TIME Fine Art

Model for Rockwell’s Rosie the Riveter Painting Dies at 92

In this May 22, 2002 photo, Mary Doyle Keefe poses at her home in Nashua, N.H., with the May 29, 1943 cover of the Saturday Evening Post.
Jim Cole—AP In this May 22, 2002 photo, Mary Doyle Keefe poses at her home in Nashua, N.H., with the May 29, 1943 cover of the Saturday Evening Post

Mary Doyle Keefe died at 92

(HARTFORD, Conn.) — Mary Doyle Keefe, the model for Norman Rockwell’s iconic 1943 Rosie the Riveter painting that symbolized the millions of American women who went to work on the home front during World War II, has died. She was 92.

Keefe died Tuesday in Simsbury, Connecticut, after a brief illness, said her daughter, Mary Ellen Keefe.

Keefe grew up in Arlington, Vermont, where she met Rockwell — who lived in West Arlington — and posed for his painting when she was a 19-year-old telephone operator. The painting was on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post on May 29, 1943.

Although Keefe was petite, Rockwell’s Rosie the Riveter had large arms, hands and shoulders. The painting shows the red-haired Rosie in blue jean work overalls sitting down, with a sandwich in her left hand, her right arm atop a lunchbox with the name “Rosie” on it, a rivet gun on her lap and her feet resting on a copy of Adolf Hitler’s manifesto “Mein Kampf.” The entire background is a waving American flag.

Rockwell wanted Rosie to show strength and modeled her body on Michelangelo’s Isaiah, which is on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

Keefe, who never riveted herself, was paid $5 for each of two mornings she posed for Rockwell and his photographer, Gene Pelham, whose pictures Rockwell used when he painted.

“You sit there and he takes all these pictures,” Keefe told The Associated Press in 2002. “They called me again to come back because he wanted me in a blue shirt and asked if I could wear penny loafers.”

Twenty-four years after she posed, Rockwell sent her a letter calling her the most beautiful woman he’d ever seen and apologizing for the hefty body in the painting.

“I did have to make you into a sort of a giant,” he wrote.

The Rosie painting — not to be confused with a poster by a Pittsburgh artist depicting a woman flexing her arm under the words “We Can Do It” — would later be used in a nationwide effort to sell war bonds.

Keefe said people in Arlington didn’t make too much of a fuss about her being in the Rosie painting, aside from teasing her a little about Rosie’s big arms.

“People didn’t make a big deal about things back then,” she told the AP.

The painting is now part of the permanent collection at the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville, Arkansas.

Keefe spent the last eight years in a retirement community in Simsbury, according to an obituary prepared by her family.

She graduated from Temple University with a degree in dental hygiene, and was working as a dental hygienist in Bennington, Vermont, when she met her husband of 55 years, Robert Keefe, who died in 2003. They had four children and lived in Whitman, Massachusetts, and later in Nashua, New Hampshire.

Keefe’s family will receive friends and take part in a memorial Mass on Friday at McLean Village in Simsbury. A graveside service is scheduled for Saturday at Park Lawn Cemetery in Bennington.

TIME Fine Art

New Google Doodle Honors Surrealist Painter Leonora Carrington

Leonora Carrington Google Doodle
Google

She was a contemporary of artists like Max Ernst, André Breton and Pablo Picasso

In case you’re wondering why today’s Google Doodle depicts a crocodile-shaped boat bearing five small crocodiles and being rowed by a larger sixth, look no further than the work of surrealist painter Leonora Carrington, who would have been 98 on Monday.

The painting, titled How Doth the Little Crocodile and based on a similarly titled poem by Lewis Carroll, is emblematic of the iconic artist’s strange and wonderful style. Born in Lancashire in 1917, Carrington was attracted to art despite considerable opposition from her wealthy textile manufacturer father. She eloped with renowned German surrealist painter Max Ernst in 1937, and the couple moved to Paris together.

When Ernst was arrested at the outbreak of World War II (before moving to America and marrying art patron Peggy Guggenheim), a devastated Carrington fled to Spain and subsequently made her way to Lisbon, New York City and finally Mexico City, where she lived until her death in 2011.

“The walls of one Manhattan gallery last week were hopping with demons,” wrote TIME magazine in 1948, reviewing one of her exhibitions. “Feathery, hairy, horny, half-luminous creatures merged imperceptibly into birds, animals and plants. Painted with cobweb delicacy, they conspired and paraded before misty landscapes and night skies thick with floating islands.

“All the pictures had two things in common: an overall melancholy and the signature, Leonora Carrington, in one corner.”

Read next: Google Doodle Celebrates the Top Searches of 2014

MONEY online shopping

7 Things You Probably Had No Idea Amazon Sold

repairman arriving at front door
Peter Dazeley—Getty Images

What do autographed vintage Air Jordans, environmentally friendly baby wipes, cheap wine, and plumber recommendations have in common? You can find them all at Amazon.com.

On Monday, Amazon announced the official launch of Amazon Home Services, a marketplace and recommendation tool to help people find, schedule, and pay for services like home cleaning, lawn care, and handyman jobs. The new service is obviously competing in the same space as user review tools like Angie’s List, Yelp, and Porch, and customers with verified purchases made through Amazon will be able to review services as well. Amazon also says all of its professionals are handpicked and fully insured, and if anything goes wrong with a job it promises to “work with customers and the pro to ensure the job gets done right or provide a refund.”

Amazon’s entrance into the sphere of contractors and professional home services may seem a little out of left field. But the move makes total sense in light of the company’s overarching mission—to become the destination for anyone wanting to find and purchase pretty much anything.

Here are a few other seemingly odd retail categories that Amazon has ventured into recently. They haven’t all been successful. In fact, some have basically been flops. But when you’re trying to take control of the marketplace for selling everything under the sun, a few misfires and false starts should be expected.

Fine Art
Amazon Art launched in the summer of 2013 as a marketplace selling tens of thousands of paintings, sculptures, photographs, and other works—including some originals from masters like Monet and Norman Rockwell, with list prices into the millions of dollars. Perhaps unsurprisingly, some in the highbrow art world have been skeptical about the idea of one-click ordering, say, a Rembrandt.

Renowned economist Tyler Cowen pointed out the absurdity of being asked to pay $4.99 for shipping for a “mediocre Mary Cassatt lithograph” listed at $185,000, and wrote that he hoped Amazon Art was “a doomed venture.” The New Yorker noted that actually selling and profiting from high-end art may not be the point for Amazon: “Regardless of whether Amazon Art revolutionizes the art world, it will contribute to the perception that Amazon is working to create: whatever it is you’re looking for, you only need to remember one U.R.L.”

Fresh Flowers
About the same time Amazon was getting into fine art, it quietly launched The Amazon Curated Flowers Collection, in which the e-retail giant would be selling and shipping flowers directly to customers. Apparently, the venture didn’t work out. Recode reported that the Collection was kaput within a few months, and now the only flower bouquets that can be ordered through the site come from third-party vendors.

Diapers & Baby Wipes
Another venture that seems to have not worked out as well as Amazon wished was its recent entrance into the diaper business. Last December, the company began selling Amazon Elements, its own brand of high-end, environmentally friendly diapers and wipes. Less than two months later, bad feedback from customers pushed Amazon to discontinue the diapers and take them off the market, at least until design improvements could be made. Amazon Elements Baby Wipes, meanwhile, are still listed for sale at the site, where they get a 4.5-star rating.

Collectible Coins
Amazon’s Collectible Coins marketplace hit the site last May, allowing shoppers to search, browse, and buy thousands of rare and historical authenticated coins from dozens of dealers. Like Amazon Art, the coins purchased via Amazon can be priced into the millions, and Amazon gets a cut of every sale—reportedly 5% to 20%.

Sports Memorabilia
Among the wide selection of autographed sports collectibles currently up for sale on Amazon is a pair of 1985 Air Jordan sneakers ($48,788 + $4.49 shipping) and a baseball featuring Lou Gehrig’s signature ($71,264.99, with free shipping!). Amazon got into sports memorabilia in 2012, and it has a section for entertainment collectibles as well.

Wine
The Amazon Wine marketplace was introduced in 2012 in about a dozen states, with shipping on up to six bottles priced at a flat $9.99. The service has since expanded for delivery to more than a dozen other states, and the site—no stranger to price wars—has been competing aggressively on wine promotions, notably with 1¢ shipping on many orders.

TIME Crime

American History’s Biggest Art Theft Hits 25 Years Unsolved

Empty Frames At The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
David L Ryan—Boston Globe / Getty Images An empty frame on the right is where Vermeer's "The Concert," circa 1658 - 166, once was.

The 13 pieces were stolen from a Boston museum on the morning of March 18, 1990

It was the morning of March 18, 1990 — exactly 25 years ago — when a security guard at Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum got a nasty surprise. Hours earlier, thieves dressed as police officers had entered the museum, immobilized the security guards with duct tape, removed 13 works from their places and got away. Those works, including several Rembrandts and Vermeer’s The Concert, are valued by the FBI at a combined $500 million, making it the largest single property crime in the nation’s history.

A quarter-century later, the crime remains unsolved — but, as interest in the anniversary emerges, so have clues.

Even though the criminals appeared to have gotten away scot-free, the clues have been trickling in since the very beginning. Most of the works, per TIME’s original coverage of the theft, are not especially significant ones, which indicated from the start that the thieves were no experts. The valuation of the stolen works, which was originally $200 million, may also have been exaggerated, suggested the magazine’s Robert Hughes; the idea is that thieves who can be persuaded to ask higher prices when fleecing their wares are more likely to have to go out to a variety of potential buyers, which increases the likelihood that someone will spill the beans in exchange for the reward ($1 million in 1990; $5 million today). If the criminals had been real experts, they likely would have targeted the pride of the Gardner, Titian’s Rape of Europa, and would not have so crudely cut some paintings from their frames. The theft came during an increase in the incidence of such crimes as the value of the global art market expanded, increasing potential rewards and attracting more cons to the racket.

The next major spate of clues came in 1997, when after seven years and thousands of leads, there wast still no sign of the stolen works. At that point, TIME learned that two career criminals — one of whom was Myles Connor, a former rock guitarist who was at the time in prison for crimes connected to a 1975 art heist — had come forward offering to broker a return of the art, blaming the theft on two other criminals who had since died. (Connor also told the magazine that if he had been the one to knock off the Gardner, Europa would have been his target.)

The news of the clue had first come to the world courtesy of the Boston Herald, whose Tom Mashberg was invited earlier in 1997 to be driven to a warehouse where he was shown, by flashlight, a Rembrandt. The newspaper hired an expert to analyze photographs and paint chips they acquired, and announced that he had decided they were authentic. Negotiations with Connor and his acquaintance Billy Youngworth, however, stalled out. As Mashberg wrote in the New York Times this month, Connor was eventually ruled out as a reliable lead.

In 2013, another clue emerged. At that time, the FBI announced that they had determined who had committed the crime and where the stolen works had been taken. The works had been offered for sale in Connecticut and Philadelphia at some point, and the thieves were part of a larger criminal organization. Beyond that, the agency was hush-hush about its new knowledge.

The following year, an FBI agent released the names of three suspects and said that sightings of the works had been confirmed.

As reported in a lengthy story by Stephen Kurkjian last week — worthwhile reading for those interested in the intricacies of such an investigation — a raid in 2012 had uncovered evidence but no actual sightings of the paintings. Former Globe reporter Kurkjian’s new book, Master Thieves: The Boston Gangsters Who Pulled Off the World’s Greatest Art Heist, points a finger at a Boston criminal named Louis Royce for planting the idea in the actual criminals’ minds.

But the crime remains, for exactly 25 years as of today, unsolved.

Read TIME’s original coverage of the theft, here in the TIME Vault: A Boston Theft Reflects the Art World’s Turmoil

TIME On Our Radar

Nine Irish Photographers You Need to Follow

The country is emerging as a photography powerhouse

It is said, often with tongue firmly in cheek, that while Ireland produces literature and theater that punches well above its weight, the nation rarely makes it to the ring when it comes to the visual arts. In polite Dublin circles, explanations are occasionally wheeled out: as a traditionally oral, storytelling culture, the word usually gets precedence over the image; that as the country emerged from British rule, it shirked some forms of visual experimentation, seeing them as bourgeois.

Others have challenged this apparent orthodoxy — like writer Justin Carville — pointing to the country’s rich, if sometimes forgotten, homegrown visual and photographic history — one that exists outside images of green hills etched in the minds of tourists.

“There is definitely a massive, well-informed arts scene here in terms of artists and curators,” says Angel Luis Gonzalez Fernandez, founder and director of the annual Photo Ireland festival. “But photography, perhaps, has been considered the little sister of the arts until recently.”

“Things are changing quickly,” he adds. “Since the 1980s, photographers here have helped develop university programs in photography, which has, in turn, helped generate young practitioners. Now there is a more dynamic scene — it’s almost like a kind of harvest period.”

Indeed, photographers such as Richard Mosse — who received widespread acclaim for his powerful infrared work from the Democratic Republic of Congo — have thrust Irish photography onto the global stage. With that in mind, and to celebrate St Patrick’s Day, TIME presents its choice of the most exciting Irish photographers working today.

Ross McDonnell (Dublin, 1979) As anti-government protests escalated in Kiev, Ukraine in early 2014, Dubliner Ross McDonnell was on the front line producing stirring documentary photography. His view through a smashed bus window in the capital gave readers a sublime, otherworldly view of the unrest and was later chosen by TIME as one of the top 10 photographs of 2014. McDonnell, who also works as a cinematographer and documentary filmmaker, produces rich, cinema-like still images while seeming to direct photographically inspired video.

Kim Haughton (Dublin, 1974) A multi-award winning photographer, Dublin-born Haughton’s work is at once sparse and textured. Her Shadowlands series documented the nation’s ghost estates — housing subdivisions left unfinished after the country’s economic crash in 2008 — and became a visual byword for its post-boom years. An image from the series was chosen by the Guardian as one of only 11 representing history of Europe from 1945 to 2011 and TIME recently featured her haunting work documenting the sites where child abuse took place throughout the country.

Lorcan Finnegan (Dublin, 1979) A seasoned photographer, motion designer, editor and film director, Finnegan worked for British journalist and commentator Charlie Brooker‘s production company for several years. Now, with a love for the gnarlier side of life, he takes to the streets of Dublin with his cellphone in search of the delightfully off-beat. His popular Instagram account often sees him turn his lens on elderly men and women making their way around the city’s markets — giving us a view of the capital that most tourists, and indeed most locals, hardly ever see. Finnegan published a selection of his mobile photography in his first book GRANNYFASHION in 2014.

Rich Gilligan (Dublin, 1981) In Rituals, Gilligan captures life in Dublin’s inner city and in the expansive outer suburb of Ballymun. Famous for its soaring tower blocks, Ballymun was often seen as the jewel in the crown of failed government social housing experiments before it got a complete overhaul in the mid-to-late 2000s. Here, Gilligan masterfully documents the quotidian in these marginalized communities, his lens bringing both warmth and affection to places often avoided by the city’s po-faced middle class. Gilligan has worked as a contributing photographer for magazines like I-D and Nylon and TIME recently featured his work on homemade skateparks.

Anthony Haughey (Armagh, 1963) Haughey is perhaps one of Ireland’s best-known photographers. A lecturer and PhD supervisor in one of the country’s most prominent photography courses, his powerful, moving work deals with issues arising in conflict and border areas. His series Aftermath discusses the effects of the Northern Irish conflict on the border county of Louth in the Republic of Ireland. Excavation, a film he made in Srebrenica 20 years after the genocide, is currently on show in Limerick, Ireland.

Shannon Guerrico (Paris, 1983) Irish-Argentinian Guerrico is a fine art photographer based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Her work has been exhibited in Ireland, France and many other countries. She often uses existing paintings or illustrations as a jumping off point for her art, with many being photographs of illustrations which are later altered. Her body of work, which ranges from beautiful scientific-seeming still life images to intriguing portraits of what look like dissected body parts, is perhaps unified by her problematizing of the subjects before her lens: very often we are not sure what we are looking at.

Niall O’Brien (Dublin, 1979) O’Brien’s series Porn Hurts Everyone, like much of his work, is infused with a dreamy suburban languidness. Here, teenagers and twenty-somethings seem immersed in a largely parent-free world, one in which adults sometimes feature as wacky fringe elements or, in his others series, as anonymous disciplinarians. Born and educated in the Irish capital but resident in London, the photographer has an eye for Americana, which he captures with care — he often spends years curating his own projects — and with a clear respect for his subjects.

Kieran Doherty (Dover, 1968) Doherty, who spent years working as a Reuters wire photographer, has covered everything from the conflict in Northern Ireland to the immediate aftermath of the 2003 Iraq war and from the Olympic Games to the Wimbledon Championships. He bagged first place in the sports stories category at World Press Photo this year for the series Ground Pass Holders — a title referring to a sort of steerage-level ticket for Wimbledon that only allows holders to walk through the alleys between the main tennis courts. The images are a warm, playful side look at an event that Doherty himself covered in a straight-up fashion for years.

Jack Caffrey (Dublin, 1977) A photo editor and photographer for the Irish Farmers Journal, Caffrey’s popular Instagram account is one of Ireland’s most captivating feeds. As beautiful as they are frank, Caffrey’s images show us an Irish capital of bold colors, big skies and quirky ephemera. Caffrey has worked as a press photographer documenting the ever changing landscape of Irish agriculture and he was recently made a contributor for BBC Worldwide’s travel section. His photography will also feature in the World Wildlife Fund Magazine Summer 2015 edition.

Richard Conway is reporter/producer for TIME LightBox

TIME Fine Art

Austrian Panel Decides Not to Return Klimt Painting Stolen by Nazis

The Beethoven Frieze: The longing for happiness, 1902, by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918). (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
DEA / E. LESSING—De Agostini/Getty Images The Beethoven Frieze: The longing for happiness, 1902, by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918).

Gustav Klimt's "Beethoven Frieze" will remain in Vienna's Secession museum

An Austrian panel has decided that a famous large-format painting by Gustav Klimt should not be returned to the heirs of its Jewish former owner, despite being seized by Nazis during World War II.

“The Beethoven Frieze,” inspired by Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, was originally painted directly on the walls of Vienna’s Secession museum and exhibited in 1902, intended to remain only temporarily. The 7-foot by 112-foot work was kept and preserved and bought in 1915 by August Lederer.

But because Lederer was Jewish, much of his collection was taken by the Nazis in 1938. The frieze was returned to his son, Erich, after the war—but an Austrian export ban made it impossible for him to bring it to his home in Switzerland, the BBC reports.

So Erich Lederer sold it back to the Secession in 1973 for what the family describes as a cheap price: $750,000. The Austrian Art Restitution Board has now decided that that ban was not “used as a tool to force Lederer into an agreement,” and so the painting will remain in the museum.

This is the latest in a decades-long effort to restore collections to their rightful owners in the wake of Nazi thefts. In one high-profile case, another Klimt painting (“Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I”) was returned to the family and sold for $135 million to New York’s Neue Galerie. That legal battle is the subject of the new film Woman in Gold, out April 3.

[BBC]

TIME Art

This Banana Art Is The Visual Movement We’ve Been Waiting For

Banana peels like you've never seen them before

The fine-art scene is hungry for something new. Something fresh. Something bananas.

The creation of Adam #fruitdoodle #biblebanana #michelangelo

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

Netherlands-based artist Stephan Brusche started small. “I was at work and I just wanted to post something. I then noticed my banana and I figured it would make a nice post if I just drew a little happy face on it,” he told Bored Panda. “I took a ballpoint pen and just started drawing. I was pretty amazed how pleasant a banana peel is to draw on.”

Flying Fruit @indemarkthal #fruitdoodle #markthal @gemeenterotterdam

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

Brusche, who posts his art to his Instagram account, soon started experimenting with the banana’s shape — peeling and carving the fruit into surprising sculptures.

Giraffe #fruitdoodle

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

Elephant #fruitdoodle With a shoutout to @worldofartists for featuring me yesterday! :D

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

'Come at the king, you best not miss.' #omarlittle #fruitdoodle @bkbmg #thewire #omarcomin

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

Nick Offerman as a Banana Viking #vikingfriday #fruitdoodle #nickofferman #ronswanson

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

And even political statements:

#jesuischarlie

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

Brusche has dabbled in other fruit:

Mr Kiwi is smiling because kiwi's don't have Mondays #fruitdoodle #kiwi #smile

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

But really it’s all about that banana:

Bananafishbones #fruitdoodle #banana #fishbones

A photo posted by Stephan Brusche (@isteef) on

You can buy the artwork on his site — although you’re on your own when it comes to preservation.

(h/t: Bored Panda)

TIME Fine Art

These Statues of Naked Men Riding Panthers May Be Michelangelo’s Only Surviving Bronze Sculptures

Michelangelo Bronzes discovered by Fitzwilliam Museum and University of Cambridge
Fitzwilliam Museum/EPA Two bronzes allegedly created by Italian sculptor Michelangelo provided by the Fitzmuseum and University of Cambridge on Feb. 2, 2015.

The Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge will unveil the art Tuesday

A British museum plans to unveil two sculptures this week that it believes to be Michelangelo’s only surviving bronze statues.

The Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge believes that the iconic artist created the bronze figures, depicting two muscular men riding panthers, directly following his completion of David and prior to the Sistine Chapel. The orphan statues had been previously attributed to various sculptors until Cambridge art history professor Paul Joannides noticed a tiny detail that has been attributed to Michelangelo.

Museum officials remain hesitant to definitively attribute the statues to Michelangelo.

Keeper of Fitzwilliam Museum’s applied arts, Victoria Avery, told the Guardian that even though the pieces are clearly masterpieces, “You have to be pretty brave to even contemplate that they could be work by an artist of the magnificence and fame and importance of Michelangelo. We decided to be rather cautious, to be very careful and methodical. … Nobody wants to be shot down and to look like an idiot.”

 

TIME photography

In Memoriam: Remembering the Photographers We Lost in 2014

As 2014 rolls to a close, LightBox pauses to remember the great photographers we lost this year

Each year TIME LightBox pays tribute to the photographers who died. For many of us at TIME, they were friends and colleagues; for many of those reading, they were family and loved ones; and for all of us, they were trail blazers, visionaries and icons.

It would be difficult this year, however, to approach this article without acknowledging the loss of two other colleagues, James Foley and Steven Sotloff, whose deaths rippled far beyond the journalistic community. The circumstances of their deaths have been covered widely; despite efforts to wipe the videos of their executions by the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS) from the internet, remnants remain in the digital ether, but more so in the darkest depths of the collective consciousness of those who witnessed them. The videos drew the U.S. deeper into the Syrian civil war, and proved the lengths to which ISIS would go to engender fear in a horrific power play to control its message.

It is difficult to find anything positive in an event that was so dark and irredeemable. But it forces us to reflect on a profession that is becoming increasingly dangerous exactly when such journalism has become vital. Foley and Sotloff were two of 23 journalists and aid workers kidnapped by insurgents in Syria and either sold or handed over to ISIS; two of 66 journalists killed this year, according to a report by Reporters Without Borders; and two of 119 journalists that were kidnapped in 2014, according to the same report. Over 200 journalists were jailed by governments in 2014, with China topping the list, according to a report by the Committee to Protect Journalists. Freelancers and local reporters are especially vulnerable; 90% of those kidnapped in 2014 were local journalists, and 139 professional journalists plus 20 citizen-journalists fled their homelands in fear into countries where they would not be guaranteed safety or protection.

The implications of these numbers can be put in another way: good journalism is not just the responsibility of the journalistic community; it is a global effort that must be bolstered by individual governments’ commitment to protecting the freedom of the press, and fought for in the face of authoritarian entities. It has become far too dangerous a fight for the individual – or even the individual organization – to tackle.

“Sometimes it is easy to forget why we need [journalism] at all,” jailed Al-Jazeera reporter Peter Greste wrote in December. “Journalism can, at times, look pretty sordid, and few of us who work in it can claim to have never succumbed to the more base instincts of our trade. And in the wired world of the internet, with its citizen reporters and millions of sources, it is tempting to wonder why we need professional journalists at all. But that noise is the reason itself. Never has cleared-eyed, critical, skeptical journalism been more necessary to help make sense of a world overloaded with information…The best journalism puts a frame around an issue. It helps define it, clarifies it, makes sense of it. And, above all, it challenges authority.”

As we remember the photographers we lost this year, let us bear in mind the lengths many of them went to be image makers, and remember that freedom of the press, as well as freedom of speech, are not given. The men and women we pay tribute to made the most of the ability they had to express themselves, as photojournalists, artists, and creators; their photographs were etched in light and engraved into history.

Rene Burri (1933-2014)

Rene Burri Self Portrait
Rene Burri—Magnum PhotosAutoportrait, Coronado, N.M., 1973/83.

Legendary Magnum photographer René Burri‘s body of work is a chronicle of the political and cultural people and events that shaped the last half of the 20th century. At the age of 13, Burri made his first photo of Winston Churchill as the prime minister zipped through his hometown in an open-top car. His first photo essay documenting a school for deaf and mute children in Zurich was published in Du magazine when he was just 23. His work would go on to be published in LIFE, Look, Geo, Stern, The New York Times, and Paris Match among many others. He became an associate member at Magnum Photos in 1955 and a full member in 1959. He created iconic and intimate portraits of Che Guevara, Le Courbousier, Picasso, Giacometti and Baragnan; he photographed the Suez Canal crisis, the Vietnam War, and a divided Berlin with a sensitive and humanist eye; he made studies of the architecture and urban landscapes in Latin America, Asia and Europe that verge on abstract without ever losing what he referred to as ‘the pulse of life’.

“Most people will remember Rene Burri for his portrait of Che with a cigar, which must be on t-shirts, mugs, watches and etched into so many minds by now,” Magnum photographer Susan Meiselas told TIME. “But for those of us in Magnum, Rene was the one who brought us all together each year, at the end of our annual June meeting, for a group picture, and if someone was missing, he collaged them in. Rene, was deeply curious and with his Swiss passport he covered the world, especially adventuring where others were limited by the Cold War. All of us are off on individual paths, but our group picture was the one time of year to express that collective spirit we share.” Burri died at the age of 81 on Oct. 20.

Ralph Morse (1917-2014)

LIFE photographer/war correspondent Ralph Morse's self-portrait in the same chair from which General Eisenhower announced Allied victory in Europe.
The LIFE Images Collection/Getty ImagesLIFE photographer and war correspondent Ralph Morse in the same chair from which General Eisenhower announced Allied victory in Europe.

LIFE’s longtime managing editor, George Hunt, reportedly said, “If LIFE could afford only one photographer, it would have to be Ralph Morse.” In his 30 years as a LIFE photographer, Morse became one of the greatest photojournalists of his time and captured history as it unfolded. Starting in the 1940s at the age of 24, he became LIFE’s youngest correspondent during World War II, covering the brutality of conflict and the relief at the end of the war. He captured crowds on the streets of New York gathering around a car radio to hear news of JFK’s assassination, and Einstein’s office, in the exact chaotic state the scientist had left it, on the day he died. He photographed Jackie Robinson dancing off third base in the 1955 World Series and an ailing Babe Ruth bidding a final farewell to his fans at Yankee Stadium the day his jersey number was retired. He spent so much time covering NASA’s Mercury 7 that John Glenn dubbed him ‘the eighth astronaut’. He photographed for LIFE until the day it closed in 1972, bringing to each assignment a gregariousness that was as much a part of his personality as an integral part of his work.

“A good photojournalist goes into any situation prepared,” he said in one of his last conversations with LIFE.com editor Ben Cosgrove. “You find out something, at least one key thing, about the topic you’re going to cover. And, as importantly, you make friends — you make friends with everybody, wherever you go. Because you never know when you’ll need to go back there, for one more picture, or to follow up on a story.” Morse died at the age of 97 on Dec. 7 at his home in Florida.

Phil Stern (1919-2014)

Renowned Hollywood photographer Phil Stern died on Dec. 13 at the age of 95. His most well-known image of James Dean peeking over the collar of his sweater (slide 18) was one in a prolific collection of iconic photographs taken in a career that spanned over 60 years. Stern cut his teeth first photographing crime for a police gazette in New York City, eventually becoming a freelancer for magazines such as LIFE, Look, and Colliers. During WWII he enlisted in the army and became a combat photographer, capturing the 1st Ranger Battalion in North Africa and the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943. He returned to Los Angeles with several shrapnel wounds and a Purple Heart, and began the body of work for which he would become most famous, photographing everyone from Marilyn Monroe to John Wayne, Frank Sinatra to Ella Fitzgerald. In 1961, he was enlisted by Sinatra to be the official photographer of John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural gala.

“Phil had incredible access to those subjects who became some of the greatest legends of all time,” says Geoff Katz, owner of CPi, who worked with Stern for over 20 years. “He had an extraordinary talent and innate ability to connect with his subjects in a way that made them feel at ease, natural and vulnerable allowing Phil to capture precious moments while also creating indelible portraits of the most most celebrated icons of the 20th century.”

Anja Niedringhaus (1965-2014)

Muhammed Muheisen—APAnja Niedringhaus shows Iraqi children their pictures in Baghdad in 2004.

The Associated Press sustained several losses this year. Pulitzer prize winning photojournalist Anja Niedringhaus was murdered at the age of 48 on April 4 while covering the national election in Afghanistan when a police officer opened fire on a car that she and AP special correspondent Kathy Gannon were traveling in.

Niedringhaus began her career at the age of 16 at a local paper in Hoexter, and became a photographer for the European Press Agency in 1990 following her coverage of the fall of the Berlin Wall. She went on to work in some of the most dangerous areas of the world, covering the conflict in the former Yugoslavia for EPA, and then across the Middle East, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, for AP from 2002. She was the only woman on a team of 11 AP photographers that won a Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography in 2005 for their coverage of the war in Iraq.

“There are not enough words to describe Anja, the most caring, honest, brave and committed photojournalist,” wrote Muhammed Muheisen, an AP photographer who was with Niedringhaus the night before she was killed. “My friend, who I met in a war zone and made me feel safe and loved. Everybody loved Anja, her smile could melt a mountain. Her pictures told stories of people, whom she portrayed full of pride and worked hard to raise their voice. She believed in the goodness of people and no matter what, she never lost hope. I was so concerned about her safety in April, but her last words to me were ‘Momo, this is what I meant to do, am happy to go.'”

Dave Martin (1955-2014)

Known to many as Mullet (after the fish, not the hair-do), AP photographer Dave Martin had a sense of humor and generosity that was matched only by his dedication to his work. “His impact on the AP was, in my opinion, profound,” long-time friend and colleague Bill Haber told TIME. “When you worked on an assignment with Dave, you knew how hard he was going to work, so it stepped up your game. His impact is with all of the staff that ever worked with him.”

Martin began his career as an AP staff photographer in 1983 in Montgomery, Ala. after a brief stint at the Lakeland Ledger. Over three decades, Martin covered almost every major news event in the South including Hurricane Katrina, the Gulf Oil Spill, and the tornadoes that struck Alabama in 2011. He also traveled for AP, shooting Superbowls, Olympics, Ryder Cups, sporting events and political conventions, as well as conflicts in Afghanistan, Haiti and Iraq. He was named regional manager in 2004, and fostered strong relationships with the many local news outlets that would file to AP. He was tireless in his efforts to get the public the best news images possible, whether taken by him or by another photographer. He was renowned for perfecting the ‘water bucket’ shot at football games when players empty a gatorade bucket over their coaches’ heads. Martin was the first on the field at Georgia Dome on Jan. 1 of this year, at the Chick-fil-A Bowl following Texas A&M’s 52-48 win over Duke to capture just that moment when he succumbed to a heart attack and collapsed at the age of 59.

Franklin Reyes (1975-2014)

Cuban photographer Franklin Reyes covered daily life in his country with a depth and sensitivity that elevated the ordinary. An integral part of AP’s team on the island, Reyes imbued seemingly small stories with lyricism and emotion, from his images of ballerinas, to young boys training as boxers, to fleeting but beautiful scenes on the streets of a country that has been so isolated from the outside world. On Nov. 4 of this year, Reyes was on assignment shooting a story on Cuba’s economy when he lost control of his car and crossed into oncoming traffic, hitting another car. He died at the scene of the accident at the age of 39.

Michel du Cille (1956-2014)

In an article that Washington Post photographer and three-time Pulitzer prize winner Michel du Cille wrote shortly before his death in October of this year, he discussed the difficulty of covering the Ebola crisis in West Africa: “How does one give dignity to the image of a woman who has died and is lying on the ground, unattended, uncovered and alone as people walk by or gaze from a distance? But I believe that the world must see the horrible and dehumanizing effects of Ebola. The story must be told; so one moves around with tender care, gingerly, without extreme intrusion.”

This respect for the subject was foundational in du Cille’s approach to his work. Du Cille began his career in photojournalism at the age of 16 at the Gainesville Times in Georgia. He joined the staff of the Miami Herald in 1981 and won his first Pulitzer four years later for his work on the volcano eruption in Colombia. Two weeks into working on the project that would win him his second Pulitzer, a photo essay on life inside a crack house for the Herald in 1987, du Cille’s editor Gene Weingarten asked him how the work was progressing. He said to Weingarten, “No pictures yet. I haven’t taken my camera. First comes trust, then the work.” After seven years at the Herald, du Cille joined the Post as a photo editor, helping to build up the department and overseeing the newspaper’s Pulitzer prize winning coverage of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. He continued to photograph, notably covering civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the war in Afghanistan, returning veterans at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and recently the Ebola crisis in West Africa. On Dec. 11, during his second trip to cover the crisis, du Cille collapsed while hiking back from a small Liberian village where he was working. He died of an apparent heart attack at the age of 58.

Camille Lepage (1988-2014)

Fred Dufour—AFP/Getty ImagesCamille Lepage in Bangui on Feb. 19, 2014.

The body of French photojournalist Camille Lepage, who was 26, was discovered by French peacekeeping troops in a car being driven by Christian anti-balaka militiamen in the Bouar region of the Central African Republic on May 13. The manner of her death is still uncertain. Lepage, a deeply committed photojournalist, had been covering the escalating violence in C.A.R. for several months. “When she arrived at the end of 2013, it wasn’t covered at all. Nobody was talking about C.A.R.,” photojournalist William Daniels, who worked in the region with Lepage, told TIME. “She was very interested in these types of places where the people were completely forgotten, undercovered, and where hopefully working as a photographer could make a difference.” She had previously been based in Juba, South Sudan and had dedicated herself to photographing those she felt were marginalized and overlooked. “She has put a bit of light on what the people in South-Sudan and C.A.R. have experienced,” Lepage’s brother Adrien wrote to TIME. “If one day those two countries live in peace, we will think about her, imagining her, somewhere, with a little smile.”

David Armstrong (1954-2014)

Photographer David Armstrong lived and breathed creativity, and was known for his boundless intellect and wit. “Having breakfast with him was a hoot,” photographer Nan Goldin told TIME about her life long friend, who died on Oct. 26. “He was very funny. He showed me that a sense of humor was a way to survive.” Armstrong, along with Ms. Goldin, was a core member of the Boston School; the two met in the 1960s when they were in high school in Cambridge, Mass., and became intertwined both in life and in art. Armstrong became known for his intimate, beautifully lit portraits of young men, friends and lovers both, that carried with them added poignancy as many of his subjects succumbed to drugs and the AIDS epidemic. His use of natural light was distinctive and painterly; it seemed to articulate the heart of a man who many said was of another era. “When he focused on a new person it was as if he’d shined a bright light on them. ” Ms. Goldin said, “When he shined that light on me it brought me to life. And I watched him do that with different people all his life.”

Though he himself influenced a whole generation of photographers, Armstrong was equally influenced by and had vast knowledge of other artists, writers, poets and musicians. David loved the line at the end of the Orson Welles film Touch of Evil, the one where Marlene Dietrich said, ‘he was some kind of a man…what does it matter what you say about people,’” filmmaker James Oakley, a close friend wrote to TIME. “I think this holds true here because David was some kind of a man.” He was a voracious reader and a masterful editor of his own work. His monographs, notably The Silver Cord, where he weaves together portraits with blurred landscapes he called ‘fuzzy wuzzies’, read more like literature than photo books.

In the late 90s, Armstrong began to work in fashion, but remained devoted to his personal practice, continuing to push boundaries with his representations of gender. His work has been shown in many exhibitions including the 1995 Whitney Biennial. His final show at the Casa de Costa gallery in New York was titled The Dark Parade, taken from an Emily Dickinson poem, and featured delicate, sculptural assemblages of personal artifacts he had collected through his life, which were in some sense portraits in their own right. When asked how she thought he would like to be remembered, Ms. Goldin said, “As a gorgeous flaneur, and as an artist. In every sense of the word.”

Arthur Leipzig (1918-2014)

Early on in his education as a photographer, Arthur Leipzig eschewed the more formal, lit portrait and opted to work in the streets of New York. Leipzig, a first generation New Yorker and high school drop out, came under the tutelage of Sid Grossman and the Photo League in 1941 where he was encouraged to develop a documentary practice. His first photo essay of children at play was inspired by a Renaissance painting by Breugel the Elder titled ‘Children’s Games'; Leipzig was struck by how similar the games in the painting were to what he saw on the city streets. He went on to work for the New York evening paper PM and International News Photos, eventually becoming a freelancer and traveling widely for several publications including the Times. “Arthur had great courage as a photographer,” gallerist Howard Greenberg told TIME. “He took on work and assignments that I think, in his quiet and determined way, displayed the tenacity, focus, and concentration required to make good photographs. He wasn’t afraid to challenge himself. And that’s a great lesson in life.”

Leipzig’s work was selected by Edward Steichen for both the ‘New Faces’ (1946) and ‘Family of Man’ (1955) shows at the MoMA, and his work is part of the permanent collections of the MoMA, the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C., and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, has been exhibited in numerous solo shows, and published in several books. Liepzig died at his home in Sea Cliff, N.Y., at the age of 96 on Dec. 5.

Rebecca Lepkoff (1916-2014)

Cheryl DunnRebecca Lepkoff

Rebecca Lepkoff’s trajectory as a photographer had similar beginnings to Leipzig’s but took a very different course. Also a first generation New Yorker, Lepkoff was born to Russian immigrants in a tenement on Hester Street in the Lower East Side. She began her education as a dancer, taking classes with the famed Martha Graham. Eventually she used her earnings from performing at the 1939 New York World’s Fair to buy her first camera, a Voigtlander, and immediately took the the streets. “The thing about Rebecca that always stuck with me was that she was trained early on as a dancer,” Greenberg told TIME. “That sort of feel for rhythm and movement and timing infuses her work, in her own way. [Lepkoff’s] work is a very poetic vision of the street. It’s kinetic, it’s alive.” She found a vitality in the neighborhoods she had grown up in, from the push cart vendors, to the men and women bustling to and from work. Like Leipzig, she was also drawn to photographing children and had a special proclivity for capturing their inner lives. Lepkoff studied at the Photo League starting in 1945, and continued to work as she became a wife and mother, often staying up late to make prints after her children had fallen asleep. “She was so punk,” said photographer Cheryl Dunn, who included Lepkoff in her documentary Everybody Street. “The stories that she told me, the things that she did in the 1930s, 40s, or 50s, where she’d go to a neighborhood to shoot the streets. She seemed to defy what her generation of women did at every stage of her life, in a way.” Lepkoff’s work has been shown at and collected by several museums, and published in several books including Life on the Lower East Side: Photographs by Rebecca Lepkoff 1937-1950. She died two weeks after her 98th birthday on Aug. 17 at her home in Vermont.

Ray K. Metzker (1931-2014)

Modernist photographer Ray K. Metzker worked at the very edges of black-and-white photography, deploying the deepest blacks and brightest whites, dream-like repetition, and often constructing beautiful and bewildering composite images. Metzker studied under Harry Callahan and Aaron Siskind at Institute of Design in Chicago from 1956 to 1959, creating a series on Chicago’s city streets. The work caught the eye of Edward Steichen, the curator of photography at MoMA. Steichen bought 10 prints from Metzker, and exhibited his work at the museum that same year. Metzker began his Composites series in the mid-1960s. Though his images were often bold and graphic, the symbols and shapes in them never dissolve into themselves; rather, they unfolded for the viewer with deeper metaphysical meaning. During his career, Metzker would have more than 50 solo shows, win two Guggenheim fellowships, publish several books, and have his work in the permanent collections of more than 45 museums. He died at the age of 83 on Oct. 9 in Philadelphia.

Lucien Clergue (1934-2014)

Barbara Alper—Getty ImagesLucien Clergue in Arles, France in July 1980.

Rencontres d’Arles festival founder and photographer Lucien Clergue died at the age of 80 on Nov. 15. Clergue began his life modestly, dropping out of school to work as a clerk in the food distribution industry after the death of his mother when he was 18. She had given Clergue a camera several years earlier and as he worked, he found time to assemble a series of images of post-war ruins and animals drowned by the Rhone river. He was long an admirer of Picasso and in 1953 at the age of 19, he approached the artist outside of a bullfight in Arles, presenting him with a stack of prints. The meeting was fortuitous and over time the two became friends and collaborators. Picasso encouraged his artistic development and introduced him to Jean Cocteau, with whom he would also collaborate. Clergue photographed both artists, as well as local gypsies, but became best known for his nudes. His work would go on to be shown in many exhibitions, including one curated by Edward Steichen at MoMA, collected by several museums, and published in numerous monographs. In 1968 he co-founded the Rencontres d’Arles photography festival with writer Michel Tournier. The festival continues to this day.

Lewis Baltz (1945-2014)

“You don’t know whether they’re manufacturing pantyhose or megadeath,” Lewis Baltz wrote of his characteristically stark, monochromatic images of factories in Southern California in a 1992 exhibition catalogue. One of the most prominent members of the New Topographics movement, Baltz’s seemingly dispassionate, minimalist images of empty suburban landscapes in the 1960s and 70s blurred the line between fine art and documentary photography. Though people rarely appear in his photographs, their influence is clear; the encroachment of concrete and strip malls across the California terrain was indicative of a deeper existential crisis. Baltz created his works in repetitive series, preferring the effect of the many to the singling out of the one. In the 1980s he moved to Europe, beginning to work in color and presciently turning his focus to the creeping invasion of surveillance and technology. His work has been collected by several museums including the Guggenheim, LACMA, SF MoMA and Tate Modern, shown in numerous galleries, and published in several books. He died at the age of 69 on Nov. 22 in Paris.

Michael Schmidt (1945-2014)

German photographer Michael Schmidt became known as a master of narrative. Born on the East side of Berlin, Schmidt moved with his family to the West shortly before the wall went up. The psychological effects of the construction and later tearing down of the wall became a central theme in his work, which he rendered in shades of grey, preferring the darkest and lightest greys to true black-and-white. Schmidt would devote several years to a project, photographing prolifically and then editing meticulously. His seminal work Waffenruhe, which was published as a book and exhibited as a solo show at MoMA in New York, is an atmospheric assemblage of cold, nearly alien details from the urban landscape paired with menacing portraits of young punks in Berlin. He founded Werkstatt für Fotografie (Workshop for Photography) in 1976 which is credited with bringing some of the most influential American photographers of the day to Berlin. Shortly before his death on May 24, he was awarded the Prix Pictet for his project “Lebensmittel” (Food), an exhaustive documentation of the food industry comprised of 177 images made over a period of six years.

Alfred Wertheimer (1929-2014)

In 1956, Alfred Wertheimer‘s life changed forever as he crossed paths with 21-year-old Elvis Presley. RCA assigned Wertheimer to make publicity shots of Presley, still an unknown artist at the time. Wertheimer, a holocaust survivor who had fled with his family from Germany to Brooklyn, traveled to Memphis where he would spend around 10 days over several months photographing the young star canoodling with fans backstage, shirtless at home, traveling on trains, walking city streets alone at night, and recording ‘Hound Dog’ and ‘Don’t Be Cruel’. He captured the moment before fame rushed in, and an unguarded side of Presley that would cease to exist as manager Colonel Tom Parker gained increasing control over the singer’s career. Decades later, Wertheimer would go on to show the work at the National Portrait Gallery and Grammy museums among others, as well as to publish several books of the work. Wertheimer died at the age of 85 on Oct. 21 at his home in New York.

David Redfern (1936-2014)

Music photographer David Redfern died on Oct. 22 at the age of 78 after a career that spanned over half a century and across the globe. Born in Derbyshire, Redfern’s career began when he moved to London in the late 1950s and began photographing jazz clubs. An avid jazz fan and early adopter of color film, Redfern quickly distinguished himself and began building an oeuvre of classic images of Kenny Ball, Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, Thelonius Monk, Nina Simone, and Miles Davis. By the late 1960s he was traveling internationally covering jazz, soul and rock festivals and adding to his collection shots of The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Marvin Gaye, Jimi Hendrix, and Led Zepplin. In 1980 he became the official photographer for Frank Sinatra at the singer’s request. He later founded the Redferns Music Picture Library, an archive of the thousands of images he had made throughout his career. He sold the archive to Getty Images in 2008, maintaining the right to 1,000 of his favorite images. His work has appeared in books, on posters, on U.S. postage stamps, and most recently tacked up on a wall in the movie Whiplash.

Bunny Yeager (1929-2014)

A self-portrait of Bunny Yeager Naples, Fla., in 1960
Bunny Yeager—Courtesy of RizzoliSelf-portrait, Naples, Fla., in 1960

Bunny Yeager shot to fame as a photographer after she booked her first shoot with Bettie Page in 1954. Yeager, who herself began as a model, had Page pose in her studio hanging ornaments on a Christmas tree and wearing nothing but a Santa hat and a wink; she sold the image to Playboy for $100, catapulting herself and Page into the mainstream. Yeager went on to shoot several centerfolds for Playboy and had her work published in a slew of post-war men’s magazines, establishing herself as one of the pre-eminent pin up photographers of her time. She is credited with making the iconic image of Ursula Andress emerging from the ocean in a white bikini on the set of the 1962 James Bond film ‘Dr. No’. Her images posses a depth that was perhaps rare in her field; her subjects appear at once seductive, vulnerable, playful and exquisitely powerful. Yeager reveled in finding and creating beauty, writing at length on her process in several books. Yeager also became known for her self-portraits, shot pin-up style. In them, she appears in all different locales, sometimes blonde, sometimes brunette, always in costumes that she made herself. The work, in its quality, transcends the genre she helped popularize, and is said to have influenced Cindy Sherman’s own self-portraits. Yeager died at the age of 85 on May 25.

Don Halasy (1940-2014)

Photographer Don Halasy died on Nov. 11. Halasy worked for the New York Post for 24 years, notably capturing Gorbachev’s visit to Governor’s island in 1987, the infamous gangster John Gotti, and the 9/11 attacks where he was trapped under a pile of debris. After digging himself out of the rubble, Halasy realized his camera with shots of the first tower going down were still buried and he dug back in to salvage it. In a CBS report on the attacks, Halasy emotionally recalled his experiences that day saying, “Of course everybody’s running away from it, and I’m a press photographer, I’m running toward it.”

Tom Self (1933-2014)

Birmingham News photographer Tom Self was one of the first to arrive on the scene of the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church on Sept. 15, 1963. It was a pivotal moment in a career that would come to be defined by the civil rights movement, which Self went on to cover for the paper with a team of 11 photographers. He often wore a hard hat to document protests as tensions rose in the South. “You couldn’t shoot that stuff back here (in the distance),” Self told AL.com in 2013. “You had to be right in there with them.” He worked for the paper for 46 years, as both a senior photographer and photo editor, and mentor to many. He died at the age of 81 on Nov. 26.

Le Minh Thai (1921-2014)

APLe Minh Thai on a navy ship in South Vietnam in the 1950s.

Vietnam war photographer Le Minh Thai died at the age of 93 on Oct. 25 in Encinitas, Calif. Thai, who covered the war for AP and TIME, had strong contacts in the military and government, and became a valuable resource for foreign journalists covering the conflict. “He was the best known Vietnamese news photographer at that time, and was in demand by the small foreign press corps when they needed pictures,” former AP Vietnam correspondent Peter Arnett told TIME. In 1963, he helped TIME set up its Saigon bureau and then worked for months in 1975 to help TIME & LIFE’s staff evacuate. He eventually came to Los Angeles where he continued to work for the magazine, as well as running a side-business photographing Vietnamese refugees.

Henri Bureau (1940-2014)

Sygma co-founder Henri Bureau, known as ‘Nounours’ (Teddy) to his friends, began his career in the 1960s chronicling the luminaries of French culture and politics. Ten days after being hired by French agency Reporters Associes in 1966, he was sent to cover the war in Vietnam, launching a storied career in photojournalism. Over the next several decades he went on to cover some of the most harrowing conflicts and tragedies around the world, including the Six Day war, the Iran/Iraq war, widespread famine and cholera in Asia, and civil unrest in Northern Ireland, Portugal, and France during the May 1968 protests. He was tenacious in his coverage and brought that spirit with him when he co-founded Sygma in 1973, after working as a staff reporter at Gamma for several years. He later returned to Gamma as an editor, and then became director of Roger-Viollet from 1995 to 2005. He was the recipient of two World Press Photo awards for spot news, and published two books of his work. He died at the age of 74 on May 20.

Andy Rocchelli (1983-2014)

Italian photojournalist and Cesura Lab co-founder Andy Rocchelli died on May 25 while covering the revolution in Ukraine when a car he was traveling in with two other journalists and an interpreter near Slovyansk was hit by mortar shells. He was 33. Rocchelli had covered the Euromaidan protests in February, and was continuing his work documenting the revolution. A photo he made shortly before his death of children hiding in a bunker Slovyansk had received wide acclaim. Rocchelli had covered conflict and human rights violations in regions of the Caucasus and Kyrgyzstan, the Arab Spring in Libya, and the Libyan-Tunisian border. A book of his work titled Russian Interiors was crowdfunded and published by Cesura posthumously.

Kerim Okten (1972-2014)

TIME Magazine cover, Aug. 22, 2011
Photograph by Kerim Okten—EPA

Acclaimed EPA photographer Kerim Okten died in a motorcycle accident reportedly caused by lightning on April 10. Okten, whose work had been published in Newsweek, The New York Times, The Guardian, and on the Aug. 22, 2011 cover of TIME, began his career as a freelancer for national papers in Turkey before joining EPA in 1998. He left his position as chief photographer for EPA in Turkey to become the agency’s chief photographer in the UK in 2012, then returned to Turkey in December 2013. He was the chair of the sports category for this year’s World Press Photo.

Will Seberger (1981-2014)

Tucson photojournalist Will Seberger died unexpectedly at his home on Aug. 17 at the age of 33. Seberger was a freelancer focused on border policy, drug smuggling, local politics, and human rights. His work has been featured in the Wall Street Journal, New York Times, TIME, Newsweek, Mother Jones and Sports Illustrated.

Mia Tramz is a Multimedia Editor for TIME.com. Follow her on Twitter @miatramz.

Your browser is out of date. Please update your browser at http://update.microsoft.com