TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: September 17

1. Islamic State’s sexual violence is a war crime and U.S. leaders should call it out, seek ways to track it, and hold the terrorists to account. Instead, policymakers are ignoring it.

By Aki Peritz and Tara Maller in Foreign Policy

2. When the rich get richer, states get poorer. Income inequality is eating away at state tax revenue.

By Gabriel J. Petek at Standard and Poor’s Ratings Service

3. Does big philanthropy have too much power over policy?

By Gara LaMarche in Democracy

4. An innovative program is connecting high-performing low-income students with scholarship dollars and guiding them through the daunting financial aid process.

By David Leonhardt in the Upshot

5. Can a major redesign transform Union Station into the commercial and cultural heart of Washington?

By Steven Pearlstein in the Washington Post

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: September 16

1. America can offset China’s rising power and Russia’s influence in Asia by strengthening its relationship with India.

By Paul J. Leaf in the National Interest

2. MIT moms challenge engineers and students to pitch ways to improve breast pumps in a ‘hackathon.’

By Katie Levingston in Boston.com

3. College is disproportionately off limits to poor and minority students. Here are some critical steps to close that gap.

By Antoinette Flores at the Center for American Progress

4. State governments should stop paying off businesses to ‘create jobs.’ The tax incentives and other giveaways are a waste.

By Richard Florida in the Los Angeles Times

5. One way the NFL can address the mishandling of domestic violence by its players: paying to rebuild our nation’s depleted support system for survivors of abuse.

By Jonathan Cohn in the New Republic

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Education

Princeton Approves Revisions to Sexual Misconduct and Assault Policy

The changes will bring the institution into full compliance with Title IX

Princeton University faculty members approved recommended revisions to the university’s policies for addressing sexual misconduct and assault on Monday, the university announced.

The changes will bring the institution into full compliance with Title IX, which prohibits sex-based discrimination at schools that receive federal funding. Princeton is one of 76 institutions being investigated for possible violations of Title IX, which also has requirements about how educational institutions handle sexual assault claims.

One of the changes Princeton faculty approved shifts the burden of proof from the “clear and persuasive” standard, which mandates that three-quarters of evidence must indicate guilt, to the “preponderance of evidence” standard, which is less rigid. The Department of Education recommended the “preponderance” standard in a 2011 guide to how colleges could comply with Title IX.

Other changes include allowing rights to appeal a case afforded equally to both the alleged offender and the victim; allowing both sides to appoint advisers outside of the university; and the removal of students from adjudication panels, the Daily Princetonian reports.

Princeton’s Faculty Advisory Committee on Policy first recommended the revisions, which were drafted over the summer, earlier this month. The changes will be brought to the Council of the Princeton University Community for incorporation into Princeton’s rules on Sept 29.

MONEY Jobs

The 15 Highest-Paying Jobs That Don’t Require a College Degree

A bush plane performs take off in Alaska with Chugach Mountains in the Background.
You don't need a college degree to make this your workplace. Chris Boswell—Alamy

Not every lucrative job demands years of study. For these, a high school diploma (and some training) will do.

Conventional wisdom holds that earning a bachelor’s degree is the best path to a stable job that provides a livable income, but not every high-paying job requires a four-year college education.

In fact, 345 out of the 787 occupations listed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in their 2012 to 2022 employment projections report require only a high school diploma. In 45 of the fields, the median wage is above the national median of $51,058 a year, according to an analysis by the research engine FindTheBest.

However, while many jobs don’t demand a bachelor’s degree, a number of the best-paying ones call for additional training. Elevator installers and repairers, for example, earn a median income of $76,650 a year but have to complete an apprenticeship before entering the field full-time. Commercial pilots who handle charters, rescue operations, and aerial photography flights need a license from the Federal Aviation Administration. Nuclear power reactor operators must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

What’s more, many of the best-paid positions are growing more slowly than the average 11% growth rate for all occupations for 2012 to 2022—or even shrinking. Postal workers, for example, earn a median of $53,100 a year, but the number of mail carriers, mail sorters, and clerks is forecast to decline by 28% by 2022.

But for a handful of these professions, the outlook is healthy. That includes elevator installers and repairers, who are expected to increase their numbers by nearly 25% by 2022, and transportation inspectors and construction and building inspectors, all fields that are forecast to grow at double-digit rates.

Here are 15 professions you can enter with a high school diploma and still earn above the median U.S. income. You can use FindTheBest’s tool to sort through more jobs by projected growth, median pay, and education required.

Rank Job Category Median Annual Pay Projected Job Growth, 2012 to 2022
1 Supervisors/Managers of Police and Detectives $78,270 4.9%
2 Elevator Installers and Repairers $76,650 24.6%
3 Nuclear Power Reactor Operators $74,990 0.5%
4 Detectives and Criminal Investigators $74,300 2.0%
5 Commercial Pilots $73,280 9.4%
6 Power Distributors and Dispatchers $71,690 -0.9%
7 Supervisors/Managers of Non-Retail Sales Workers $70,060 -0.8%
8 Media and Communication Equipment Workers $68,810 -1.5%
9 Power Plant Operators $66,130 -10.8%
10 Business Operations Specialists $65,120 7.4%
11 Transportation Inspectors $63,680 11.2%
12 Electrical Power Line Installers and Repairers $63,250 8.9%
13 Subway and Streetcar Operators $62,730 6.5%
14 Petroleum, Refinery and Pump System Operators and Gaugers $61,850 -5.1%
15 Gas Plant Operators $61,140 -8.8%

 

MONEY College

21 Schools Where a Liberal Arts Degree Can Pay Off Big

140910_FF_GradsEarn100K_Carleton
Carleton College, where grads clear $118,000 on average 10 years out. Steve Skjold—Alamy

It's not just math and science programs that launch college graduates into six-figure careers, a new study finds.

Updated: Sept. 10, 2014

Good news, poets and philosophers. At nearly two dozen liberal arts colleges, graduates typically go on to earn at least $100,000 a year by the time they reach their thirties, according to a new report from the salary website PayScale.com.

At Harvey Mudd College, the top school on the list, alums earn $134,000 on average a decade out of school. To be fair, many Mudd students get degrees in math and science, but other schools in the top 10, including Carleton, Haverford and Williams, focus on the humanities.

Of course, many graduates of even the top-earning schools—especially those who choose public service jobs such as teaching—make much less. And at many of the colleges, alumni typically earn six-figure salaries only after getting a graduate degree.

But overall this new data backs up other research that has identified a long, slow—yet real—payoff to the pursuit of a liberal arts degree.

In a study published in January, the American Association of Colleges and Universities found that by their fifties, college grads who had majored in liberal arts were earning, on average, about $2,000 more per year than those who had majored in pre-professional subjects.

“It is not all gloom and doom” for liberal arts graduates, says Patrick Kelly, a co-author of the AAC&U study and a senior associate at the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

How To Improve Your Earnings Potential

Kelly and his co-author, Debra Humphreys, AAC&U’s vice president for policy and public engagement, point out that as a liberal arts student you need to do three things to improve your chances of working your way up to six figures:

1. Budget time and money for graduate study. “If you expect to have reasonably high earnings, statistically speaking, you need to go to graduate school,” Kelly says. While their research didn’t identify which graduate degrees paid off the most, Kelly notes that many high-earning liberal arts majors work in the legal profession, in finance, or in business.

2. Work and intern during college. “You have to demonstrate workforce readiness to employers through means other than your schoolwork,” says Humphreys. That could include job experience, on-the-job training, or a technical certificate.

3. Spend a few years working and exploring before picking a grad program. “Don’t go to graduate school right away,” says Humphreys. “You might borrow $200,000 to go to law school and discover you hate being a lawyer.” Know what you want to do, and make sure that there are jobs in that field, before you spend time and money on more coursework.

The Liberal Arts Leaders

This new earnings report is based on surveys filled out on PayScale.com by some 1.4 million Americans over the past two years. It reflects the self-reported earnings of college graduates with at least 10 years of work experience.

The 21 liberal arts colleges below that offer the best shot at a six-figure income tend to have tough admissions standards. The easiest one to get into is Whitman College in Washington State, which accepts half of applicants. The most selective is Pomona College in California, which accepts just over one in ten.

Other elite liberal colleges that didn’t make the list because too few grads filled out PayScale surveys over the past two years, including Amherst, Bowdoin, and Earlham, likely have high-earning alums as well. In Money’s rankings of the best liberal arts colleges, based on earnings data collected by PayScale in the past three years, those colleges produce high earners. What’s more, in our rankings, we only considered the early- and mid-career earnings of those with bachelors’ degrees, not students who had gone on to graduate school.

College State Avg. earnings with a B.A. only and 10 years of work experience Avg. earnings with a graduate degree and 10 years of work experience Acceptance rate Money Value Rank
Harvey Mudd College Calif. $134,000 $138,000 19% 8
Colgate University N.Y. $127,000 $122,000 29% 28
Washington and Lee University Va. $124,000 $134,000 19% 40
Carleton College Minn. $118,000 $112,000 26% 80
Haverford College Penn. $115,000 N.A. 23% 123
Virginia Military Institute Va. $115,000 $116,000 46% 19
Williams College Mass. $111,000 $114,000 17% 15
Swarthmore College Penn. $109,000 N.A. 14% 33
Kenyon College Ohio $103,000 $108,000 36% 95
Lafayette College Penn. $103,000 $103,000 34% 29
Occidental College Calif. $102,000 $103,000 39% 286
Bucknell University Penn. $102,000 $106,000 27% 46
Union College N.Y. $101,000 $114,000 38% 167
Gettysburg College Penn. $100,000 $101,000 40% 139
College of the Holy Cross Mass. $100,000 $104,000 34% 102
Whitman College Wash. $98,000 $111,000 49% 215
Franklin & Marshall College Penn. $98,000 $110,000 39% 249
Pomona College Calif. $92,000 $107,000 13% 51
Wesleyan University Conn. $91,000 $100,000 24% 170
Davidson College N.C. $90,000 $100,000 25% 73
Skidmore College N.Y. $90,000 $100,000 42% 28
TIME

The College Transition: How to Parent When Your Child Leaves Home

College move-in
Chloe Bradley, left front, and Logan Laney, right front, help Tori Bradley, middle front, move into campus housing on Aug. 14, 2014, at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in Chattanooga, Tenn. Angela Lewis Foster—AP

There has never been a more emotionally challenging time to be a college student in the United States, especially for freshmen.

College is supposed to be the best four years of a child’s life, a time with few responsibilities and maybe mom and dad footing the bill. All your kid has to do is learn and maybe hit a party or two, right?

Not exactly. Every year at the college orientation programs I run in New England, I watch parents idealize an experience that is actually filled with huge anxiety and change for teenagers on the brink of adulthood. If you want to parent effectively through the transition, take some time to understand what your child’s life is really like at school.

Launching a kid into college is about more than having the money to pay for it. Parents invest so much of their time and identities in the process that it can feel like a part time job. For many parents, the college your child ends up attending becomes a parenting grade. It’s far from easy to hear that your child is depressed, unhappy or failing, especially when many have sacrificed so much to get their kids across the finish line. Ask almost any adult, and most will say college sure beats working.

But that attitude ignores the fact that there has never been a more emotionally challenging time to be a college student in the United States, especially for freshmen. Nearly half of all college students reported feeling hopeless at least once over the past year, according to the 2013 National College Health Assessment. In 2010, a study by the University of California at Los Angeles found the highest-ever recorded levels of stress among first year students, especially women.

I run skills-building programs focused on healthy risk taking, failure resilience, and self-care for undergraduates around the country. Like any life change, college is filled with anxiety, insecurity, social misfires and the occasional crying in one’s bed at night (I wouldn’t personally know anything about that).

In a much talked about new book, Excellent Sheep, former Yale professor William Deresiewicz calls foul on a system that turns its most elite students into robotic, failure-avoidant machines, hell-bent on success but disconnected from a genuine desire to learn or contribute. “Look beneath the façade of seamless well-adjustment,” he writes, “and what you often find are toxic levels of fear, anxiety, and depression, of emptiness and aimlessness and isolation.” He calls for a wholesale change in how we educate young adults: more service learning and character building, less resume stuffing and wealth obsession.

If your child is the first in your family to go to college – there are about 4.5 million of them starting at universities each year — they are less likely to be academically prepared, understand the financial obligations involved or even graduate. If your child comes from the bottom quarter of income distribution, college is a place where she’s in the extreme minority: In a survey of the top 100 schools, Deresiewicz reports, only 3 percent of undergraduates came from families in the bottom quarter of the income distribution, while 75 percent were from the top quarter.

Besides, the right school still might not make a child happy and, according to new research, students aren’t even learning very much anyway. Last week, authors Richard Arum and Josipa Roska released an update of their shocking book, Academically Adrift, in which they revealed many students had “limited or no learning at school.” In a new follow-up study, the researchers found the now graduated students unable to settle on careers because of a lack of critical thinking skills.

We hate seeing our kids in pain. But trying to fast forward through a child’s struggle can have the opposite effect. “Pain and struggle build muscle,” says Julie Mencher, a psychotherapist in Northampton, MA who consults with colleges on mental health issues. “They are part of the college process. You wouldn’t want them to sail through. They won’t be prepared for life.”

Remember when they were learning to walk? They would face plant, then look right at you. If you freaked, their faces crumpled. If you said, “Oopsie, you fell! You’re okay,” and helped them up, they toddled right on. All these years later, little has changed. The right mix of empathy and optimism will teach your children how to respond to their new experiences away from home. “You have to model the ability to cope with feelings,” Mencher says. “Your reaction will influence theirs.”

Taking full advantage of all that college offers can be tough for teens facing a major life transition under pressure to perform. Perhaps we should all lower our expectations and let kids find their way. You can give them the opportunity to thrive, but when it comes to finding happiness or success, kids are really on their own. The good news is that an adolescent’s emotional roller coaster comes with one plum benefit: feelings pass and shift quickly. Last night’s despondent text can turn into tomorrow morning’s happy hello. Kids also reserve their foulest feelings for parents and most college students don’t want to get pegged a downer by their new friends. That leaves you as the receptacle for their anger and frustration.

If your kid seems happy, godspeed. But just because she rocked college last year doesn’t mean she won’t minor in heartbreak or identity crisis next semester. Be prepared. Look your kids’ struggles in the eye, and don’t blink. They’ll thank you for it – and text you more often.

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: September 5

1. Our nation’s racial divide starts early: America’s public schools are still highly segregated.

By Reed Jordan at the Urban Institute

2. The Pentagon is getting bad advice about responsibly managing its budget and our national defense.

By Nora Bensahel in Defense One

3. “We need to step up our game to make sure that Putin’s rules do not govern the 21st century.”

By Madeleine Albright in Foreign Policy

4. Over a lifetime, and despite the high cost of tuition, a college education is still a great deal.

By Jaison R. Abel and Richard Deitz at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York

5. Reality television – MTV’s “Teen Mom” and “16 and Pregnant” – triggered a plunge in the teen birthrate.

By Phil Schneider in the Aspen Journal of Ideas

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

MONEY Kids and Money

3 Ways to Make Sure a Costly College Degree Pays Off

Graduation cap on sidewalk with change in it
Brother, can you spare a better college experience? Paul Hudson—Getty Images

A new study finds a widespread "failure to launch" among millennials fresh out of school. How to make those four years count.

Two years after graduating from college, a significant portion of the class of 2009 was economically and professionally “adrift,” according to a new book by two well-respected educational researchers. And while these young adults had the bad luck to graduate during the Great Recession, how they spent their college years was a large part of the problem too.

Two-thirds of the roughly 1,000 members of the class of 2009 in the study were in the job market in 2011 (about 30% were in graduate school), and almost 40% of that group were unemployed, underemployed, or earning less than $20,000 a year, reports the newly released Aspiring Adults Adrift, by Richard Arum, a New York University sociologist, and Josipa Roksa, associate director of the University of Virginia’s Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.

Many “are not making the transition to adulthood,” Arum says, noting that two years after graduation, 75% of the group were receiving some sort of financial assistance from their parents, with about a quarter living at home. Many weren’t engaged as citizens—more than two-thirds, for instance, said they didn’t bother reading about current affairs.

Low Expectations

Parents, colleges, and the students themselves share the blame for this “failure to launch,” Arum says, but, he adds, “We think it is very important not to disparage a generation. These students have been taught and internalized misconceptions about what it takes to be successful.”

One example, says Arum: “They have learned through their interactions with educational institutions that it is possible to succeed with minimal effort.” In their study, students who studied alone less than an hour a day still managed to earn an above-average GPA of 3.2.

Another problem, says Roksa, is that many colleges have shifted their emphasis from tough classes to social life and amenities because that is what attracts more students and tuition dollars.

Colleges applicants respond more positively to improved dorms and gyms than descriptions of demanding classes. Plus, add Roksa, schools are increasingly hiring non-tenured professors and keeping them based at least in part on student enrollment and reviews. Research shows that students tend to give better reviews to classes taught by easy graders.

What Goes Wrong at College

The college experience has left these millennials ill-equipped to find good jobs for three reasons, the researchers say.

  • Not enough learning. In their groundbreaking 2010 book Academically Adrift, Arum and Roksa reported that 45% of their study group exhibited no gain in critical thinking in the first two years of college, generally because they took undemanding classes and spent little time studying alone. In this follow-up study, the authors found that the students who failed to develop higher-level thinking skills were twice as likely to have lost a job between 2010 and 2011 than were those who scored well on such tests as seniors.
  • Majors that are not valued by employers. As other studies have concluded, engineers had high employment and earnings rates. Business majors were more likely to land jobs as well. But those who majored in social sciences, humanities, social work, or communications had comparatively high unemployment rates, ranging from 7% to 9%.
  • Undemanding colleges. Students who applied themselves and chose an in-demand major were more likely to prosper no matter what college they attended, say Arum and Roksa. But when all other characteristics were held constant, college choice explained about 24% of the variation in student learning gains. Generally, students who attended more selective colleges did better—perhaps because classes were more demanding. Graduates of less-selective colleges were almost twice as likely to work in low-skill jobs.

How to Do Better

Students are unlikely to make spontaneous changes. Many of the undergraduates studied expressed the belief that social skills would win them good jobs. And many who spent their undergrad years socializing and coasting through easy classes were satisfied with their college experience.

Arum and Roksa note that parents may not realize how much leverage they have to push colleges and students for more academic rigor and a focus on skills valued by the job market. Here’s how to make that effort.

1. Talk turkey. Arum, who has two kids in college, says that parents need to show their children the relationship between discipline, learning, and success later in life from an early age. And keep the message going. “I don’t want to advocate increased helicopter parenting, but we need to orient our children so that they understand that college is a time when one needs to invest in rigorous academic coursework,” he says. “The social aspects of college should complement the academic core.”

2. Demand evidence: When a high school senior is shopping for colleges, remember that a “tour is a marketing exercise by the college,” Roksa says. Ignore the hype and press admissions officers and other officials for evidence of their school’s academic rigor. Ask what percentage of classes require at least 40 pages of reading a week and at least 20 pages of writing a semester, and how much time the average student spends studying alone, all of which this research showed led to greater learning.

Among the evidence she suggests you ask for: student scores on tests of critical thinking such as the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or responses to questions about class assignments on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Many schools collect such data but don’t like to release it to parents or the public.

3. Emphasize career planning: More than 40% of the group found full-time jobs through their college’s career services office, or from an internship, volunteer work, or another previous job. Arum and Roksa discovered that the jobs students got through their college career office tended to be better than those secured through personal connections. So parents should push schools to improve their career services, as well as urge their kids to take full advantage of internships, practice interviews, and other services. To find out which colleges launch students into the best-paying jobs, check out Money’s best college rankings, including this list of the 25 schools that add the most value.

TIME Supreme Court

Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor to Receive Hepburn Medal

Supreme Court Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor in Washington on April 2, 2012.
Supreme Court Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor in Washington on April 2, 2012. Cliff Owen—AP

Justice Sotomayor has been named the 2015 recipient of the Katharine Hepburn Medal awarded by Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr College will present Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor with the 2015 Katharine Hepburn Medal in 2015, the school announced Tuesday. The award is presented annually to women who “change their worlds,” according to a release on Bryn Mawr’s website.

Winners are selected based on their commitment to both civic engagement and the arts, which were passions of the medal’s namesake. The late Hepburn is recognized as an early feminist who acted in dozens of films and received four Oscars for her work.

“As the first Hispanic and third female Supreme Court justice, Justice Sotomayor is truly a trailblazer,” said Bryn Mawr President Kim Cassidy in a release. “Her twenty-year commitment to the federal judiciary reveals her unwavering commitment both to public service and the importance of the legal system in our society and exemplifies the attributes deserving of the Hepburn Medal.”

The award will be presented during a ceremony in April.

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