TIME Innovation

Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking Join Call for Ban on Artificially Intelligent Weapons

"It will only be a matter of time until they appear on the black market and in the hands of terrorists"

Physicist Stephen Hawking and Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk have joined scores of artificial intelligence and robotics experts calling for a ban on “offensive autonomous weapons” in an open letter published Monday.

“AI technology has reached a point where the deployment of such systems is–practically if not legally–feasible within years, not decades, and the stakes are high,” reads the letter, which the Guardian reports will be presented Wednesday at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Buenos Aires. “Autonomous weapons have been described as the third revolution in warfare, after gunpowder and nuclear arms.”

The letter distinguishes AI weapons, which can select and attack targets without human orders, from drones and cruise missiles whose targets are selected by humans. The letter also says that while artificial intelligence can make war zones safer for members of the military, weapons that can operate without human control would kick off “a global AI arms race.”

“It will only be a matter of time until they appear on the black market and in the hands of terrorists, dictators,” and other bad actors, the signatories warn. “There are many ways in which AI can make battlefields safer for humans, especially civilians, without creating new tools for killing people.”

Other signees include Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak as well as DeepMind founder and Google executive Demis Hassabis.

TIME Elon Musk

Elon Musk Joins The Call For a Ban On Autonomous Weapons

Official Opening  Of The Geneva Motor Show
Bloomberg—Bloomberg via Getty Images Tesla’s Elon Musk.

Tesla and SpaceX CEO adds his name to an open letter voicing concern over artificial intelligence in weaponry

Elon Musk has joined a long list of high-profile tech leaders and scientists calling for a ban of autonomous weapons created with artificial intelligence technology.

Musk’s is one of many names affixed to an open letter released Monday by the Future of Life Institute (FLI), a Boston-based research organization cofounded by Skype cofounder Jaan Tallinn. The letter addresses the possible future of autonomous weapons, including “armed quadcopters” that rely on artificial intelligence to seek and destroy certain targets without direction from humans (as opposed to existing technologies such as armed drones that are remotely controlled by humans). FLI warns that such AI-controlled weaponry could be in use “within years, not decades” and that they represent “the third revolution in warfare, after gunpowder and nuclear arms.”

In addition to Musk, Stephen Hawking and Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak also signed their names to the open letter, along with dozens of other scientists and tech industry representatives. While AI technology has the potential to do a lot of good for the human race, the letter reads, it could easily lead to “a global arms race” if that technology is applied to advanced autonomous weaponry. As an example of a potential autonomous weapon, the letter imagines “armed quadcopters that can search for and eliminate people meeting certain pre-defined criteria.”

The letter goes on:

“Unlike nuclear weapons, they require no costly or hard-to-obtain raw materials, so they will become ubiquitous and cheap for all significant military powers to mass-produce. It will only be a matter of time until they appear on the black market and in the hands of terrorists, dictators wishing to better control their populace, warlords wishing to perpetrate ethnic cleansing, etc. . . . We therefore believe that a military AI arms race would not be beneficial for humanity. There are many ways in which AI can make battlefields safer for humans, especially civilians, without creating new tools for killing people.”

The CEO of electric car company Tesla Motors, Musk is no stranger to artificial intelligence, having donated millions of dollars to the cause of safe AI technology. Musk’s other projects include his role as CEO of commercial aerospace company SpaceX, which makes unmanned rocket ships.

TIME hitchBOT

Hitchhiking Robot Embarks on a Coast-to-Coast Tour

Hitchhiking Robot
Stephan Savoia—AP Co-creator David Harris Smith carries hitchBOT, a hitchhiking robot, during its' introduction to an American audience at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Mass. on July 16, 2015.

It's made a similar trek across Canada already.

There’s a robot out there with the goal of hitchhiking from one side of the U.S. to the other. Called hitchBOT, the human-like robot has already made treks across Canada and Europe.

It started its tour of the U.S. on Friday, beginning in Salem, Massachusetts and with plans to eventually get to San Francisco, California.

Because the robot cannot move on its own, it relies on the kindness of strangers to pass it along.

“We want to see what people do with this kind of technology when we leave it up to them,” according to Frauke Zeller, one of the creators, in an interview with the Associated Press. “It’s an art project in the wild — it invites people to participate.”

“It has a really low-tech look to it, something we dubbed the ‘yard-sale aesthetic,'” said David Harris Smith, the second creator. “The head is actually an acrylic cake-saver.”

The robot does have a GPS embedded so that its location can be tracked. It also takes photos every 20 minutes to document the journey. Photos are posted on social media (hitchBOT has 30,000 followers on Twitter).

“We want to create something that has a bit of narrative to it, a sense of adventure,” Smith said to the publication. “We don’t really know what’s going to happen.”

In other robot news, there’s a hotel in Japan that has robot receptionists. Meanwhile, Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak believes humans will be robots’ pets one day.

[fortune-brightcove videoid=4043844143001]

TIME Artificial Intelligence

Robots May Write Wall Street Analyst Notes One Day

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Paul Giamou—Getty Images/Aurora Creative Wall Street in Manhattan, New York.

But critics are wary of the implications

Wall Street analyst notes may one day be written by robots — that’s if companies that make the artificial intelligence programs have anything to do with it.

One startup, Narrative Science, creates news articles generated by a computer program. The company has its sights set on financial services, too, The Wall Street Journal reports.

It’ll be a win for banks. They’re trying to boost efficiency and cut costs, and as the artificial technology becomes more advanced it can potentially take on more complex tasks, the report said.

The way Narrative Sciences’ program works goes like this: It sifts through information, such as regulatory filings, databases, and internal documents. Next, it uses an algorithm to put together the information in summaries or articles.

“It’s a very hot debate about whether the financial analyst community is going to be decimated by algorithms,” Celent Senior Analyst William Trout told the Journal. “Disruption, when it happens, happens very fast.”

“Analysts are overwhelmed with the work they typically have to do,” said Narrative Science CEO Stuart Frankel. Robots and automation “frees them up to do higher-value work.”

Wall Street isn’t the only place where robots may become more involved. Other jobs, such as cashiers and drivers, are seeing more automation, too.

TIME Innovation

‘I Don’t Have Ethics’: The Dark Heart of Google’s Latest Chatbot

"I'm in the middle of nowhere"

A new research paper released by Google this week reaffirms what’s been more or less obvious since HAL 9000 murdered four astronauts in Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey: computers do not make particularly dependable friends.

The Google project—an admittedly more benign exercise than Kubrick’s—was yet another attempt to fashion a “conversational model” of artificial intelligence. Colloquially, we refer to these systems as “chatbots”—programs that can somewhat convincingly engage in human discourse.

The researchers behind the experiment, Oriol Vinyals and Quoc V. Le, programmed their particular chatbot with two sets of data: guidelines from an IT troubleshooting help desk and a database of movie subtitles. The ensuing dialogue was mostly awkward and occasionally nihilistic.

“What is the color of water?” the researchers asked.

“Water,” the computer replied simply.

“Where are you now?” they asked.

“I’m in the middle of nowhere.”

“Tell me the definition of morality,” the researchers requested.

“I don’t have ethics,” the machine advised them.

According to the transcript, this went on for awhile. Philosophical banter proving futile, Vinyals and Le switched gears, with more coherent results.

“What do you think about Cleopatra?” they asked.

“Oh, she’s very regal.”

Read more dialogue here.

TIME robots

Apple’s Co-founder: We’re All Going to Be Robots’ Pets One Day

9th annual Southeast Venture Conference and Digital Summit Charlotte
Charlotte Observer—TNS via Getty Images Steve Wozniak

Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk agrees

Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak thinks we’re all probably going to become robots’ pets.

Speaking at a recent technology conference, Wozniak said that at first the thought of artificially intelligent beings in charge of everything scared him. But now it’s a comforting thought.

Fast forward hundreds of years to when robots are in charge. At that time, humans will probably be treated in a similar fashion to dogs, Wozniak said during an event at the Freescale Technology Forum 2015 in Austin, Texas.

“It’s actually going to turn out really good for humans,” he added. “And it will be hundreds of years down the stream before [artificially intelligent beings would] even have the ability.”

“They’ll be so smart by then that they’ll know they have to keep nature, and humans are part of nature,” he continued. “So I got over my fear that we’d be replaced by computers.”

Wozniak believes robots will helps us because we’re the “gods originally.”

At the event, Wozniak also took the time to discuss the Internet of Things. He likes it, but cautioned that connected devices in the home have the potential to attack humanity.

Wozniak isn’t the only tech leader with thoughts on future human and robot interaction. In a recent interview with scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson, Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk warned that robots will use humans as pets once they achieve a level of artificial intelligence known as “superintelligence.”

They’ll treat humans like “pet Labradors,” he said.

TIME Innnovation

Watch This Robotic Teddy Bear Hug Sick Children in Hospitals

MIT researchers have launched a 90 patient study on the therapeutic value of a moving, blinking, talking toy bear

Huggable, a robotic teddy bear currently making the rounds at Boston Children’s Hospital, is part of a larger study on how interactive toys can alleviate stress and isolation. The New York Times captured footage of the bear at one such patient’s bedside, and her reaction, scientifically speaking, is adorable.

For more on the renaissance of chatty toys, see TIME’s recent coverage of a talking robot that’s vying for the title of smartest toy in the playpen.

TIME Innovation

Meet the Chatty Robot Who Wants to Outsmart Every Other Toy

Musio, a $599 prototype, is only the latest contender for smartest toy in the playpen

Musio the talking robot was standing on a lunch table at Manhattan’s original Shake Shack, unable to talk. The toy robot needs a Wi-Fi connection to access its language cortex. But even in this muted state, the stubby-legged robot with animated eyes drew curious glances from passersby. “I think it’s because Musio’s eyes blink,” says Celina Lee, a business development director for Musio’s manufacturer. “People definitely know it’s not a random toy.”

Musio is a prototype from a Santa Monica-based startup called AKA. Its roughly 37 employees, split between the U.S. and South Korea, are rushing to bring what the company calls the first “truly” intelligent toy to market within the next year. To that end, AKA has launched a $50,000 crowdsourcing campaign, a modest addition to the $5 million AKA has already secured from venture capital firms. The fact is, with or without your crowdsourced support, Musio is destined to launch into a booming market for smart toys.

An estimated 72 million children worldwide want their toys electronically enhanced, according to industry research from Interpret. When a toy maker hits that perfect blend of cute and smarts, demand can flare out to even greater numbers. The smash success of Tamagotchi pets in the mid-90’s led to sales of more than 76 million devices worldwide. To this day, the phrase “Tamagotchi effect” is used to describe the unusually strong brew of emotions that a “smart” toy can stir up in its owner.

At the bleeding edge of this trend are toys that can hold a true conversation. Breakthroughs in speech recognition and machine learning, first popularized by Apple’s Siri, are now being recast into the cutest possible packaging.

Musio isn’t the first modern talking toy on the block. Mattel debuted the first chat-friendly Barbie at the New York Toy Fair last February. Google recently filed a patent on a teddy bear that trains its plastic eyes and furry ears on its owner. And IBM’s Watson supercomputer has just been transplanted into a talking plastic dinosaur. In short, Musio will face stiff competition for smartest toy in the playpen.

Last week, Musio embarked on a 15 hour flight from Seoul to New York to perform its first public demonstrations to the press. “We’re worried that Musio is a little bit tired because he’s excited to meet you and didn’t get much sleep,” said Lee, as her colleagues unboxed Musio on a nearby conference table. Musio’s animated eyelids flicked open. Jacob Bradsher, AKA’s resident linguist, asked, “How are you?”

“Okay, Jacob,” Musio responded, recognizing Bradsher’s voice. That personal touch is Musio’s hallmark. Its built-in memory bank can store up to 64GB of personal information about its owner.

“My Musio will get to know me better, because it will remember some of the prior conversations that we had,” says Lee. As a result, she explains, no two Musio’s are alike. “Your Musio can become your friend. My Musio can become my friend.”

Key words trigger a memory, of sorts. Bradsher’s Musio, for instance, seized on the phrase “I’m hungry” to give a personalized restaurant recommendation. “Let’s go to Shake Shack,” Musio said, “You said you want to try it in New York.”

It was an intriguing demonstration of how Musio can simulate intimacy by tracing connections to previous conversations. “Siri is only able to answer the two previous sentences,” says Dr. Junho Shin, AKA’s machine learning specialist. “But we try to implement technologies that can understand the whole context of conversation, not just based on the previous questions.”

Musio was not yet up to the task of taking questions from a reporter, however, indicating that its language engine still has a ways to go. Musio was originally conceived as an English language tutor for students in Asia, where rigorous examination systems have spawned a lucrative industry for private tutors. Musio, with a starting price of $159 for the “simple” model and topping out at $599 for a “genius” version, would offer lessons at a steep discount, and the toy still has big implications for classroom learning.

But as Musio developed a gift for gab, it dawned on the AKA team that the robot could have wider applications beyond stressed students. “We didn’t think that the market should just be restricted to Asia,” says Lee. “We thought, ‘Oh, there’s a market for people who want a friend, right?”

To carry on a friendly chat, Musio taps into a distant stack of servers, where a technology known as “deep neural networks” scans sentences by the tens of thousands, teasing out relationships between words. AKA’s Bradsher was pulled from his job as an English teacher in South Korea to train the system.

“We’re literally endlessly breaking down the same paragraphs over and over again: This is a verb gerund. This is an introduction. Typically it would go here,” says Bradsher.

And when the language engine sputters, Musio can always rely on a joke to keep the conversation flowing. “Initially our goal should be maybe to give them fun, rather than just complete sentences and the perfect response,” Shin says.

True to form, Musio introduces himself with a crowdpleaser. “I can talk, tell a joke and communicate with other things,” Musio says, pausing with a comic’s timing before adding, “Wait I can do this too.” He then lets out a flatulent sound for a solid 2 seconds, because kids may want a “smart” toy, but never at the expense of fun.

MONEY hedge funds

Mind-Blowing Tool Used by Hedge Funds Costs Just $10

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Colin Anderson—Getty Images/Blend Images

It's a total game-changer

If you’re a hedge fund looking to crunch massive quantities of data, it’s generally cheaper to pay for space a la carte on Amazon’s cloud than invest in million-dollar hardware.

That’s the premise behind a spate of new finance-focused data shops turning out software that runs on the cloud. Ufora, a company profiled in Bloomberg Business, designs software that can process a trillion data points in minutes for the cost of a sandwich.

The technology is complex and involves a type of machine learning, or artificial intelligence, but computing power has become cheap enough that Ufora founder Braxton McKee can analyze a big market data model using only $10 worth of capacity on Amazon Web Services.

Ufora’s hedge fund clients—like all hedge funds today—have good cause to want to keep costs low.

These privately-offered investments, which typically court only those who can invest at least $1 million, are having a tough time holding investors’ interest these days.

That’s partly because their high fees have become harder to justify given that recent returns have actually trailed those of cheap index fund-based portfolios, and performance is increasingly in step with that of benchmarks, meaning that mangers aren’t adding as much value or diversification.

Read more: Why Should I Invest?
Investment Advice From a Nobel Prize-Winning Economist

TIME Innovation

This Is Why Fingerprints Are Forever

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

These are today's best ideas

1. You can change your password if someone steals it, but you’re stuck with your fingerprints forever.

By Aarti Shahani at NPR

2. Can teaching kids to be tough make up for income inequality?

By Rachel M. Cohen in the American Prospect

3. You don’t need a nuclear arsenal to feel safe.

By Erlan Idrissov in the Diplomat

4. America’s high school dropouts are quitting school to go to work.

By Molly M. Scott at the Urban Institute

5. Here’s how AI will help your doctor diagnose cancer better.

By Adam Conner-Simons at MIT News

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

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