TIME Dalai Lama

Exclusive: The Dalai Lama Talks About Pope Francis, Aging and Heartbreak With TIME

Britain Dalai Lama
Matt Dunham—AP The Dalai Lama stands on stage before making a speech to an audience at the ESS Stadium in Aldershot, England, on June 29, 2015

On the morning of his 80th birthday

On Monday, the morning of his 80th birthday, His Holiness the Dalai Lama sat down with TIME in Anaheim, Calif. The Tibetan spiritual leader shared his advice on growing old and mending a broken heart and talked about maybe meeting Pope Francis. Below are excerpts from the conversation, which has been lightly edited for length and clarity.

The gap between the Tibet cause in exile and the situation on the plateau is widening. Some say that your message — which is so cheerful, hopeful, and, as we see here in Anaheim, appeals to upper-middle-class Westerners — is so counter to the situation on the ground in Tibet, where some feel that the exile government isn’t doing enough for Tibetan Buddhists themselves. How do you see that tension, and its future?
It seems that regardless of how much censorship they impose, the people in Tibet do seem to be able to get the news … Inside Tibet, is physically distant … but there’s a few who get some information, then that spreads … There are organizations, their main responsibility is to look after the Tibetan refugee community, their education, and also the way for preservation of our own culture, mainly, and monastic institutions, to carry our tradition and culture — I think quite sophisticated knowledge about the tradition. So then we are not representing, directly, inside Tibet. We have no direct responsibility like that, so by the way, say in our last, I think, 30 years, many Tibetans have the opportunity to come to India and join our school. … So then after they get some education level, they return, they carry [that] inside Tibet … Then these people now carry the main responsibility for teaching … More of these connections are taking place on the personal, individual level, organic process, not so much through the centralized institution.

You have not yet met Pope Francis, correct? If you could have a meeting with Pope Francis, what would you want to talk with him about?
Yes, not yet … Recently he also has been showing genuine concern about the environment. Wonderful. A spiritual leader should speak — these are global issues. So I admire [him].

MORE: Pope Francis Urges Climate-Change Action in Encyclical

How do you find sense of purpose as you age, especially if you live in a Western society that values youth?
I believe in also telling people, when you are young is its own special beauty, doing active things. Then, getting older, its own beauty, more experience to share with other people. One time in Sweden, I noticed, one small group of people, they have some kind of program, those retired people should take more active role taking care of young children. I think that is very good. Old people play, mixing with young children, the old people themselves feel something fresh. Sometimes, children see more love with grandparent rather than parent, that also happens. So I think children may do not attraction external beauty, old people, no longer any beauty, but smile, play, make joke, some sort of short stories, then children looked at. So if you age but then still feel bitter because you are not able to lots of things you could do when you were young, that is total, silly, unrealistic. Of course, the wider experience, the young people, youth, cannot do that — not yet.

I don’t know if you’ve ever been in love, but I’m wondering — how do you heal a broken heart?
Actually, you see, practice celibacy … If you look at the nature of strong attachment, underlying that strong attachment is a clinging, grasping, and if you look at other reactive emotions that arise, actually it is strong attachment that underpins hatred, anger, jealousy, and so on, so if you somehow are able to look at this and recognize that a large part of the reception is perception, that could lose some of this strong grasping. I always remember, in a dream, if … a beautiful woman or something like that, I remember I am a monk. It is very helpful.

And if you aren’t a monk?
I think the desire for sex goes extreme, always creates some trouble. So that I think, in Western culture, there is a lot of emphasis on sensuality, and sexuality is part of that.

TIME Aging

Here’s Why You May Be Aging Faster Than Your Friends

Researchers zero in on more than a dozen factors that can predict how fast you’re aging — and have some ideas about what makes people age more slowly

We all have friends who were born in the same year but look years younger (or older) than we do. Now researchers say that such perceptions aren’t just about outward appearances but about something deeper—the different pace at which each of us ages, and what that means for our health.

In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists led by Daniel Belsky, an assistant professor of medicine at the Duke University School of Medicine’s division of geriatrics, describe a panel of 18 measures tested in 20- and 30-year olds that showed how quickly they are aging. The markers proved to be a good indicator of physiological age; they mirrored the biological effects of aging found in older people. But they were also good markers of physical age, meaning that those who aged faster also looked older, according to unbiased assessments by random people looking at their photos.

Read more The Cure for Aging

Most studies on aging, and the factors that affect aging, come from investigations of older populations, says Belsky. And in most cases, the chronic diseases or physiological changes that come with aging are already well established in these groups. But it’s clear that aging doesn’t happen overnight; rather, it occurs gradually over a period of decades, much like water affects the shape of riverbanks or stones over time. It’s not obvious on a day-to-day basis, but can be dramatic if several years have passed.

In the study, 954 people born in 1972 or 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, agreed to participate in a study that followed them from age 26 to age 38. Each participant agreed to be tested on a range of 18 different factors that earlier studies have linked to aging, including blood pressure, lung function, cholesterol, body mass index, inflammation and the integrity of their DNA. Based on their scores on these measures, researchers calculated a biological age for each volunteer. They did this again when the people in the study were 32 and 38 years old, and combined them to calculate the pace at which each person was aging.

Read more This Diet Has Been Linked to a Longer Life—Again

Some people were biologically older and aging faster than others, despite being the same chronological age. Not only that, but the researchers showed, by giving the 20- and 30-somethings the same tests of balance and thinking skills that gerontologists give for older adults, that these aging changes were the same as those occurring later in life.

Though some people really were biologically older than they are, the good news is that some were younger than their chronological age and aging more slowly than they should be. Comparing the slower and faster aging groups should reveal some hints about how to keep aging in check. And of the factors that influence aging, says Belsky, the vast majority, as much as 80%, aren’t genetic and therefore well within our control. (Even the 20% that’s DNA-based is modifiable to some extent.) “This is just the beginning,” he says. “The next step is to figure out what knowing this information helps us to do. One of the things it can help us do is identify the causes of accelerated aging so that we might slow it down. And the other thing it can help us do is evaluate therapies that slow down aging.”

Read more Eat Better and Stress Less: It’ll Make Your Cells (and Maybe You) Live Longer

Having a way to measure, relatively accurately, the pace at which people age provides a good way of tracking whether any anti-aging treatment works or not. Some of those keys to youth likely won’t be surprising; given the 18 factors that the scientists studied, they will probably involve habits like having a healthy diet that’s low in fat and salt, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing stress, having a strong immune system and getting regular exercise. Not smoking, or quitting smoking may also play a role. To find out, Belsky says he will continue to follow the study group and re-evaluate them again when they are 45. The researchers are charting the participants’ diet, exercise and other behaviors. “We can start to evaluate which behaviors are working to slow down aging,” he says, by seeing which changes slow down the pace of aging. “It’s a tremendous opportunity to begin to sort things out.”

Read next: 10 Foods That Make You Look Younger

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MONEY Social Security

This Surprising Sign May Tell You When to Claim Social Security

old woman facing younger woman in profile
Liam Norris—Getty Images

For aging Americans, the condition of your skin can be a barometer of your overall health and longevity.

Skin is in, and not just for beach-going millennials. For boomers and older generations, the condition of your skin, especially your facial appearance, is a barometer of your overall health and perhaps your life expectancy, scientists say. And as the population ages—by 2020 one in seven people worldwide will be 60 or above—dollars are pouring into research that may eventually link your skin health to your retirement finances.

What does your skin condition have to do with your health and longevity? A skin assessment can be a surprisingly accurate window into how quickly we age, research shows. Beyond assessing your current health, these findings can also be used as to gauge your longevity. This estimate, based on personalized information and skin analysis, may be more reliable than a generic mortality table.

All of which has obvious implications for financial services companies. One day the condition of your skin—your face, in particular—may determine the rate you pay for life insurance, what withdrawal rate you choose for your retirement accounts, and the best age to start taking Social Security.

Skin health is also a growing focus for consumer and health care companies, which have come to realize that half of all people over 65 suffer from some kind of skin ailment. Nestle, which sees skin care as likely to grow much faster than its core packaged foods business, is spending $350 million this year on dermatology research. The consumer products giant also recently announced it would open 10 skin care research centers around the world, starting with one in New York later this year.

Smaller companies are in this mix as well. A crowd funded start-up venture just unveiled Way, a portable and compact wafer-like device that scans your skin using UV index and humidity sensors to detect oils and moisture and analyze overall skin health. It combines that information with atmospheric readings and through a smartphone app advises you when to apply moisturizers or sunscreen.

This is futuristic stuff, and unproven as a means for predicting how many years you may have left. I recently gave two of these predictive technologies a spin—with mixed results. The first was an online scientist-designed Ubble questionnaire. By asking a dozen or so questions—including how much you smoke, how briskly you walk and how many cars you own—the website purports to tell you if you will die within the next five years. My result: 1.4% chance I will not make it to 2020. Today I am 58.

The second website was Face My Age, which is also designed by research scientists. After answering short series of questions about marital status, sun exposure, smoking and education, you upload a photo to the site. The tool then compares your facial characteristics with others of the same age, gender, and ethnicity. The company behind the site, Lapetus Solutions, hopes to market its software to firms that rely heavily on life-expectancy algorithms, such as life insurers and other financial institutions.

Given the fledgling nature of this technology, it wasn’t too surprising that my results weren’t consistent. My face age ranged between 35 and 52, based on tiny differences in where I placed points on a close-up of my face. These points help the computer identify the distance between facial features, which is part of the analysis. In all cases, though, my predicted expiration age was 83. I’m not taking that too seriously. Both of my grandmothers and my mother, whom I take after, lived well past that age—and I take much better care of my health than they ever did.

Still, the science is intriguing, and it’s not hard to imagine vastly improved skin analysis in the future. While a personalized, scientific mortality forecast might offer a troublesome dose of reality, it would at least help navigate one of the most difficult financial challenges we face: knowing how much money we need to retire. A big failing of the 401(k) plan—the default retirement portfolio for most Americans—is that it does not guarantee lifetime income. Individuals must figure out on their own how to make their savings last, and to be safe they should plan for a longer life than is likely. That is a waste of resources.

I plan to live to 95, my facial map notwithstanding. But imagine if science really could determine that my end date is at 83, give or take a few years. It would be weird, for sure. But I’d have a good picture of how much I needed to save, how much I could spend, and whether delaying Social Security makes any sense. I’m not sure we’ll ever really be ready for that. But not being ready won’t stop that day from coming.

Read next: This Problem is Unexpectedly Crushing Many Retirement Dreams

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Here’s a Secret to Living Longer You May Not Like

healthiest foods, health food, diet, nutrition, time.com stock, swiss chard, greens, vegetables
Danny Kim for TIME

You have to cut those calories

Want to live longer? Eat a little less.

At least that’s what a growing body of research suggests. A new study published Thursday showed that occasionally adopting a diet that mimics fasting could slow aging.

In the study, published in the journal Cell Metabolism, the researchers looked at the effectiveness of periodic fasting on aging-related factors in yeast, mice and humans. The results showed occasionally cutting back on calories improved health, notably in areas that worsen with age. In the mice study, the researchers had the mice consume a four-day low-calorie diet that mimics fasting (FMD) and found that it improved their metabolism, decreased bone loss, improved cognitive function, lowered cancer incidence and extended their longevity.

Humans underwent three monthly cycles of a five day diet that mimics fasting and the researchers noted a drop in risk factors related to aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

The goal of the diet is to cut individuals calories down to between 34-54% of their normal consumption. For humans the diet comes out to about five days of a 750-1,050 calories per day, with very specific amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and micronutrients. “[It] looks like a low calorie plant-based diet but, in fact, [it] is designed to turn on stem cells and trigger regenerative effects and beneficial changes in many risk factors for aging and diseases,” says study author Valter Longo, director of the USC Longevity Institute.

The diet also decreased the amount of the growth hormone IGF-1 which is important for early development, but too much of it has been shown to spur faster aging.

Longo’s research is not the first to suggest occasional fasting could lead to a longer life. As TIME reported in February, several experts recommend intermittent fasting and some argue that a eating a diet with 25% fewer calories a day could lead to a longer life. Animal studies have shown promise, and human studies have shown that eating fewer calories can lower heart disease risk and impact longevity.

“I only eat a light breakfast, a full size dinner and a snack—all plant based and low proteins,” says Longo. “We believe everyone else will need to go on a diet like this more frequently. For example, someone obese with elevated fasting glucose and a family history of cancer may benefit from being on the 5-day FMD once per month.”
Longo says undergoing such a diet must be approved and supervised by a physician or registered dietitian.
Two of the study authors have equity interest in a medical food company called L-Nutra, which makes products that claim to “reduce markers associated with aging,” but neither author had a role in the data analysis.
TIME Aging

This Is When Women Using IVF Should Consider Donor Eggs

The latest study says success rates decline considerably after this age

In a report presented at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, researchers provided some much-needed information that they hope will help couples using IVF to make more informed decisions about how best to use the reproductive technology.

Infertility increases with age, and while there are many reasons why couples have a hard time conceiving, one important contribution is the quality of the woman’s eggs. Because women are born with all of the eggs they use throughout their lifetime, the older the eggs are, the more vulnerable they are to developing genetic and other abnormalities that make them weaker candidates for getting fertilized by sperm and developing into a healthy baby.

But at what age does this process truly decline? Most reproductive data shows that live birth rates start to decline when the woman reaches 35, so Dr. Marta Devesa from the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Women’s Health Dexeus in Barcelona, Spain and her colleagues decided to analyze birth rates by age and whether women used fresh or frozen embryos in their IVF cycle. They found that the cumulative live birth rate—which includes every transfer of an embryo from a single stimulation cycle (most women produce multiple eggs and many of these are fertilized to become embryos, one of which is usually transferred to the womb and the rest of which are frozen for future transfer)—dropped with age.

MORE: Exclusive: Meet the World’s First Baby Born With an Assist from Stem Cells

But they also learned that the live birth rate was really driven by the first transfer of the fresh embryo, and wasn’t significantly increased by transferring additional frozen embryos if the first transfer didn’t result in a pregnancy. In other words, the first, fresh embryo provides the best chance for pregnancy, particularly in women age 42 or older. “The benefit from the frozen embryos is very limited,” says Devesa.

The findings don’t suggest that freezing embryos isn’t worth the effort or the cost, however. For women ages 38-39, the extra benefit from transferring frozen embryos a live birth was 13%; for women ages 40-41, 9%, and for women 42-43, 2%. For women 42 years or older, the frozen embryos only added a 1% increased chance of a live birth. For them, their chances of pregnancy may be higher with a donor egg.

The number of embryos may also be an indicator of a couple’s chances of having a baby. “If we have more embryos to freeze, the live birth rate from the fresh embryo is significantly higher than if we didn’t have any embryos to freeze,” she says. “Why? Because more embryos means we have a better chance of selecting the best embryo.”

The findings, she hopes, will help doctors and patients to better assess their chances of pregnancy and provide more accurate information for couples about whether they should continue with IVF using their own eggs and sperm and when they should consider using donor eggs. While each couple decides on how they want to proceed with IVF, with the current findings, “at least we can give them real expectations about their chances of a live birth, so they can manage their expectations correctly and properly,” Devesa says.

TIME Retirement

This Is the Worst City to Retire In

FRANCE-ELDERLY
Philippe Huguen—AFP/Getty Images An elderly couple walks in le Touquet, northern France, on September 8 ,2013

Retirees should look to Arizona instead

If you want to retire well, set out for Arizona. According to a new Bankrate survey out Monday, the Grand Canyon state is home to three of the country’s best cities for retirees, ranked by metrics like cost of living, weather, crime rate, health care, taxes, walkability and the well-being of seniors living in the area.

“It’s just a great place for a low-maintenance, outdoor type of lifestyle,” Chris Kahn, a Bankrate analyst, told USA Today. “Your dollar is going to stretch further in Arizona.”

But where’s the worst place to call it quits? That’s New York City.

The survey’s full results for the best places to retire are as follows:

1. Phoenix metro area, including Mesa and Scottsdale

2. Arlington/Alexandria, Virginia.

3. Prescott, Arizona

4. Tucson, Arizona

5. Des Moines, Iowa

6. Denver, Colorado

7. Austin, Texas

8. Cape Coral, Florida

9. Colorado Springs, Colorado

10. Franklin, Tennessee

Meanwhile, the worst cities for retirees include the Big Apple; Little Rock, Ark.; New Haven, Conn.; and Buffalo, N.Y.

TIME Aging

This 92-Year-Old Is the Oldest Woman to Ever Run (and Finish) a Marathon

Harriette Thompson, oldest woman marathon runner
Paul Nestor—Competitor Group/AP Harriette Thompson starts the Suja Rock ‘'n'’ Roll Marathon in San Diego on Sunday, May 31, 2015

A two-time cancer survivor, Thompson has raised more than $100,000 for charity over 15 years

Finishing a marathon is difficult at any age, but if you want to know how hard it is at 92 you’ll have to ask Harriette Thompson. The Charlotte, N.C., resident completed the San Diego Rock ‘n’ Roll marathon on Sunday with an unofficial finishing time of 7:24:36, making her the oldest woman to run a competitive 26 miles and 385 yards.

Thompson took up running at age 76 and has been tackling marathons annually ever since, Runner’s World reports. She’s only missed one since then, while she was undergoing cancer treatment.

Cancer has affected Thompson’s life deeply. She lost her husband of 67 years to the disease in January and now struggles with painful wounds on her legs resulting from treatment for squamous cell carcinoma. It’s fitting, therefore, that Thompson runs her marathons to benefit the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. In the 16 years she’s been running, she has raised over $100,000 for the organization.

Thompson’s son, Brenny, often runs with her, but this year she had more well-known company. Starting up front with the elite runners gave her the opportunity to meet Meb Keflezighi, the New York and Boston marathon winner. But during the race, Thompson herself became the celebrity. “Since I’m so old, everbody wants to have their picture taken with me. Brenny says, ‘Don’t stop her, just take a selfie,’ rather than stop and take pictures all the time, because I’d never get to the end,” Thompson told Runner’s World.

Thompson’s new record breaks the one set by Gladys Burrill, who ran the Honolulu Marathon at 92 years, 19 days old. Thompson is nearly three months senior.

[Runner’s World]

TIME Innovation

How to Fix the World Health Organization

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

These are today's best ideas

1. Before the next Ebola strikes, we need to fix the World Health Organization.

By Julia Belluz and Steven Hoffman in Vox

2. Family leave isn’t just about caring for babies.

By Gillian B. White in the Atlantic

3. Someone should buy Yelp and use it to revive local news.

By Ken Doctor in Nieman Lab

4. What makes one of America’s oldest big cities perfect for bike-commuting?

By Sarah Goodyear in CityLab

5. How to make Twitter better.

By Marc Anthony Rosa in Medium

The Aspen Institute is an educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D.C.

TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary and expertise on the most compelling events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. To submit a piece, email ideas@time.com.

TIME viral

This Video of a Young Couple Aging 70 Years Will Make You Laugh and Cry

Love goggles don't wear off

Young love is beautiful—but that’s the easy part. What will two people see in each other decades from now when they’re no longer much to look at?

Engaged couple Kristie and Tavis, two such specimens of young love, wanted to look into their future before they tied the knot in a month. Cut Video and Field Day gave them a chance to peek into their marriage’s crystal ball, and in 100 Years of Beauty, the couple is transformed by a team of makeup artists from attractive 20-somethings into 90-year-olds, complete with costumes and prosthetics.

Time traveling through various stages of middle and old age—50, 70 and 90—taught them a few things. Realization No. 1: start wearing sunscreen now. Realization No. 2: love goggles don’t wear off when the wrinkles set in.

“You look fantastic,” Tavis tells Kristie when she reaches age 90 in a pink nightgown. “You don’t look a day over 75.”

MONEY retirement planning

This Popular Financial Advice Could Ruin Your Retirement

two tombstones, one saying $-RIP
iStock

The notion of "dying broke" continues to appeal to many Americans. That's too bad, since the strategy is ridiculously flawed.

You may have heard of the phrase “Die Broke,” made popular by the bestselling personal finance book of the same name published in 1997. The authors, Stephen M. Pollan and Mark Levine, argue that you should basically spend every penny of your wealth because “creating and maintaining an estate does nothing but damage the person doing the hoarding.” Saving is a fool’s game, they claim, while “dying broke offers you a way out of your current misery and into a place of joy and happiness.”

I love a good contrarian argument, but for whom did this plan ever make sense? Perhaps people like Bill Gates who have so much money that they decide to find charitable uses for their vast fortune. But for the rest of us, our end-of-life financial situation isn’t as nearly pretty, and we’re more likely to be in danger of falling short than dying with way too much.

In a recent survey, the Employee Benefit Research Institute found that 20.6% of people who died at ages 85 or older had no non-housing assets and 12.2% had no assets left at all when they passed away. If you are single, your chances of running out of money are even higher—24.6% of those who died at 85 or older had no non-housing assets left and 16.7% had nothing left at all.

Now, perhaps some of those people managed to time their demise perfectly to coincide when their bank balance reached zero, but it’s more likely that many of them ran out of money before they died, perhaps many years before.

And yet the “Die Broke” philosophy seems to have made significant headway in our culture. According to a 2015 HSBC survey of 16,000 people in 15 countries, 30% of American male retirees plan to “spend it all” rather than pass wealth down to future generations. (Interestingly, only 17% of women said that they planned to die broke.)

In terms of balancing spending versus saving, only 61% of men said that it is better to spend some money and save some to pass along, compared to 74% of women. Perhaps that’s why, as a nation, only 59% of working age Americans expect to leave an inheritance, compared to a global average of 74%.

There are so many things wrong with this picture. The first is that Pollan and Levine’s formula of spending for the rest of your life was predicated on working for the rest of your life. “In this new age, retirement is not only not worth striving for, it’s impossible for most and something you should do you best to avoid,” they wrote. Saving for retirement is certainly hard, and I don’t believe that all gratification should be delayed, but working just to spend keeps you on the treadmill in perpetuity.

Besides, even if some of us say we’re going to keep working all our lives, that decision is usually dictated by our employer, our health and the economy. Most of us won’t have the choice to work forever, and the data simply don’t support a huge wave of people delaying retirement into their 70s and 80s. And as I have written before, I don’t buy into the current conventional wisdom that planning for a real retirement is irrational.

But perhaps the most pernicious aspect of the “Die Broke” philosophy is that it takes away the incentive to our working life—to get up in the morning and do your best every day, knowing that it’s getting you closer to financial security—and the satisfaction that goes with it. In the end, I believe what will bring us the most happiness is not to die rich, or die broke, but to die secure.

Konigsberg is the author of The Truth About Grief, a contributor to the anthology Money Changes Everything, and a director at Arden Asset Management. The views expressed are solely her own.

Read next: This Retirement Saving Mistake Could Cost You $43,000

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