scheibelhut—AP The dome where six scientists lived an isolated existence to simulate life on a mission to Mars, on the bleak slopes of dormant volcano Mauna Loa near Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii.

Housed under a dome located 8,000 feet above ground in a dormant Hawaii volcano

Six scientists tasked with simulating life on Mars emerged on Saturday after eight months living under a dome located 8,000 feet above sea level in a dormant Hawaii volcano.

The six were part of a human performance study funded by NASA and had not left the dome without a spacesuit on since entering the study almost a year ago. Operating in complete isolation, the scientists were monitored by surveillance cameras, body-movement trackers and electronic surveys to track how they worked as a team.

MORE: See The Trailer For TIME’s Unprecedented New Series, A Year In Space

“Astronauts are very stoic people, very level-headed, and there’s a certain hesitancy to report problems,” University of Hawaii professor Kim Binsted, principal investigator for the study, told the AP. “So this is a way for people on the ground to detect cohesion-related problems before they become a real issue.”

To release stress, the crew members could use a treadmill or stationary bike–only on sunny afternoons, however, because both were solar powered. Their diet consisted mainly of freeze-dried chili.

Mauna Loa was a prime site for the study because of its terrain and silence. When looking out the dome’s porthole windows, the scientists could only see lava fields and mountains.


TIME Aviation

5 Days, 5,000 Miles, Fueled Only by the Sun: Solar Impulse Readies for Pacific Crossing

Relying entirely on solar power, the aircraft will attempt to travel from China to Hawaii

On Tuesday morning local time, a Swiss man named André Borschberg will take off from an airport in Nanjing, China, and fly for roughly 120 hours straight. He will travel east and south across the vast Pacific, spending days and nights over deep, dark sea as he hurtles toward Hawaii in an airplane powered by the sun.

An airplane powered by the sun? It’s the type of thing we dreamed about as children — running with our arms outstretched, circling like birds on the breeze. Kids love airplanes and astronauts — even airports, the bane of adults. Grown-ups tend to prefer our feet firmly planted. We’ve lost sight of the magic: a plane is a plane.

Borschberg and fellow pilot Bertrand Piccard want to restore our sense of wonder, which is why they’ve spent more than a decade preparing to fly their fuelless aircraft, Solar Impulse 2, around the globe. There will be 12 flights total, with the pilots taking turns at the helm of the single-seater. The goal of the trip, which started March 9 in the United Arab Emirates, is to inspire interest in clean tech.

“Adventure is where when you learn to be more open to the unknown,” says Piccard. “There is normal life, where we live automatically, we reproduce what we have learned, and [there are] moments of rupture and crisis. It is in these moments that you have to get rid of your certainties and habits.”

Once Solar Impulse leaves Nanjing, there will be few certainties. A flight like this has never been done.

The 5,000-mile leg will be a technical and physical test. Priority No. 1 is marshaling the sun, Borschberg says. During the day, Solar Impulse will fly high while capturing energy. When darkness falls, the engines will be cut and the plane will soar for several hours, losing altitude. At some point, the engine will start drawing on battery power. Then, at daybreak, the cycle begins again.

The flight will not be easy on the pilot. Seated in tiny cockpit, the 62-year-old will be awake for most of the flight, resting only for 20 minutes at a time. The conditions in the plane will be far from first-class comfort: the space is small, and the temperature and air pressure will vary dramatically through the trip. At some points, he will be able to communicate with mission control in Monaco. If things go wrong, he could be on his own.

For Borschberg, this is the flight of a lifetime. He started flying at 15, studied engineering, and spent decades as a pilot in the Swiss Air Force reserves. He is detail-driven and aviation-obsessed, brought to life by talk of aerodynamics. “I feel at home up there, at ease,” he says. “You get access to something that human beings on earth can’t access.”

Flying a plane like Solar Impulse, which is incredibly light, means working with the elements, not racing through them — a change of mind-set for a fighter pilot. “The more extreme the airplane, the more you have to have nature on your side and not the other way around,” Borschberg says. “You can look at the wind as a problem — turbulence, downdraft — or you can ask, how can I make it my ally? How can I integrate with nature instead of fearing it or trying to change it?”

His partner, Piccard, is the dreamer. Also born in Switzerland, the 57-year-old spent part of his childhood living in Florida during the U.S.-Soviet race to the moon. “The entire country was living for the conquest of the moon, and I had the chance to witness the most extraordinary human adventure,” he says. “When this was finished I had the impression that there was nothing else.”

Perhaps to prove himself wrong, he took up hang gliding and ballooning. He also studied psychiatry and hypnosis, fascinated, he said, by how being pushed to the limit could affect the mind. He went on to become, with Brian Jones, the first to complete a nonstop balloon flight around the world. He met Borschberg about 12 years ago and they have been planning, and fundraising, ever since.

Now they face the most difficult and dangerous part of the journey. Both pilots have trained hard for this — even dropping into water, blindfolded and strapped into parachutes, to simulate one possible worst case. They admit to nerves but prefer to talk about planning, preparation and the professionalism of the team that will guide them from Monaco.

Besides, they say, flight is about facing fear — taking a leap. When Borschberg sets out over the ocean, he will be sitting in a cockpit adorned with photographs of his family — a midair reminder of all that awaits him when he, and Solar Impulse, return to ground.

TIME Addiction

Hawaii Set to Become First State to Raise Smoking Age to 21

TIME.com stock photos E-Cig Electronic Cigarette Smoke
Elizabeth Renstrom for TIME

The bill covers both cigarette and e-cigarette use

Hawaii is set to become the first state to pass a law banning the sale, use and possession of cigarettes and e-cigarettes to people under the age of 21.

If a bill approved by Hawaii lawmakers on Friday is signed into law by Governor David Ige, adolescents will be prohibited from smoking, buying and possessing both conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. First-time offenders will be fined $10, and after that they can be charged a $50 fine or be required to complete community service, the Associated Press reports.

Some local governments have raised the smoking age to 21 in certain counties and cities — New York City among them — but if the bill becomes law, Hawaii will be the first state to do so.

Though the rates of high-school-age smokers have dropped in recent years, some 2.3 million children and young adults started smoking in 2012. In addition, a recent report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that e-cigarette use among middle-school and high school students tripled in one year.

If the Hawaii bill passes, it will go into effect Jan. 1, 2016.


TIME portfolio

Beyond The Waves: An Intimate Look at the Life of Surfer John John Florence

Photographer Cole Barash's recent book, Talk Story, takes us into the insular surfing community of Hawaii's North Shore.

At 16, Cole Barash was prepared to chase his passion. With the approval of his parents, he left his family home in Vermont with two snowboard friends of his age, and set out for California. There, he juggled the demands of being a homeschooled student and an obsession with snow and photography. Soon after high school, Barash’s move paid off, as he landed a job at one of the industry’s leading snow sports companies.

Now, the 27-year-old, self-taught photographer has earned several of the photo world’s most prestigious distinctions for young talent, including being recognized as part of the Photo District News 30 , which he won at 22. And he is frequently commissioned by big-name brands like Nike.

Although primarily known as an action and commercial photographer, Barash managed to distinguish himself from the rest of the genre with his keen eye for capturing emotion and context. Yet the long hours of commercial work were slowly draining his creativity. “I just hit the ceiling creatively and got really frustrated,” he says. In 2013, when the opportunity came to photograph the famed 22-year-old surfing phenom John John Florence, Barash didn’t hesitate.

Born in Honolulu and residing in Haleʻiwa, Florence was introduced to surfing by his mother Alex, shortly after he learned to walk. At 13, he became the youngest surfer ever to compete in the prestigious professional surfing competition, the Triple Crown. Barash realized he needed to unlearn the routine and expected practices of photographing wave riders – which, in Florence’s case, would be his signature tube riding – and make it a more personal project, both for himself and Florence.

“I want to dig deep into what his family looks like, the surrounding area, and what really makes up that amazing story he has,” Barash says.

The photographer began by shadowing Florence’s family: his mother Alex, a surfer herself, and his two younger brothers, Ivan and Nathan. He then broadened to include members of the island’s insular surfing community, as well as the landscapes of the legendary North Shore of Oahu, where the massive waves made it popular among world-class surfers and film crews.

“Every year, so much amazing action is documented there. I wanted to go 180 degrees away from that,” he says.

Barash exposed about 100 rolls of film over the course of six weeks. Blending color images with black and white ones, the result, compiled in his self-published book, Talk Story, offers a more subtle and intimate look into the young surfer’s life as well as the Hawaiian subculture that created him.

Cole Barash is a Brooklyn-based photographer. His images have been featured in various exhibitions and publications, including the Rolling Stone and ESPN Magazine.

Michelle Molloy, who edited this photo essay, is a senior international photo editor at TIME.

Ye Ming is a contributor to TIME LightBox. Follow her on Twitter and Instagram.

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