TIME Research

You Can Now Inhale Caffeine Instead of Drink It

Eagle Energy Vapor
Matt Lang—Eagle Energy Eagle Energy Vapor

A new e-cigarette-like inhaler gives users a boost of caffeine. But how safe is it?

Forget coffee and energy drinks—now you can inhale your caffeine.

Perhaps taking a cue from increasingly popular e-cigarettes, marketers have now created a way for people to vape their energy. The New York Times reported on Wednesday that products like Eagle Energy Vapor allow people to forgo their morning cup o’ joe and puff their caffeine instead. Each inhaler boasts a pretty small amount of caffeine, which the company says comes from natural sources like guarana, taurine, and ginseng (stimulants that are also common among energy drinks). As the Times describes it: “Think of it as a Red Bull for the lungs.”

No surprise, some experts in the medical community find this trend problematic. America is, evidently, a nation in need of a pick-me-up, at least if you consider the boom of products that contain caffeine, like energy drinks, caffeinated water and snacks and powdered caffeine. As I recently reported in TIME, the U.S. energy drink business is estimated to grow more than 11% by 2019 to an estimated $26.6 billion in yearly revenue.

So what’s the big deal?

From a health perspective, caffeine is tricky business. Many experts are concerned about some caffeinated products—particularly energy drinks. One of the primary arguments is that unlike coffee or soda, many energy drinks (and the new caffeine inhalers) contain multiple stimulants aside from synthetic caffeine. How these ingredients interact in combination is largely unknown. In addition, many doctors and health watchdogs are dissatisfied with the way these products are regulated. Manufacturers can choose to market their products as dietary supplements or as beverages, neither of which require pre-market safety approval by the FDA or any other public-health agency. According to the Times, the FDA has not reviewed the new caffeine inhalers for safety, either.

The effects of inhaling caffeine are also a gray area. “The way our bodies handle caffeine that is inhaled can be very different from when caffeine is in our food or drink,” says Mary M. Sweeney, a postdoctoral research fellow at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Even if an inhaled product delivers the same dose of caffeine as a cup of coffee, it may have different subjective effects for people because the time-course might be different.”

In 2013, the FDA announced that amid a growing trend of manufacturers adding caffeine to food products (like gum, for example), the agency was launching a safety investigation into the matter. It’s now 2015, and that information is still not available to consumers. The FDA says it is continuing to look into it.

The Eagle Energy Vapor inhaler’s aesthetic similarities to e-cigarettes are undeniable. And while the jury is still out in regards to the overall danger of e-cigarettes, recent federal data has shown use tripled among middle and high school students in just one year. Could caffeine inhalers attract young people in a similar way? Are they as dangerous as medical experts believe other caffeinated products are? We don’t know. But what Americans should know is that just because a new caffeinated product is on the market doesn’t mean that it’s undergone a rigorous safety testing or approval process, or that doctors think it’s safe.

“What troubles me most about this particular product is that the flavor composition appears to be similar to candy; thus, it could be attractive to children and adolescents,” says Steven Meredith, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. “The long-term effects of caffeine on the developing brains of children and adolescents are still relatively unknown. But, caffeine consumption interferes with sleep, and sleep is necessary for learning. Thus, long-term cognitive effects of excessive caffeine consumption at a young age is certainly plausible.”

While the FDA says it’s continuing to investigate caffeinated products, it may be in your best interest to stick to stimulants that most medical experts can get behind: coffee.

TIME medicine

Doctors Say Cancer Drug Costs Are Out Of Control

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JUAN GARTNER—Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF Illustration of cancer cells in middle of dividing

Prescription drug prices rose 12% in 2014

A group of 118 oncologists put their foot down on the rising costs of cancer medication in an editorial in the Mayo Clinic medical journal, the Mayo Clinic Proceedings, on Thursday. The editorial threw its support behind a grassroots patient effort to push for fairer prices from drug companies.

According to the editorial, many cancer patients are bankrupted by the high cost of care. Even for insured patients, a treatment that costs $120,000 a year might only be reduced to $30,000 in out-of-pocket expenses–more than half the average U.S. household income. The cost of drugs is so high that as many as 20% of oncology patients don’t take their medication as prescribed.

Cancer drugs were not always so expensive. Over the past 15 years, according to one study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, the cost of cancer drugs rose by 10% (or about $8,500) every year. In 2014 alone, prescription drug prices rose 12%.

“High cancer drug prices are affecting the care of patients with cancer and our health care system,” the lead author, Dr. Ayalew Tefferi, who is a hematologist at Mayo, said. The doctors designed a list of ideas that would make cancer drugs more affordable for the people they treat.

The group’s solutions included a proposal to allow individuals to import cancer drugs from other countries, where the medicine is far cheaper. In Canada, for example, oncology drugs are half the price of American ones.

Other solutions included creating a regulatory body that would propose fair pricing after a drug gains F.D.A. approval, allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices, and preventing pharmaceutical companies from delaying access to generics.

“It’s time for patients and their physicians to call for change,” Dr. Tefferi said.

TIME Exercise/Fitness

This No-Gym Workout Gets the Job Done in 10 Minutes

woman-pushup-outdoor
Getty Images

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) gets results in less time

Can’t get to the gym? No problem!

There’s a notion out there that you need to belong to a gym in order to maintain a fitness routine, but that couldn’t be further from the truth. While there’s certainly nothing wrong with leaving your house to get your sweat on, it’s also completely possible to get a great workout in the comfort of your own living room.

This HIIT (high-intensity interval training) workout is the perfect fat-burning addition to any exercise program you’re currently doing. The best part? It will only take you 10 minutes, you can do it in front of the TV, and the only equipment you need is a stopwatch (or the timer on your phone).

Perform each move below for 20 seconds, trying to get as many reps in as you can, followed by 10 seconds of rest. Do two full sets (meaning 20 seconds of work, 10 seconds of rest, then repeat once) of each exercise before moving on to the next. Let’s HIIT it!

Squat jumps

Stand tall with your feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart. Squat down, keeping the weight in your heels, until you have reached the bottom of a squat. From here, jump straight up into the air as high as you can. Land softly on your toes and repeat.

Push-ups

Get into a standard plank position, with your arms slightly wider than your shoulders and your feet just a few inches apart. Slowly lower yourself down, getting as close to the ground as possible. From here, push back up through your chest and arms to starting position. Keep your core tight throughout the entire movement and fight the urge to allow your mid-section to either arch up or sag.

Jumping lunges

Start in a lunge position with your right foot in front and left foot behind you with your left knee about an inch from the floor. From here, explode straight up out of the lunge, switching your legs mid-air and landing softly on your toes. You will now have your left leg in front and right leg behind you. Remember to keep your front knee at a 90 degree angle and try not to let it go past your toes.

Sit-ups

Lie on your back with your knees bent and hands behind your head. While keeping your chin angled towards the sky, use your core to sit up until your elbows touch your knees. Lower back down to the ground and repeat.

Burpees

Stand with your legs slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. Squat down to the floor and place your hands on the ground in front of you. From here, jump back into a pushup position. Jump your feet forward until you are at the bottom of a squat again, then jump straight into the air.

Want more moves like this? Check out 6 Moves That Burn More Fat in Less Time

This article originally appeared on Health.com

More from Health.com:

Read next: 5 Research-Backed Habits of People Who Never Skip a Workout

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TIME public health

These States Have The Biggest Drops In Teen Pregnancy

Connecticut leads the effort with the biggest 5-year decline in teen births

Teen pregnancy in the U.S. has been declining continuously over the past 20 years. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), America’s average teen birth rate has dropped from 61.8 births for every 1,000 adolescent girls in 1991 to 26.5 in 2013. And this most recent 2013 stat is an impressive 10 percent drop from 2012.

Despite these encouraging statistics, unplanned teen pregnancy is still a major public health issue. Many health experts and economists argue that it is a principal driver of poverty and inequality, as well as high abortion rates and number of children put up for adoption.

Some states have worked to find ways to combat teen pregnancy more efficiently, though. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), HealthGrove mapped the change in teen births (girls 15-19 years old) over the last five years.

Why are some states making bigger strides than others? Colorado’s effort against unwanted pregnancy, for example, has been successful due to programs that offer adolescents and poor women long-acting birth control. After being given this choice, the birthrate among these women fell by 37.9%, and abortions plunged by 42%, according to Colorado’s Department of Public Health and Environment.

The correlation between early motherhood and poverty was pretty strong in Colorado’s case. Before women were offered intrauterine devices (IUDs) from the free program in 2009, 50% of births to women in low income areas happened before age 21. In 2014, that age jumped to 24. And according to Sabrina Tavernise of the New York Times, this difference “gives young women time to finish their educations and to gain a foothold in an increasingly competitive job market.”

Many of the states that have a low 5-year change—meaning they still haven’t reduced teen pregnancies—also have relatively high poverty levels. New initiatives like the one in Colorado may help states make progress on both goals.

HealthGrove ranked the top 10 states that are setting a good example for the rest of the country, ordered by the biggest 5-year declines in teen births.

  • 10. Wisconsin

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 1.96%
    Population: 5,706,871

    Wisconsin reduced adolescent pregnancies by 33.3% in five years.

  • 9. Oregon

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 2.16%
    Population: 3,868,721

    Oregon reduced adolescent pregnancies by 33.5% in five years.

  • 8. District of Columbia

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 3.21%
    Population: 619,371

    The District of Columbia reduced adolescent pregnancies by 33.8% in five years.

  • 7. Virginia

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 2.01%
    Population: 8,100,653

    Virginia reduced adolescent pregnancies by 33.9% in five years.

  • 6. North Carolina

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 2.84%
    Population: 9,651,380

    North Carolina reduced adolescent pregnancies by 35.0% in five years.

  • 5. Georgia

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 3.05%
    Population: 9,810,417

    Georgia reduced adolescent pregnancies by 35.1% in five years.

  • 4. Maryland

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 1.94%
    Population: 5,834,299

    Maryland reduced adolescent pregnancies by 36.8% in five years.

  • 3. Colorado

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 2.34%
    Population: 5,119,329

    Colorado reduced adolescent pregnancies by 37.9% in five years.

  • 2. Massachusetts

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 1.21%
    Population: 6,605,058

    Massachusetts reduced adolescent pregnancies by 37.9% in five years.

  • 1. Connecticut

    Teen birth rate in 2013: 1.29%
    Population: 3,583,561

    Connecticut reduced adolescent pregnancies by 39.2% in five years.

    This article originally appeared on FindTheBest

     

TIME Exercise/Fitness

How Exercise Helps Curb Alzheimer’s Symptoms

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Pamplemousse—Getty Images/OJO Images RF

Most studies so far have focused on the importance of physical activity before you develop Alzheimer’s. But can it treat the disease once you are diagnosed? Two studies hint that may be the case

At the annual Alzheimer’s Association International Conference in July 2015, scientists report some encouraging news about the benefits of exercise. In the first studies to look at physical activity among people already diagnosed with the early stages of Alzheimer’s, moderate to high intensity workouts may not only slow down the biological symptoms of Alzheimer’s—but may lead to improvements in cognitive functions as well.

In one study involving 200 people with mild or moderate disease, Dr. Steen Hasselbalch from the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues randomly assigned some participants to an hour of exercise three times a week for 16 weeks, while allowing the remainder to continue without a regular activity regimen. After a phase-in period, the exercisers were working at a moderate to intense level, achieving 70% to 80% of their maximum heart rate for at least half of each session.

MORE: Your School Grades Affect Your Risk of Dementia

That level of intensity is important, says Hasselbalch, to achieve results. Compared to the control group, the exercisers showed fewer symptoms such as anxiety, changes in mood and depression that are common among Alzheimer’s patients. Overall, those who were more active did not show any changes in cognitive functions, but when Hasselbalch looked at the results more carefully, he found that participants with milder disease who exercised actually did perform better on intellectual skills after the 16 weeks. They were tested on memory, language, mental speed and other executive functions.

“It’s been shown with other diseases that exercise can have beneficial effects,” he says. “Now we have shown it’s also important for dementia. So if you now have this alternative treatment, it sends a message that you can do something even after diagnosis to treat dementia.”

MORE: Two New Alzheimer’s Drugs Offer Hope—With Caveats

Because the people exercised in a group setting, he says that simply being part of that social situation and getting out of the house and interacting with others appears to reduce the mood-related symptoms of Alzheimer’s. “But if you really want an effect on cognition, then you have to exercise hard.”

He admits that his study did not delve into how the exercise might be contributing to the improved cognitive changes, but he will be analyzing the blood and cerebral spinal fluid collected from the participants to study that further.

MORE: Alzheimer’s May Show Up in Saliva

Such changes are what Laura Baker, from Wake Forest School of Medicine, and her team did with another group of early stage Alzheimer’s patients. They wanted to see what biological changes exercise might have on the Alzheimer’s process, and focused on 70 patients with mild cognitive impairment and diabetes, both of which significantly increase the risk for Alzheimer’s. Some were randomly assigned to simple stretching exercises, while others were told to exercise four times a week and, like those in Hasselbalch’s study, had to work hard enough to raise their heart rate to 70% to 80% of its maximum for 30 of the 45 minutes of each session. Baker then studied their cognitive function tests, brain imaging and levels of Alzheimer’s proteins in their cerebral spinal fluid.

She found that those who exercise rigorously increased the blood flow in the areas of the brain responsible for memory and higher level processing. The result was a dramatically increased score, by 80%, on average on the cognitive tests than those who just stretched, even after accounting for age-related changes in thinking. More intriguing, the exercisers also showed on average a 14% lower level of the protein tau, which is a good indicator that brain neurons are dying and Alzheimer’s processes are well underway, at the end of the study compared to before they began the exercise regimen.

“What’s encouraging to us is that we don’t have treatments now; there’s nothing for Alzheimer’s patients,” says Baker. “The possibility that a non-medicine intervention could actually change the disease — we’re just very encouraged by these results,.”

While the exercise regimen wasn’t an easy one — it qualifies as moderately intense physical activity, which for a group of older adults who are likely sedentary to begin with is certainly a challenge, both Hasselbalch and Baker say that with the right execution — by working with participants and by gradually increasing their exercise level — achieving the amounts of activity needed to help their brains is possible. Baker also points out that it’s time to start studying the combined effects of new medications that are being tested for Alzheimer’s and increased physical activity. Together, she says, they may hold the key to actually slowing down and possibly even reversing progression of the disease.

TIME E-Cigarettes

E-Cigarettes May Be Just As Addictive As Cigarettes

e-cigarette-nicotine-vaping-smoking-cigarette
Victor de Schwanber / Getty Images A person "vapes," or smokes an e-cigarette.

The most addictive form of nicotine commonly found in cigarettes is often the same as the one found in cigarettes.

Vapers—or e-cigarette smokers—aren’t any safer from developing addiction, finds a new study released Thursday.

The basis of the pro-vaping argument has been that e-cigarettes don’t contain the harmful chemicals in and byproducts of tobacco cigarettes. There’s nicotine, to be sure, but not all nicotine is the same. Vaping proponents have said that the type found in cigarettes is a highly addictive form, and the type of nicotine in e-cigarettes is less addicting.

“This perception [of e-cigs being safer] stems from the fact that e-cigs are electrically powered devices that heat and vaporize a nicotine-containing flavored liquid to produce an inhalable aerosol, without involving combustion and presumably much of the exposure to combustion-related toxicants,” such as carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, the authors wrote.

But a new study, published in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Research in Toxicology, indicates that nine out of 17 common, commercially available e-cigarettes contained the most addictive kind of nicotine.

Critics have long held that e-cigs contain ingredients that make them essentially a cigarette in terms of addictive power. There is also evidence that e-cigs may not be an effective means to quitting (some research shows that 75% of Americans who vape also smoke).

TIME Research

Scientists Developing Pill That Could Let Gluten-Free People Eat Pasta

Plate of sea food pappardelle with cherry tomatoes
Getty Images

A trial is slated to begin within the year

People who suffer from celiac disease may not need to avoid pasta forever: scientists are developing a pill that would allow them to eat gluten.

Scientists at the University of Alberta are working on a pill made from chicken egg yolks that could help people with celiac disease digest gluten, Quartz reports.

Hoon Sunwoon, associate professor in the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, who worked on the project, explained to Quartz how the pill works: “This supplement binds with gluten in the stomach and help to neutralize it, therefore providing defence [sic] to the small intestine, limiting the damage gliadin causes.” Gliadin is a component of gluten that causes digestive trouble for people with celiac; gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye and barley.

But celiacs, don’t rejoice just yet: the drug is still in development. A trial is slated to begin within the year.

TIME Cancer

When Chemotherapy Does More Harm than Good

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Photo by Selina Boertlein c/o SBPhotography—Getty Images/Flickr RF

Chemotherapy has saved countless lives and is a mainstay of cancer care. But the latest data suggests that it can also do more harm than good for some patients

A cancer diagnosis is a life-altering event, and the news—let alone making decisions about how to manage treatment—is already challenging enough. But with a terminal diagnosis, those choices become even more fraught. At some point, say ethicists, doctors and patient advocates, enough is enough. Meaning the potential for benefit has to be weighed against the quality of what life is likely to be left. But where is that line? And how does each patient find it?

A study published in JAMA Oncology highlights just how agonizing those choices can get. Holly Prigerson, director of the Center for Research on End of Life Care at Weill Cornell Medical College and her colleagues studied the use of chemotherapy among a group of 312 terminal cancer patients. All had been given no more than six months by their doctors, and had failed at least one if not multiple rounds of chemotherapy, seeing their tumors spread to other parts of their body. About half were on chemotherapy, regardless of its ineffectiveness, at the time of the study.

Read more No More Chemo: Doctors Say It’s Not So Far-Fetched

Despite the intuitive sense that any treatment is better than none, there is not much evidence that chemotherapy is the right choice in these cases—and it may very well be the wrong one. Prigerson’s analysis showed that these patients experience a drop in their quality of life if they get chemo, and that they are therefore worse off than if they hadn’t opted for the treatment. On measures of things like whether they could continue to walk on their own and take care of themselves and keep up with their daily activities, those on chemotherapy reported marked declines compared to patients who opted not to receive more chemo.

“The results were counterintuitive to some extent,” says Prigerson. “The finding that the quality of life was impaired with receipt of the toxic chemotherapy was not surprising. The surprising part was that people who were feeling the best at the start of the therapy ended up feeling the worst. They are the ones most harmed and who had the most to lose.”

In other words, the chemo made the patients feel worse without providing any significant benefit for their cancer.

Previous studies have showed that chemotherapy in terminal patients is essentially ineffective; among those with non-small cell lung cancer, for example, third rounds of chemo were associated with a 2% response rate in tumor shrinkage, while fourth rounds showed 0% response. And whatever tumor shrinkage occurred wasn’t linked to a longer life.

Read more How Fish Oil Makes Chemo Less Effective

Groups like the American Society of Clinical Oncologists (ASCO) recently advised doctors to be more judicious with their chemotherapy use in terminal patients. The group’s guidelines recommend limiting it to relatively healthy patients who can withstand the toxic treatment and potentially overcome side effects.

The decision about how long to continue care, including chemotherapy, is up to each cancer patient, but Prigerson hopes that her results help to better inform those choices in coming years. Recent studies showed, for example, that despite explanations from their doctors, many cancer patients still believe that more rounds of chemo will provide some benefit to them, and are therefore—and understandably—reluctant to stop receiving therapy. But at some point, the data shows, more treatment is not better.

That may be especially true of patients with end-stage cancer who are still relatively healthy and not feeling sick. For them, additional chemotherapy will likely make them weaker, not to mention eat up more of the precious time they have left traveling to and from infusion centers. Prigerson plans to continue the study to better understand the dynamics of how decisions about treatments are made toward the end of life, but in the meantime hopes the latest findings at least convince doctors to reconsider how they advise their terminal patients about end-stage chemotherapy.

Read next: Why Breast-Cancer Survivors Gain More Weight

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TIME Diet/Nutrition

Should I Eat Yogurt-Covered Snacks?

5/5 experts say no.

Yogurt-coated fruit sounds like a double-dosage health food. But don’t be fooled—a shell of “yogurt” contains some very un-yogurtlike things, according to all five of our experts.

While these coatings may be called ‘yogurt,’ they are really a kind of ‘frosting’ of which yogurt is an ingredient,” says David Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center. The real stars of yogurt coatings are sugar—and not the kind that naturally occurs in dairy foods—and oil. “Having the name ‘yogurt’ in the mix is supposed to make it all okay,” Katz says. “It does not.”

In fact, the stuff that makes up yogurt coating—typically sugar, partially hydrogenated palm kernel oil, yogurt powder, emulsifiers and salt—is a far cry from its namesake. “One should definitely not think about these as a health food,” says Mario Kratz, PhD, a dairy researcher and nutrition scientist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. “I’d place most of these snacks in the same category as candy bars.”

At first glance, the nutritional stats don’t seem so bad; for a popular brand, a 1/4 cup serving of vanilla yogurt raisins has 19 grams of sugar and 5 grams of fat, while the same serving size of regular raisins actually has more sugar—29 grams of it—but no fat. But that’s far from a nutritional wash. Since yogurt-covered raisins are so much chunkier than their natural, unadulterated peers, you get far fewer raisins per serving and far more of the unnatural kind of sugar.

There’s another danger to these snack food “impostors,” says Dina Rose, PhD, a sociologist and feeding expert of the blog It’s Not About Nutrition: The Art & Science of Teaching Kids to Eat Right. “For kids, yogurt-covered snacks like yogurt-covered (or really, oil-covered) raisins and pretzels teach that these foods should look and taste like candy,” she says. Getting a kid to recognize that a yogurt-covered snack should only be eaten occasionally, she says, is the tricky part.

J. Bruce German, PhD, professor and director of the Foods for Health Institute at the University of California, Davis—and a yogurt researcher—says that while yogurt is a “nourishing food product,” the kind that’s dried, mixed with stabilizers and blanketed on dried snacks isn’t the same. “In general most of the attributes of fresh yogurt are lost in making coated snacks,” he says.

That’s why the snacks you buy at the movie theater aren’t the real deal, agrees Jennifer Willoughby, a dietitian at Cleveland Clinic Children’s. But here’s the good part: making your own snacks from real yogurt is a tasty and healthy treat. “Choose a plain or vanilla yogurt to dip fruit or nuts in, and then freeze for a sweet treat with significantly less added sugar and more nutritional benefit,” she says.

yogurt covered pretzels
Illustration by Lon Tweeten for TIME

Read Next: Should I Eat Butter?

TIME Infectious Disease

There’s Another Drug-Resistant Bacteria In Meat

A new study suggests meat sold in grocery stores could be carrying an overlooked pathogen

We’ve heard about listeria in ice cream and E. coli in spinach, but new research suggests there’s another bacterial strain that may be infecting consumers who handle or consume meat sold in grocery stores.

A new study published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases shows turkey, chicken and pork sold in grocery stores can contain a bacteria called Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can cause illness in some people, and some strains of which are resistant to antibiotics. According to researchers, the new study is the first to suggest that meat may be a source of K. pneumoniae exposure for Americans. Currently the U.S. government does not routinely test food for that bacteria.

In the study published Thursday, researchers from the Milken Institute School of Public Health and elsewhere compared isolated samples of K. pneumoniae from meat products sold in Flagstaff, Arizona, and compared those to urine and blood samples from people with K. pneumoniae infections during the same time period. The samples were sequenced and the researchers found that 47% of the meat products tested had the bacteria, and some of the sequenced samples from the meat and samples from the humans were almost identical.

The findings underline the need for judicious use of antibiotics in livestock, since some of the strains of K. pneumoniae were discovered to be drug resistant.

The study cannot confirm for certain that the people in the study with Klebsiella pneumoniae got the infection from meat at a grocery store. “What we can say is that there are strains that were isolated from people and from meat that were nearly indistinguishable,” said lead study author Lance B. Price, a professor of environmental and occupational health at Milken Institute School of Public Health in an email.

The authors add that the findings are not necessarily reserved to Arizona where the study was conducted. Price says most of the products were produced outside of the state, which means contaminated meat could be in a variety of places country-wide.

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