TIME Cancer

Why Smoking Causes Cancer In More Men Than Women

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Stubbed out cigarette in ashtray. Getty Images/OJO Images RF— Adam Gault

Yet another motivation for men to quit smoking

Men who smoke may be at greater risk for lung cancer than their female counterparts, according to a new study in the journal Science.

That might be because smoking reduces the number of Y chromosomes in blood cells. Previous research has shown that when blood cells lose Y chromosomes, which are only present in men, cancer is more likely to develop. While the precise relationship between Y chromosomes and cancer remains unclear, Y chromosomes are thought to play a role in tumor containment.

The study, led by a team at the Uppsala University in Sweden, examined data on several factors that might have led to a loss of Y chromosomes, including age, exercise, diabetes, cholesterol, education and alcohol. Smoking and age were the only factors associated with loss of Y chromosomes in the more than 6,000 men evaluated.

The study also provides some hope for men who want to quit smoking. Y chromosomes return to the blood cells of men who stop the habit, the study found.

“These results indicate that smoking can cause loss of the Y chromosome and that this process might be reversible,” said lead study author Lars Forsberg in a press release. “This discovery could be very persuasive for motivating smokers to quit.”

The American Cancer Society expects lung cancer to kill nearly 160,000 people in the United States in 2014, more than any other cancer.

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Kalettes: A Brand-New Veggie You Should Know About

Kalettes

Kalettes, a cross between kale and Brussels sprouts, are the latest hybrid vegetable to hit the U.S. market.

The new veggie was created by Tozer Seeds, a British vegetable-breeding company that brought the vegetable to the United States in fall 2014. The non-genetically-modified vegetable took 15 years to perfect. “The inspiration behind Kalettes came from a desire to create a kale type vegetable that was versatile, easy to prepare and looked great,” Kalettes’ website reads. “Crossing kale with brussels sprouts was a natural fit since they are both from the brassica oleracea species, which also includes cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli.” Kalettes, like many dark leafy greens, are very high in vitamin C. They’re also high in vitamin K.

In the early stages of Kalettes’ development, Brussels sprouts were dropping out of popularity in the U.K., and the new hybrid was thought of as a potential way to increase the veggie’s popularity, Modern Farmer reports.

Kalettes look similar to a small cabbage and are available at Trader Joe’s nationwide, as well as at some regional groceries like Whole Foods and Costco. Kalettes are are simple to prepare and cook quicker than Brussels sprouts, the company says. Taste wise, Kalettes have a nutty, savory flavor.

TIME

HealthCare.gov Average Premiums Going Up in 2015

Premiums for the most popular type of plan will go up an average of 5 percent

(WASHINGTON) — Many HealthCare.gov customers will face higher costs next year, the Obama administration acknowledged Thursday in a report that shows average premiums rising modestly.

However, officials said millions of consumers who are currently enrolled can mitigate the financial consequences if they are willing to shop around for another plan in a marketplace that’s becoming more competitive.

Premiums for the most popular type of plan will go up an average of 5 percent in the 35 states where the federal government is running the health insurance exchanges, said a report from the Health and Human Services Department.

However, the administration says about two-thirds of current customers can still find coverage comparable to what they have now for $100 a month or less if they shop around. That estimate takes into account the tax credits that most consumers are entitled to, which cover about three-fourths of the cost of premiums on average.

Double-digit premium increases were common for people buying their own insurance before the passage of President Barack Obama’s health care law.

The modest average increases the administration reported Thursday mask bigger price swings from state to state, and even within regions of a state. Some are still seeing double-digit hikes. But others are seeing decreases. And most are somewhere in the middle.

On the whole, administration officials say the market is more stable.

“In today’s marketplace, (insurers) are competing for business,” Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell said in a statement. “Returning customers may find an even better deal if they shop and save.”

The report said about 90 percent of customers will have a choice of three or more insurers this year, with each company usually offering a range of plans. That’s a notable improvement from last year, when 74 percent of customers had similar options.

The most popular coverage is known as the lowest cost silver plan and will go up 5 percent next year.

Another key plan, the second-lowest cost silver, will go up an average of 2 percent.

Obama’s health care law offers subsidized private health insurance to those who don’t have coverage on the job. Online markets called exchanges provide different options in each state.

TIME Drugs

This Lifesaving Heroin Overdose Drug Just Got More Expensive

Why Naloxone prices are spiking 50% or more

The heroin overdose “miracle drug” is getting more expensive again.

Police departments are seeing a spike in the cost of Naloxone, the New York Times reports, with prices jumping by 50% or more. In Georgia, police saw kits with the drug go from $22 to $40.

Naloxone has always been subject to dramatic fluctuations in price and availability, restricting access for cash-strapped community organizations who distribute the drug across the U.S. The reasons for the volatility have always been complex and frustratingly opaque. But it may be from lack of competition: Only two companies, Amphastar, which makes a nasal spray, and Hospira, which makes an injectable, manufacture the drug.

MORE: This drug can stop an overdose so why is it so hard to get?

But demand for the drug is also going up: The latest price hike coincides with the proliferation of its distribution through police forces and community health programs. New policies across the country have put the Naloxone nasal spray into the hands of police officers to administer it to people overdosing. Recently passed laws in states like Pennsylvania and North Carolina also made it possible for doctors to prescribe the drug to friends and family of those addicted to heroin and prescription painkillers. Speaking to the Times, the president of Amphastar cited rising annual manufacturing costs for the increase.

Drug overdose has steadily risen to become the leading cause of injury death in the U.S., eclipsing automobile accidents, according to government data. Getting Naloxone into the hands of more first responders has been a priority for the Obama Administration in addressing what Attorney General Eric Holder has called “an urgent public health crisis.”

MORE: Heroin’s resurgence

TIME Diet/Nutrition

Should I Eat Greek Yogurt?

It's tart. But is it smart?

Welcome to Should I Eat This?—our weekly poll of five experts who answer nutrition questions that gnaw at you.

greek yogurt
Illustration by Lon Tweeten for TIME

5/5 experts say yes.

Have you heard of Greek yogurt? Of course you have. The stuff is so popular that if Greek yogurt were a band, it wouldn’t be cool to like them anymore. But these experts are still huge fans.

David Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center, eats it every day for breakfast, topped with berries and whole-grain cereal. That’s because it’s filled with calcium, potassium and, of course, lots of protein—which every expert we spoke to mentioned. Just six ounces of plain, fat-free Greek yogurt has 34% of your daily value. That’s way more than you’d get from the thin, watery version marketed to dieters.

Thicker yogurt, strained to remove the whey, has been part of many cultures’ cuisines for ages. Without that whey weighting it down, Greek yogurt comes with less sugar than regular yogurt, as long as you stick with the plain stuff, says Shivani Sahni, PhD, an instructor at Harvard Medical School.

MORE: The Mediterranean Diet Has Been Linked To A Longer Life—Again

Greek yogurt fills you up with protein, not calories—a container of non-fat only has about 100. That means, at least in theory, you won’t be inclined to eat as much nutrient-poor food. “Given that protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient per calorie, a high intake of Greek yogurt may help prevent weight gain,” says Mario Kratz, PhD, research associate professor in epidemiology at University of Washington.

Protein researcher Heather Leidy, PhD, assistant professor of nutrition and exercise physiology at University of Missouri, agrees. We’ve examined the beneficial effects of eating Greek yogurt as an afternoon snack and reported greater satiety—fullness—and a greater delay wanting to eat again compared to regular yogurt,” she says.

The diet-worthy dairy is also versatile, and it stands up just as well in your chip dip as in Dr. Katz’s morning granola.

There’s just one caveat. While Greek yogurt is a nutrition powerhouse, according to our experts, its probiotic promises may be overhyped. “While it is a probiotic, the bacteria don’t hang around in your gut,” says Jack Gilbert, PhD, a microbiologist at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and a researcher of all things bacteria. “If you are healthy they have very little impact on your health. But if you have a disrupted microbiome, such as when you have taken an antibiotic, then eating Greek yogurt might be good, filling up the real estate, and stopping pathogens from taking over.”

Before it gets to your gut, though, let Greek yogurt colonize your grocery list—right at the very top.

Read next: Should I Drink Coconut Water?

TIME Mental Health/Psychology

5 Signs You Should Take a Break From Social Media

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If you can’t rake the leaves or paint your nails without tweeting about it

In a tech-obsessed society where 500 million tweets are sent per day and 1.28 billion people use Facebook on a regular basis, how can you tell when your own love of “checking in” has gone too far? Alex Soojung-Kim Pang, PhD, technology expert and author of The Distraction Addiction, shares some of the most common signs that you should to sign off for a bit.

You make elaborate desserts and projects just to Instagram them

Did you spend extra time making your salad look picture-perfect or recreate a DIY off Pinterest just to appear crafty? If you’re guilty of situations like these, you may be ready for a break. “When you start crafting your life to be more Twitter- or Instagram-friendly, it’s time to step back,” says Pang. “Thinking about where you’ll go or what you’ll do with an eye to how it will appear on social media undermines your ability to be yourself,” he adds.

HEALTH.COM: 12 Worst Habits for Your Mental Health

You can’t rake the leaves or paint your nails without tweeting about it

We all have that friend on social media who can’t help but share every single detail of her life. Unfortunately, you may also be that friend. “Composing tweets about what you’re doing as you’re doing it or feeling the need to report your thoughts in real-time are all signs that social media is taking over your life,” says Pang. “There are only 24 hours in a day, and the more time we spend sharing with our friends what we’re doing hour-by-hour, the less time we have to discover for ourselves why we enjoy these activities and what our days are adding up to mean,” he explains.

You know way too much about your connections

“The big warning sign to look out for here is when you start becoming compulsive about knowing the statuses of your social media ‘friends,’” Pang says. So if you readily know that the random guy you once met at a party just bought a house, and you’ve already stalked his wife’s Facebook profile, you may want to reevaluate how much time you’re spending online. “The irony of social media is that while it can be great for keeping up with the details of our friend’s lives, too much engagement can obscure the big picture and weaken our ability to make sense of our own lives,” adds Pang.

HEALTH.COM: 10 Signs You Should See a Doctor for Depression

You feel like you don’t measure up to your successful/happy/thriving friends

Thumbing through your social feed can quickly lead to an inundation of good—and often envy-inducing—news. Witnessing your friends’ promotions, engagements, and extravagant vacations can stir up feelings of jealousy and inadequacy, whether you realize it or not. In fact, spending too much time on social media can cause feelings of negative body image among women, increase the amount of anxiety a person has on a daily basis, and even lead to damaged friendships and relationships. “When keeping up with your friends’ lives gets in the way of you happily leading your own life, you need a break,” says Pang.

You feel anxious when you don’t have access to your phone

Do you check Facebook at traffic lights or while talking to your friends at the table? Do you refresh your Twitter feed as soon as you wake up or as you’re falling asleep? “The more you’re on social media, the less material you actually have to talk about that’s interesting and worth having other people hear,” says Pang. Think about it: How many conversations or real-life events have you missed out on because you were too wrapped up in your phone? The more time you spend liking, the less likable your own world ends up becoming, Pang explains.

HEALTH.COM: 13 Ways to Beat Stress Instantly

How to take a step back

Start by setting aside a specific time every day for catching up on social media. “Humans have a schedule for exercising, going to work, eating meals, and sleeping. So if one hour per day, at the same time each day, is good enough for dinner, it’s good enough for your news feed,” says Pang. When you do post status updates, limit yourself to only discussing life stories, instead of off-the-cuff thoughts or irrelevant snapshots of your food or your dog (no matter how cute he may be).

Finally, experiment with temporarily limiting your access. “Challenge yourself to abstaining from social media for a full week, or, if that’s too daunting, just delete Twitter, Instagram and Facebook from your phone for a week,” Pang suggests. “Does your life get better or worse? You may find that you feel perfectly satisfied without social media in your life,” says Pang.

HEALTH.COM: 12 Signs You May Have an Anxiety Disorder

This article originally appeared on Health.com.

TIME medicine

That Flu Shot You Had May Not Work This Year

Flu vaccines
David Cheskin—PA Wire/AP

You should still get vaccinated

The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have warned doctors that flu vaccines may not be effective against the most common strain of flu circulating in the U.S..

According to Reuters, the U.S. health agency issued an advisory to doctors Wednesday saying that of the flu samples they had taken between October 1 and November 22, less than half were good matches for the current flu shots.

The flu shots will still protect against certain strains of the flu, and can help reduce the risk of complications even among the strains that have mutated.

[Reuters]

 

TIME Mental Health/Psychology

How Your Cell Phone Distracts You Even When You’re Not Using It

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Why you might want to get it out of eyesight

Even if you go all day without touching your cell phone once, just having it visible nearby may distract you from complex tasks, according to new research in the journal Social Psychology.

In the first part of the study, which looked at a group of more than 50 college students, participants were asked to complete different motor tasks with the study leader’s cell phone visible. In the second, participants completed motor tasks with their own cell phones visible. Performance on complex tasks suffered in both conditions when compared to control groups with no visible cell phone.

The sight of a cell phone reminds people of the “broader social community” they can access via texting and the internet, says study author Bill Thornton.

MORE: Why People Text And Drive Even When They Know It’s Dangerous

“With the presence of the phone, you’re wondering what those people are doing,” says Thornton, a University of Southern Maine professor. “Even if it’s just mental, your focus is not on the task at hand, whether it be trying to write an article, get this spreadsheet set up, or just socializing; your mind is elsewhere.”

While performance on complex tasks suffered, the presence of cell phones did little to keep people from successfully finishing easy tasks. Thornton says the same applies to texting while driving.

“You could probably text and drive somewhat safely if you’re on a straight road, and there’s no traffic, and you take your time,” says Thornton. Of course, those conditions rarely exist.

The study builds on previous research that suggests that having your cell phone out reduces the quality of social interaction, even if you don’t engage with your phone. Having the phone out stifled “interpersonal closeness and trust” and kept study participants from feeling empathy for one another, a 2012 study in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships found.

“Mobile communication devices such as phones may, by their mere presence, paradoxically hold the potential to facilitate as well as to disrupt human bonding and intimacy,” it concluded.

Cell phones play a significant role in today’s social engagement, but Thornton nonetheless suggests that people just put the device away for awhile. “I’m not sure how many people’s text messages are that important,” he said. “Unless you’re an advisor to the president and we have a national emergency, you can wait an hour to get a text.”

TIME animals

8 Animal Plagues Wreaking Havoc Right Now

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The scariest diseases plaguing the animal kingdom

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When we talk about studying, controlling, or just plain worrying about pandemics, we usually think of our own, human diseases. But many other species face existential threats as well. In the wild and on the farm, through climate change, human agency, and other causes, deadly diseases and conditions are ravaging specific animal communities. Here are eight of the scariest diseases plaguing the animal kingdom today.

Plague: White-nose syndrome

Target: Bats

This disease is named for the characteristic fuzzy white bloom found on the muzzles (as well as the wings and ears) of hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The fungus seems to have originated in Europe, where it does not harm the native bats. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, white-nose syndrome has killed an estimated 6.7 million bats in 25 U.S. states and 5 Canadian provinces. Scientists believe bats primarily contract the disease from one another, though it’s also possible bats can pick up spores from contaminated cave surfaces. Some human cave explorers may also transport fungal spores in their clothing and equipment. There’s no known cure, and the disease is incredibly deadly, usually killing between 70 and 90 percent of bats in a hibernating group; scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how the fungus kills bats, and why European bats seem to be immune.

WORLD SCIENCE FESTIVAL: 12 Animals We’ve Driven to Extinction in the Last 50 Years

Plague: Canine distemper virus

Target: Tigers (and dogs, and other canines)

The virus that causes canine distemper is related to measles. It spreads through respiration, but quickly attacks the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The virus can also jump to big cats, and is cropping up in tiger populations across the world. In just five years, one population of tigers in Russia dropped from 38 individuals to 9; traces of CDV found in two dead tigers led scientists to finger the virus as the chief suspect in the population crash.

A recent study highlights how smaller populations of tigers are extremely vulnerable to CDV. Tigers are not abundant enough to act as reservoirs for the virus, so researchers think the key to preventing CDV from spreading amongst them is to target the canine species that are the sources of outbreaks. India is contemplating a massive dog vaccination campaign against the virus; the drive is already underway in villages near tiger reserves.

Plague: Starfish wasting disease

Target: Starfish

Over the past 40 years, starfish populations have been stricken by recurring outbreaks of a devastating condition. At first, a starfish’s limbs start to curl, then twist and fall off. Eventually, the wasting disease ravages the entire starfish, turning it into a mushy goo.

Researchers previously blamed this “starfish wasting disease” on environmental changes, like pollution or fluctuations in ocean temperatures. But a new study pins the blame primarily on a type of waterborne virus called a densovirus. One of the chief lines of evidence to support this theory was the fact that captive starfish in aquariums suddenly contracted the disease—except for those starfish in aquariums filled with UV-treated water, which kills viruses. The researchers also found higher genetic traces of the virus in diseased starfish tissue, and found that healthy starfish infected with densovirus would develop the disease within a week or so.

WORLD SCIENCE FESTIVAL: Can Animals Go Insane?

Plague: Brucellosis

Target: Bison, cow, elk

The bacterial disease brucellosis causes a wide range of symptoms in animals, from arthritis to inflamed joints to reproductive trouble. It can also spread to people via unpasteurized dairy products, causing fever and flu-like symptoms as well as arthritis. While brucellosis has largely been eradicated from cattle in the U.S., the disease persists in the bison and elk of Yellowstone National Park. Fears that the wild animals could reintroduce brucellosis to nearby cattle have been bolstered by 17 documented transmissions of the disease from wildlife to livestock in the greater Yellowstone area from 2002 to 2012. Despite protests from conservation groups, park officials are planning to cull up to 900 bison from the herd this winter to stem the spread of brucellosis and stabilize the population.

Plague: Colony collapse disorder

Target: Honeybees

Starting in 2006, beekeepers in the U.S. began to notice what looked like a honeybee version of the Rapture: At once, most or all of the adult worker bees in the colony vanished without a trace, leaving behind empty hives and queen bees bereft of subjects. Colony collapse disorder, as the phenomenon came to be known, is not entirely new to beekeeping, but the magnitude of losses is unprecedented. The root cause of CCD is still unknown: Pesticides, viruses, mites, fungi, antibiotics and other factors have all been proposed.

Most scientists think CCD is prompted by a combination of factors, and that it may not directly kill the bees outright. University of Maryland bee expert Dennis van Engelsdorp explained, in National Geographic: “You don’t die of AIDS; you die of pneumonia or some other condition that hits when your immunity is down. Once the bees’ immune defenses have been weakened, “we’re pretty sure in all these cases, diseases are the tipping point.” Hive losses are still being felt across the country, but the rate of collapse seems to be slowing. According to the USDA, the loss rate in honeybee colonies nationwide over the 2013-2014 winter from all causes was 23.2 percent—still above what beekeepers consider sustainable, but less dire than the 30.5 percent losses of the 2012-13 winter, or the 8-year average annual loss of 29.6 percent.

WORLD SCIENCE FESTIVAL: The Best (and Worst) Fathers in the Animal Kingdom

Plague: Rabies

Target: Bats, monkeys, dogs, raccoons, foxes…and a lot more

Rabies is present on all the continents of the world except Antarctica. The virus, transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal or person, travels through the nerves up to the brain, where it undoes an animal’s ability to regulate its own heartbeat, breathing, and salivation. Most victims die from respiratory failure or irregular heart rhythms.

In the U.S., vaccination drives for pets have caused the disease has to move from one primarily of domestic animals to one primarily found in wildlife, which represent 90 percent of all animal rabies cases reported to the CDC. Most mammals can contract rabies, but the primary source of human rabies transmission in the U.S. these days is bats, with raccoons and skunks the most frequently reported rabid animals.

To prevent the spread of rabies, health and wildlife departments in many Eastern U.S. states entice animals to consume oral rabies vaccine by concealing doses in a coating of dog food or fishmeal. The bait is deposited by hand in urban and suburban areas and dropped from planes in rural areas.

Plague: Chytridiomycosis

Target: Frogs

Around 200 amphibian species have declined or gone extinct thanks to this rapidly-spreading fungal disease. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infects the cells of a frog’s outer layer of skin, which they rely heavily on for respiration. The infected skin becomes thicker, impeding the frog’s ability to absorb water and electrolytes through its skin, and eventually leading to cardiac arrest.

Various treatments are being investigated for chytridiomycosis, including incubating tadpoles in warmer water that kills the fungus and bathing adult frogs in antifungal treatments. While these methods show promise, it is still possible for the frogs to get re-infected out in the wild.

Plague: Cattle fever

Target: Cows, deer

The U.S. government employs a cadre of cowboys to ride the banks of the Rio Grande in order to stop the spread of ticks that cause cattle fever. Parasites transmitted by the ticks can kill a cow within days of the first symptoms, or can cause a wasting disease that can last for weeks and cut a steer’s weight by 20 percent in just a year. A nationwide tick eradication program has largely pushed cattle fever out of U.S. borders, but the “tick rider” cowboys still patrol the borders to catch any stray Mexican cattle—often abandoned by ranchers fleeing drug war violence—that might spark an outbreak.

Wildlife are another possible source of cattle fever, as both white-tailed deer and the imported nilgai antelope can also carry the ticks. Climate change may make the southern U.S. an even more hospitable environment for the ticks, as well as the spread of invasive reeds that shelter the bugs. Scientists are working on ways to combat the reeds, the ticks, and the cattle fever parasite—including a wildlife vaccine distributed in biscuit form.

This article originally appeared on World Science Festival.

TIME ebola

The First Attempt to Digitize Ebola Health Records

Ebola treatment in West Africa is going digital

Keeping detailed patient records during the Ebola outbreak can be a nightmare.

Currently, health care workers use very basic methods, ranging from scanning files to writing on white boards to calling results across rooms to simple memorization. But the International Rescue Committee (IRC), a crisis organization, is about to change that by bringing in electronic health records to its new Ebola treatment unit opening the week of Dec. 15 in Monrovia, Liberia.

“There’s a rule in medicine that if it’s not written down, you didn’t do it,” says Dr. Wilson Wang, a senior clinical advisor for IRC’s Ebola response. Wang says the new electronic health record system can be used for health care accountability and to record decisions made, as well as those decisions’ outcome. IRC’s new system can be accessed via waterproof Sony tablets that can be brought into high-risk zones. The devices will still destroyed when the unit is no longer needed, but the actual data will not be lost. The system was developed by IRC’s own technology team with the help of health software company Vecna.

Some of the patient data will be handed over to the Liberian Ministry of Health to aid in contact tracing, but IRC says other data that doesn’t identify patients will be shared publicly in some capacity. That data could consist of what specific Ebola treatments are being provided, how many patients are seen in the unit, what percentage of patients test positive or negative for the virus, how many people survived, and among those who didn’t, where did they go? In the future, this may aid in other outbreaks, and help scientists and researchers understand what went right and wrong in the current outbreak.

“We want to share [the system],” says Wang. “We plan to essentially give it away, but we want to demonstrate that it works.”

It will also enable physician support. Currently, doctors treating Ebola rely on their own experiences and what’s reported to be successful in the past to determine how to treat a person, but Wang says there’s not a single place doctors can go to get the most up to date data on what’s working in the current outbreak. The new system could make it easier for doctors to get directions on how much medication they should provide, for instance, or what to do when someone has a seizure. “When providers are under stress, and even when they’re not, they make mistakes. They’re human,” says Wang. It’s his hope that this technology could help doctors avoid some of those mistakes by giving them a resource to turn to.

IRC has been in West Africa for over two decades often helping hospitals with infrastructure. When the current outbreak is contained, IRC says it plans to find a way to use the system to help rebuild the currently devastated health system in Liberia—even if it’s just to aid in administrative tasks. “Hospitals need a system to manage this type of data and place orders [for resources and drugs],” says Wang. “[Right now] it’s sort of like coming up with a grocery list for a party when you don’t know what people are going to eat.”

In the meantime, IRC plans to roll out the system in its own unit in mid-December, and plans to continue to refine the platform as they go.

“We think this has the potential to really change not only how quality and safety is addressed in an Ebola situation, but it can also be adapted to any health care situation,” says Wang.

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