TIME Research

What Kids’ Drawings Say About Their Intelligence

Here are examples of children's drawings. Scores are from left to right: Top: 6,10,6; Bottom: 6,10,7. Twins Early Development Study, King's College London

The number of features a child draws into their sketch of a person may say a little something about their intelligence

A large and long-term new study shows the way a 4-year-old draws a person not only says something about their level of intelligence as a toddler but is also predictive of their intelligence 10 years down the line.

A team of researchers at King’s College London had 7,752 pairs of identical and non-identical 4-year-old twins draw a picture of a child. Every sketch was rated on a scale from 0 to 12 based on the presence of features, like legs, arms, and facial features. The kids also underwent verbal and nonverbal intelligence measurement tests.

When the kids turned 14, the researchers once again tested their intelligence. They found that a higher score on their drawing was moderately associated with the child’s intelligence both at age four and at age 14. The researchers expected to see a connection at age 4, but for the results to have consistency a decade later was surprising.

The researchers also found that the drawings of identical twins were more similar than the drawings of non-identical twins, suggesting that a genetic link was involved in drawing, though its exact mechanism was unknown. For instance the kids could be predisposed (or trained) to pay attention to detail well or hold their pencil in a specific way, the researchers say.

“The correlation is moderate, so our findings are interesting but it does not mean that parents should worry if their child draws badly,” said study author Dr. Rosalind Arden, the lead author of the paper in a statement. “Drawing ability does not determine intelligence, there are countless factors, both genetic and environmental, which affect intelligence in later life.”

The study was published Tuesday in the journal Psychological Science.

MONEY Google

‘Google for Kids’ Is Coming

Child using Google on iPad2
Alex Segre—Alamy

Reports indicate Google is planning to roll out a suite of services specifically targeting young users.

Google is working on versions of its services, such as YouTube and Gmail, that are specifically outfitted for children.

Currently, Google services are technically only meant for persons over the age of 13 years. Users attempting to create a new Google account are asked to enter their birthday, in addition to other information like username and password. Those under the age limit are directed to a page explaining Google’s policy and linking to the Federal Trade Commission’s web page on child privacy.

According to the Wall Street Journal, Google’s new child-approved services will allow parents to control how their children interact with Google’s products and what information the search giant collects from their child’s activity. The Information previously reported that a version of YouTube featuring beefed up parental controls was in development.

Google currently limits its services to an older age group because the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) requires parental consent before a child’s data can be collected, and restricts how that data can be used and stored. While web sites are not liable if underage users lie about their age, a person familiar with Google’s plans told the Journal that demand from parents who want to create accounts for their children and a desire to remain in compliance with COPPA spurred the company to act.

Another reason for kid-centric services could be a desire by Google to break into the lucrative education market. The company’s Chromebooks are low-cost laptops that might be attractive to schools, but the products are entirely based around Google services. A child-suite of Google apps might make Chromebooks a viable alternative to the iPad among educators interested in introducing technology into the classroom.

Some privacy advocates are not particularly thrilled by the prospect of more children making Google accounts. Jeff Chester, executive director for the Center for Digital Democracy, told the Journal the new services could threaten the privacy of millions of children, and that his organization had already shared its concerns with the Federal Trade Commission.

MONEY Education

How Sending Your Child to Private School Can Save You $53,000

GOSSIP GIRL, Chase Crawford (left)
Giovanni Rufino—CW Network courtesy Everett Collection

Public school can end up being much more expensive than private school depending on where you choose to live.

UPDATED—8:15 A.M.

For most Americans, private school seems like an unaffordable luxury, or an unnecessary extravagance, depending on your point of view. One thing everyone agrees on, though, is that private school is expensive—especially compared with the competition. After all, public education doesn’t cost anything, and you can’t compete with free, right?

The problem with that logic is that public school actually isn’t free. In what might be one of America’s most regressive policies, the government divides the country into school districts, each supported by a local tax base. That means school funding and quality varies drastically depending on where you live, and homes in top school districts tend to be eye-poppingly expensive.

According to a recent Trulia report, houses in districts where even rich families send their children to public school—suggesting the quality of education is especially high—can cost more than twice the national average per square foot. That means in certain cases, private school can actually be a bargain.

To answer the question of how much going to private school could potentially save, we need the help of two fictional families: the Publicos and the Privados. The Publicos want to give their child the best public education they can, so they move to a neighborhood with one of the nation’s top public schools. The Privados prefer private education, so they move to a neighborhood with average schools (and median home prices) and send their child to prep school.

To figure out how much the Publicos will spend, we’ll use Trulia’s Rent vs. Buy calculator* to see how much living in an average-size house in a top school district for 13 years (kindergarten through 12th grade) would cost. A median-priced house in Auburndale, Massachusetts—which Trulia lists as having some of the best public schools—will end up costing the Publicos about $2,120 a month.

In comparison, we’ll say the Privados live in an average school district and buy a home that will cost the national median of roughly $998 a month over the same time period. On top of that, the Privados pay for their child’s private school. According to data from the Nation Center for Education Statistics, the average price of a year of private elementary school is $7,770, and the average annual cost of private high school is $13,030.

By multiplying the cost of elementary school by nine (grades K-8) and adding it to the cost of a four-year high school, we get an average total cost of educating a child privately of $122,050, or $782 a month. Add that to the Privados’ housing bills, and they’re up to $1,780 a month—still a few hundred dollars less than the Publicos’ monthly costs.

Over time, these savings add up. By the time the Publicos’ child graduates high school, they will have paid $52,982 more than the Privados for education and housing. Meanwhile, if the Privados stashed away those savings in a 529 college account, they’ll have a lot of extra money to help pay for their son’s or daughter’s university.

SchoolSpendingChart

Does this mean private school is always a better option for parents? Not at all. The above calculations compare one of the most expensive public school districts in the nation with the average cost of private school. The most elite prep schools can cost upwards of $40,000 a year, while some areas with great public schools are far more affordable than Auburndale.

There are also a number of factors to consider that this calculation doesn’t take into account. While private schools cost $9,388 a year in general, religious schools are a little cheaper, and secular schools are much more expensive. There’s also regional considerations, like commute times, employment opportunities, crime rate, and other neighborhood perks that we don’t have time to explore in detail.

One final thing to consider is how many children you plan on sending to school. If both the Publicos and Privados send two children to school instead of one, the Publicos actually save almost $70,000. Although, if the Privados send two kids to public elementary school and then transfer both children to a private high school, they’re back in the black, saving almost $71,000.

So with that in mind, what’s the takeaway from all this? Instead of automatically selecting public or private school for your child, make sure to give both options serious consideration. Sometimes—likely most of the time—public school will be cheaper. In other cases, a good private education may actually cost less. Either way, taking the time to get the decision right can save you thousands of dollars.

 

 

* Other than the “How long would you live there?” field, which we set to 13, and the region, our calculations are based on the calculator’s default settings.

TIME Family

Mom Says She Was Booted For Changing Diaper at Restaurant Table

Baby in nappy on changing mat.
Baby in nappy on changing mat. Lisa Stirling—Getty Images

A debate over parenting manners breaks out in a Texas pizzeria

A Texas mom told a local news station that her dinner out came to an abrupt end when she changed her baby’s diaper on a chair in the dining area of a restaurant.

Miranda Sowers says she was alone at Brother’s Pizza Express in Spring, Texas with her three children, ages 8, 4, and 4 months, when she realized her youngest needed a diaper change. But, Sowers says, the restroom didn’t have a changing table and she didn’t want to herd all of her kids out to the car, so she did what she had to do.

“I thought you know what I’ve got my own changing pad, she’s tiny, she fits right here on the chair.” she told KHOU, a Houston TV station. “So I laid her down quickly and quietly changed her diaper.”

While Sowers saw this is an inoffensive act of convenience, claiming that no one saw her do it, restaurant employees and patrons had a different take.

“As soon as you start opening the diaper, people start complaining about the smell of the diaper,” manager Donny Lala told KHOU. “Last thing I want is a customer throwing up.”

Comments on the story from KHOU readers were mainly against table-side diaper changing. Many self-described parents deemed Sowers inconsiderate: “Gross! I would have used the changing pad on the bathroom floor or gone to my car. Why do people feel so entitled?” wrote one reader.” Others urged the restaurant to install changing tables.

According to KHOU, the incident prompted the restaurant to bring the Sowers’ their food in t0-go containers and they were asked to leave. Sowers has since filed a complaint with the Better Business Bureau. Brother’s Pizza Express hasn’t backed down, but it might consider installing changing tables in the bathrooms. Brother’s Pizza Express did not respond immediately to calls for comment about the incident or the reported lack of changing tables in their restroom.

TIME Family

When Couples Fight, It Affects Fathers More

Markus Haefke—Getty Images

Husbands and fathers, take note

Men, it is frequently said, are very good at compartmentalizing—usually when they’ve done something wrong. But new research suggests women can compartmentalize too, especially around family.

A study published in the Journal of Family Psychology looked at the effect marital squabbling had on parents’ relationships with kids. The researchers found, not surprisingly, that when a couple fights, that spills over to the relationship each parent has with his or her offspring. But, interestingly, this effect does not last very long for moms.

By the next day, most mother-child relationships were back on an even keel, while the fathers still reported things were tense. “In fact, in that situation, moms appeared to compensate for their marital tension,” said the study’s lead author, assistant psychology professor at Southern Methodist University Chrystyna D. Kouros. “Poor marital quality actually predicted an improvement in the relationship between the mom and the child.”

Are the moms compensating for their lousy relationship with dad by looking for human bonds elsewhere? Are they making a pre-emptive strike, even subconsciously, in case there’s a custody battle? Do they not care so much about fights with their spouses? Or do they just need someone to talk to? Kouros says it’s not clear why the women are more able to isolate the relationship with their kids from the tension they feel toward their spouse, but there are several theories.

It could be that because women’s parenting role is more clearly defined, they don’t allow their marital woes to negatively affect other relationships in the family. Or it could be that the women are compensating and seeking support from their kids that they would normally get from their husband. “If the first theory is true, then the fact that moms don’t show the same “spillover” between their marital relationship and relationship with their child is a good thing, ” says Kouros. “However, if the second theory is true, then leaning on your child for support is not a good thing for the long-term.” In psychology this is called “parentification,” and has been linked to depression and other mental health problems in kids.

The data was gathered by asking more than 200 families to make daily diary entries for about two weeks, in which they rated how the marriage was going and how the relationship with their kids was going at the end of each day. It’s possible that what was causing the marital tension and the grumpiness with the kids was something that only affected the fathers. A bad day for a guy at work, for example, might be the source of stress in all his relationships. Kouros admits this third variable is possible, but says the study has some specific data that suggests that’s not always the cause.

“The findings of our study show that it’s men who have marital tension and their wife shows symptoms of depression that are the ones that carry over that marital tension to their relationship with their child on the next day, whereas all men appear to do this on the same day,” she says. “This is consistent with some other studies showing that when men have marital stress and some other stress, like work stress, that’s when they are more likely to compromise their relationship with their child.” The wife’s depression points to the marital tension as being the source of the man’s inability to communicate effectively with his kids.

In other words, if you have to fight with your spouse, keep it quick and fair. For the children.

MONEY Kim Kardashian

How to Keep the Kids From Giving the Kardashians Your Kash

Kim Kardashian
Dominique Charriau/WireImage—Getty

Kim Kardashian is in the news again, and (surprise!) not because she did something good for society. The reality show starlet recently released an iPhone game, Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, and now one parent is revolting after learning the app “tricked” her child into spending over $100 on in-app purchases in just two days.

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When Ayelet Waldman, the bestselling author of Bad Mother and wife of novelist Michael Chabon, checked her son’s iTunes account she found that he had spent $120 on the Kardashians’ product — even though she and her husband thought they had adjusted their account settings to prevent such purchases.

The game, which markets itself as free, incentivizes players to buy in-game currency (called “koins”) in order to advance in the story. The game allows users to spend anywhere from $4.99 to $99.99 in a single transaction depending on how many koins they want to buy, and these sales are reportedly making Kim $700,000 a day. It’s such a clear money-grab that Stephen Colbert spoofed the app on an episode of the Colbert Report.

Kim Kardashian Hollywood
Glu Games

Luckily for Waldman, Apple ended up refunding her child’s purchases (and he’s learned to hate the Kardashians, so that’s a plus), but parents can’t depend on companies coming to the rescue when young users are fooled into handing their parents’ money over to game makers. Here’s how to secure your device and avoid unexpected bills.

1. Turn off in-app purchases entirely. It’s the simplest and most effective way to stop micro-transaction hungry apps in their tracks. On Apple products, go to the settings app and tap “enable restrictions.” That will let you disable your kid’s ability to install apps, delete apps or make in-app purchases. On Kindle Fire, just go to settings for the Amazon Appstore and turn off “in-app purchasing.”

You can also get rid of in-app purchases and other online dangers by turning off the internet entirely. To do this on Apple products, go to settings and flip the airplane mode switch. On Fire, you can do the same thing in “Quick Settings” under “Wireless & Networks.” But remember, this won’t prevent your child from making purchases if you let them back online.

2. Set up a password for in-app purchases. Setting an in-app purchasing password will let your children still be able to use in-app purchases—but only with your approval. On Apple tech, it’s as easy as going back to the “enable restrictions” setting. On Kindle Fire, it’s not quite so simple. You can use the “Parental Controls” section of settings to set a password, but the FTC says that each new purchase creates a window of time (15 minutes to an hour) when anyone using the device can continue making in-app purchases.

3. Avoid “free” apps that aren’t so free. There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and at least on smartphones, there’s increasingly no such thing as a truly free game either. According to a FTC survey from 2012, about 84% of the apps that let kids make in-app purchases were advertised as “free.” These games often require purchases to make the game more fun or decrease the difficulty to more manageable levels. It’s often cheaper to pay a couple bucks up front for a good game than risk paying more over time with an ostensibly free product.

Did your kid run up a huge bill on a mobile device? How did they do it? Did you get a refund? Do you have any advice for other parents?

MONEY wants to hear your story. Fill out the confidential form below. We won’t use your information unless we speak with you first.

TIME Funny

2 Tiny Knights Have Their First Fight (And It’s Adorable)

This isn't Sparta

Two knights-errant face off in the quickly fading sunlight; the crowd jeers, their bodies forming a makeshift arena. Who will live to see their next juicebox?

 

TIME Innovation

Five Best Ideas of the Day: August 1

1. The current state of global chaos might spell the end of America as the ‘indispensable nation.’

By Doyle McManus in the Los Angeles Times

2. There is no crisis of young adults returning home after college.

By Amy August in the Society Pages

3. Overprotecting kids at play hinders their development, and parents should “lighten up.”

By Andrea Gordon in the Toronto Star

4. The great stagnation: America is far less entrepreneurial than it was a decade ago; and that decline in innovation threatens our economic recovery.

By Richard Florida in Citylab

5. Businesses can upend poverty with rapid innovation and unconventional thinking.

By Bill Bynum in the Huffington Post

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Parenting

If Cars Can Monitor Left-On Headlights and Rear Obstructions, They Should Be Able To Save Trapped Kids’ Lives

Today, technology saves your car battery—tomorrow, it could save your child

Thursday is National Heatstroke Prevention Day, so here is a little fact for your awareness: In the past 20 years more than 670 U.S. children have died of heatstroke in hot cars. To date this year KidsAndCars.org has recorded 18 such fatalities, including the death last week of a 10-month-old girl in Wichita, Kansas, who was unknowingly left in a vehicle on a 90-degree day.

Our national advocacy nonprofit works year-round to educate parents and caregivers about these dangers, including a nationwide “Look before you lock” program. But education is not enough when all it takes is a simple change in a daily routine to cause a parent to drive past their childcare center and forget their child in the back seat. Current state laws require putting your baby in a rear-facing child safety seat, which has saved the lives of thousands of children in car crashes. An unintended consequence of this shift is that when out of sight, quiet little unobtrusive passengers can slip out of mind.

How can we prevent this failure of memory? The auto industry obviously recognizes that we’re human and our memories often fail us: our cars are able to warn us if we leave our headlights on, our keys are in the ignition, a door is open, we’re low on fuel, if our seatbelt isn’t buckled… If we can monitor our headlights or gas levels, we should be able to get a signal that a child has been forgotten.

Some of the technology options currently on the market include car seat monitors and alert systems, key fobs connected to car seats that sound a reminder and weight-sensitive mats. One system activates when the driver has opened the back door to strap in the car seat, and then sounds a reminder chime when the driver leaves the vehicle. Mobile apps have hit the market, such as Cars-n-Kids Carseat Monitor, which connects with the carseat via a sensor, or the Amber Alert GPS, which tracks your child in or out of the car.

These after-market systems may be useful reminders to some people, but they have not all been tested, and they are not the failsafe solution we need in every vehicle. Furthermore, a 2012 study on “Evaluation of Reminder Technology” sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and conducted by the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia found that a few of these systems were not always reliable.

Safety is something every family deserves. It shouldn’t be optional, like 4WD or leather seats. And it shouldn’t be political. The federal government and automakers along with safety advocates have the ability to solve this problem.

KidsAndCars.org recently launched a petition to push the Obama Administration to authorize the U.S. Department of Transportation to provide funding for research and development of innovative technologies to detect a child left alone in the rear seat of a vehicle, such as infrared breathing sensors (a technology that already exists in certain baby monitors for the home). We also spearheaded an initiative to adopt federal safety standards that require all vehicles to be equipped with trunk release latches to prevent trunk entrapment, safer power window switches to prevent strangulation, and brake transmission shift interlock systems so children cannot inadvertently knock a vehicle into gear. In March, the DOT issued a rule requiring rear visibility systems, such as cameras, as standard equipment on all new passenger vehicles by May 2018.

Today, technology saves your car battery. Tomorrow, it could save your child.

Susan Pepperdine is the public relations director of KidsAndCars.org, a national nonprofit group dedicated to preventing injuries and deaths of children in and around motor vehicles.

TIME Immigration

Migrant Girls Share Haunting Stories About Why They Fled

Central American Female Immigrants
Central American immigrants await transportation to a U.S. Border Patrol processing center on July 24, 2014 near Mission, Texas. John Moore—Getty Images

A recent UN report gives haunting accounts from some of the girls who fled

The number of young girls captured at the US-Mexico border has increased by 77 percent this year, according to Pew Research Center analysis released Friday.

The number of girls under the age of 18 apprehended at the border this fiscal year was 13,008 compared to last year’s 7,339, according to Pew. The number of boys under 18 apprehended is still much higher at 33,924, but that represents only an 8% increase from 2013.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees released a report earlier this year that included haunting accounts from some of the young girls apprehended, in an analysis of 404 children from Mexico and Central America who had been detained at the border.

“The head of the gang that controlled her neighborhood wanted Josefina to be his girlfriend and threatened to kidnap her or to kill one of her family members if she didn’t comply,” the report writes, of one 16-year-old from El Salvador. “Josefina knew another girl from her community who had become the girlfriend of a gang member and had been forced to have sex with all the gang members.”

Two-thirds of the children from El Salvador, both male and female, reported threats of violence from organized crime as one reason for fleeing. “One of [the gang members] ‘liked’ me. Another gang member told my uncle that he should get me out of there because the guy who liked me was going to do me harm,” said 15-year-old Maritza. “In El Salvador they take young girls, rape them and throw them in plastic bags. My uncle told me it wasn’t safe for me to stay there.”

Other girls reported domestic violence as a reason for leaving. Lucia, a 16-year-old from Guatemala, escaped her abusive grandmother’s home only to move in with an abusive boyfriend. “He beat me almost every day,” Lucia said. “I stayed with him for four months. I left because he tried to kill me by strangling me. I left that same day.”

The increasing numbers of children from Mexico and Central America seeking refuge in the United States has prompted a legislative battle in Washington. It remains unresolved.

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