TIME States

Happy Hour Is Legal Again in Illinois

A ban is overturned after more than 25 years

Happy hour is coming back to Illinois.

Gov. Bruce Rauner signed a bill Wednesday that nullified a ban on happy hour drink specials in the state, which had been in effect since 1989. The ban was meant to combat alcohol-related car accidents.

If you live in Illinois, you haven’t been able to grab a drink after work with buddies to blow off steam and snap up cheaper “happy hour” deals for more than 25 years. But discounts will now be allowed for up to four hours a day and up to 15 hours a week, so long as specials end before 10 p.m. “Volume” drink specials, like getting two for the price of one, will remain banned.

Reactions were mixed: While customers were jubilant, business owners opposed the bill. Some activists fear happy hour drink specials will lead to more alcohol related accidents.

TIME public health

Lyme Disease Has Surged 320% in America

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Climate change is among the reasons blamed

Lyme disease is not only becoming more rampant in its normal hotspot of the northeast United States, it’s spreading across the country, a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns.

“Over time, the number of counties identified as having high incidence of Lyme disease in the northeastern states increased more than 320 percent,” researchers write in the report. They also note that the disease is appearing in states where its never been recorded before.

One big reason why Lyme disease is spiking, according to the CDC report: climate change.

Ticks tend to live in densely-forested areas and are preyed on by white mice. But forest clearing has killed off many mice, leaving ticks without a predator to keep them in check. With humans crossing this terrain, it means ticks have a fresh crop of victims to attack. And thanks to warmer temperatures, ticks are spreading their terrain into America’s heartland from their normal stronghold on the East coast.

Lyme disease is an infection caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria found on blacklegged deer ticks. The disease was identified in 1975. Symptoms include a high fever, headaches, fatigue, and a skin rash. If untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart and nervous system. In some instances, Lyme disease can be fatal.

New Jersey is typically considered the capital of Lyme disease in America, but it’s spreading across the Mid-Atlantic to the Midwest, with high-risk counties in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York, Iowa, Michigan, and Minnesota.

Click here to see what to do to prevent yourself against Lyme disease—and what to do if you have it.

TIME Brain

How Alzheimer’s Is Different in African-Americans

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GSO Images—Getty Images

The brain disease looks very different in African-Americans than it does in whites, which could affect treatment and diagnosis

The hallmark signs of Alzheimer’s are well-established—plaques of amyloid protein and tangles of tau protein in the brain, which work to suffocate and eventually destroy neurons that are dedicated to higher level functions such as memory and reasoning.

But in a study published in the journal Neurology, researchers show that there may be important differences in the way Alzheimer’s appears in the brains of African-American and white patients. When Lisa Barnes, a neurologist at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center at Rush University Medical Center and her colleagues compared the brains of 41 black patients who had died of the disease to the brains of 81 white patients, they found a much more complex picture of Alzheimer’s in the brains of the African-Americans.

MORE: Mental and Social Activity Delays the Symptoms of Alzheimer’s

These patients were more likely to have not just the familiar plaques and tangles, but also other signs of neurological abnormalities, including Lewy bodies, signs of infarcts and blood vessel disease. In fact, 71% of the African-American patients showed this mixed picture compared to 50% of the white patients.

The most common—and surprising, says Barnes—connection involved the Lewy bodies. These are clumps of proteins that aggregate inside nerve cells, particularly those involved in movement. They are common in Parkinson’s patients and can contribute to tremors as well as hallucinations and sleep disruptions. Because the black population is known to have higher risk of circulatory disorders, including stroke and hypertension, Barnes expected to find more infarct-related differences when comparing the brains of African-Americans to those of whites. “We did not find that,” she says. “We found a much more mixed picture than just infarcts, and that was a little bit surprising.”

MORE: Many Doctors Don’t Tell Patients They Have Alzheimer’s

She says, however, that the prevalence of Lewy bodies in the brains might simply reflect a bias in the study sample, since they came from the population of patients who came to the Alzheimer’s clinic. Hallucinations and abnormal movements are more likely to cause patients to see a doctor than slips in memory, which many dismiss as a normal part of aging.

Still, Barnes says the findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way Alzheimer’s develops in African-Americans that is being missed with the dominant focus on plaques and tangles. “They suggest that treatments currently on the market targeting plaques and tangles, if they are given to a population that has more mixed disease, may not respond as well to the medication,” she says. “Right now we are focused on amyloid and tangles. But maybe we need to be thinking about Lewy bodies and infarcts as possible treatment targets.”

It’s possible, for example, that in African-American patients, a combination of drugs that includes other medications to treat blood pressure or diabetes might be as important for addressing symptoms of dementia.

The results also suggest that having better ways of detecting not just the plaques and tangles but other changing brain abnormalities, particularly in non-white populations, are desperately needed. But Barnes says that little is known about how brain disorders evolve in different racial and ethnic groups because there are very few studies involving them. “We need to have better biomarkers—something to actually detect things in the body, blood and brain to help us see how the disease is playing out in different racial and ethnic groups,” she says. “But we need people participating in the studies to do that.”

TIME Connecticut

This State Is Now the Most Expensive Place to Die

West Suffield Cemetery, Connecticut
The West Suffield cemetery in Connecticut. The West Suffield cemetery in Connecticut.

Probate fees could cost up to $1 million

Connecticut has become the most expensive place to die in the U.S.

Probate fees on settling estates — a legal process that determines the authenticity of wills and the administering of a deceased’s assets — have risen, resulting in invoices that could top $100,000 or even $1 million.

“It’s outrageous,” Westport attorney Amy Day told CNBC. “We always had a cap on probate fees of $12,500. Now it’s not going to be unusual for people to pay upward of $50,000.”

One of the big reasons for the shocking increase in fees has been a budget cut at the state legislature that has strangled funding to the probate court system. A previous $12,500 cap on court fees has been eliminated, and fees on estates worth more than $2 million have doubled to 0.5% of the estate’s value.

Lawyers and judges have since remarked on the debilitating result of this decision. Judge Paul Knierim, Connecticut’s probate court administrator, said if the new fees were applied last year, two estates worth more than $200 million apiece would have paid more than $1 million in probate costs and about a dozen worth over $20 million would have paid more than $100,000. Knierim and some state lawmakers are planning to campaign for a reversion to the previous system next year.

“I think the fundamental problem is that the change in decedents’ estate fees imposes the burden of running the probate court system on a very small portion of the population,” Knierim said to CNBC.

State Governor Dannel Malloy put forward a state budget last month that included cuts in education, health care, and social services.

TIME Healthcare

Why Your Rosy Cheeks Could Be Signaling a Health Problem

A red face might be more than just a flush

During my 20s, I saved a lot of money on makeup: I never needed blush, because I had a perma-rosy flush. But a few weeks after I turned 30, I noticed a squiggle on my left cheek that looked like a red pen mark yet turned out, upon closer inspection, to be a capillary. Soon, more joined it. I visited a dermatologist. That flushing wasn’t a gift from nature; it was rosacea.

An estimated 16 million Americans have this condition, though they may not know it. “Rosacea is one of the most undiagnosed medical disorders—people mistake it for acne, eczema or sensitive skin,” notes Whitney Bowe, MD, clinical assistant professor of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. It typically starts in your 30s, is more common among women and is peskiest now; in a poll of 852 rosacea patients by the national Rosacea society, 58 percent said their symptoms are at their worst during the summer. Here’s the scoop on those flare-ups.

What rosacea looks like:
Redness that won’t go away
It usually appears on your cheeks, nose, chin and forehead. Sometimes rosy patches also show up on the neck, chest, scalp and ears.

Visible blood vessels
They tend to crop up on the cheeks, chin and nose.

Dry skin
“One of the main issues with rosacea is a breakdown in skin barrier function,” Dr. Bowe says. “Skin may no longer be able to trap moisture, leading to dryness and itchiness.”

Bumps
Along with redness, pus-filled pimples and little red bumps are an issue for folks with papulopustular rosacea—the second most common kind. “With acne, breakouts occur on the jaw and hairline, but rosacea occurs in the middle third of the face,” says Anne Chapas, MD, a dermatological surgeon in New York City. Plus, there are usually no accompanying blackheads or whiteheads.

Why you’re caught red-faced
Light-skinned ladies, like me, of Eastern or Northern European descent are most at risk of rosacea. There’s also a genetic link, concludes a new study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

Sufferers tend to have blood vessels that dilate easily, increasing the rush of blood to the skin’s surface—particularly when spicy foods, red wine, exercise, stress, warm temperatures and sun are involved. The one-two whammy: You’re more prone to rosacea if you blush easily—and having the condition can make you even redder.

Not only can sun exposure trigger redness, but sunburns from your teens and early 20s (before you knew better, of course) can haunt you, making capillaries rear their heads. “Over time, sun damage breaks down healthy tissue that acts as a barrier between your blood vessels and the surface of the skin, and they become more visible,” Dr. Bowe says.

Scientists have pinpointed one icky culprit for papulopustular rosacea: Demodex, a microscopic mite that lives on all our faces but can be found in 10 times greater number on those with rosacea. “When they die, they release bacteria, leading to skin inflammation and pustules,” says Kevin Kavanagh, PhD, a microbiologist at Maynooth university in Ireland, who researches Demodex. The little buggers proliferate on weathered skin, according to a review of studies published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology—thanks again, sun!

Your best treatment plan:
While none of these solutions can erase the mental image of critters crawling over your face, they are proven to fight rosacea.

Rx gels and creams
In 2013, Mirvaso became the first prescription medication approved by the FDA to ease redness from rosacea. Brand new: Soolantra (ivermectin), used to reduce bumps, has both anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties, so it’s a Demodex foe. Finacea (azaelic acid) is another common prescription for papulopustular rosacea. A dermatologist might recommend a combination of meds to address different symptoms; insurance typically pays. People with severe rosacea could additionally need an antibacterial and antimicrobial antibiotic, such as doxycycline.

Lasers
Derms zap visible blood vessels with intense pulsed light and KTP lasers, heating and disintegrating them, Dr. Chapas explains. No worries; the procedure feels like the snap of a rubber band, and swelling and redness should resolve in a day. Patients typically need one to three sessions, with more as other squiggly lines appear. Most painful of all: sessions can run $250-plus a pop, and insurance won’t cover them.

Probiotics
Growing evidence suggests that creams with probiotics can keep out “bad” bacteria and help contain inflammation. Pill versions may come in handy, too. A study in the journal Beneficial Microbes found that oral probiotic supplements can strengthen the skin barrier. And ingesting more kefir, miso soup, kombucha tea, sauerkraut and yogurt with active cultures—all high in probiotics—could help.

Control triggers
Sure, you can avoid red wine, exercise, sun and stress—if you’re a hermit or a monk. As Dr. Bowe says, “You can’t stop living!” I spritz my face with water during workouts and at the beach to tamp down flushing. Some swear by rubbing on ice cubes made of green tea (which has anti-inflammatory properties) to reduce redness. “Work with a doctor to come up with a regimen that keeps symptoms under control,” Dr. Bowe urges. “And if you have a big event, lay off triggers the day before.”

This article originally appeared on Health.com

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TIME Research

Why Planned Parenthood Provides Fetal Cells to Scientists

Planned Parenthood
Mario Tama—Getty Images A sign hangs in the offices of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America December 7, 2001 in New York City.

Donating cells from aborted fetuses for research has been practiced for decades

A video showing a Planned Parenthood doctor discussing the transfer of fetal tissue from abortions to researchers put the organization on the defensive this week after its release by undercover anti-abortion activists. The activists claim to have caught the organization perpetrating a federal crime by selling human body parts.

While the casual discussion about abortion procedures depicted in the video may upset people on both sides of the issue, donating cells from aborted fetuses for research has been practiced for decades and affirmed by leading medical organizations. Research using fetuses has also led to medical advances, including in Parkinson’s Disease and the development of a Polio vaccine.

Rush University neurosurgery professor Jeffrey Kordower said that he and his fellow researchers faced ethical questions when researching Parkinson’s Disease, but there was “very little discussion” about the ethics of using aborted fetuses.

The American Medical Association (AMA), for instance, separates a woman’s decision to have an abortion from the decision to donate fetal tissue and argues that fetal tissue has the potential to save lives. “Fetal tissue has intrinsic properties…that make it attractive for transplantation research,” the AMA said in a statement in 1991.

The 1991 statement also lays out a set of rules and procedures researchers and donors must follow to remain ethically sound. Among them is a rule prohibiting the sale of fetuses. The undercover video points to a moment in the video when Planned Parenthood Senior Director Deborah Nucatola says that receiving a fetus may cost $30-100 per specimen to allege that the organization violated AMA guidelines and federal law. But, as Planned Parenthood explained in a statement, the organization’s policy allows recipients of fetal donations to reimburse the organization for costs associated with the donations.

“There is no financial benefit for tissue donation for either the patient or for Planned Parenthood,” said spokesperson Eric Ferrero in a statement. “In some instances, actual costs, such as the cost to transport tissue to leading research centers, are reimbursed, which is standard across the medical field.”

TIME Mental Health/Psychology

10 Signs You Really Need a Vacation

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Because we all need some time off every now and then

You probably wouldn’t hesitate to call in sick if you had the flu. But would you take a day off when your stress levels have catapulted into the stratosphere? For many of us, the answer is no. In a 2011 survey of 1,546 people by the American Psychological Association, about one-third of respondents said they typically feel tense or stressed out during their workday. And despite that nearly all of us need an occasional break, many rarely take a vacation day because they worry that others will look down on them, says Paula Davis-Laack, PhD, author of Addicted to Busy. Sky-high stress at work won’t just lead to burnout—it can also bring on stomach issues, trouble sleeping, headaches, and more, according to a 2011 review by researchers from the University of South Florida. On average, Americans get 14 days of vacation a year, but use only 10 of them. How do you know when you’ve reached a breaking point and it might be time to cash in your chips? Read on for 10 signs that you and your workplace need a little time off.

Every little problem is turning into a big issue

No one likes fielding other people’s mistakes, but the truth is, you should be able to handle the occasional curveball or two—and your goal should always be to knock it out of the park. A positive attitude is key. “There are days when you [tackle problems] like a rock star,” says Davis-Laack. “And that’s a good feeling to have.” Even on days when you’re not feeling very ambitious, you should try to keep the situation in perspective. Sure, legitimate annoyances will always pop up, but “not everything you deal with is a level-10 problem,” she says. If you’re acting testier toward your co-workers or clients (say, you find yourself thinking, “Didn’t we just go over that?” or “Why can’t you understand these directions?”), then you’re the one who might be making a mistake—by not taking some time off to recharge.

Your coworkers keep asking if you’re feeling all right

Other people may notice that you’re stressed before you do. If your coworkers keep approaching you to say, “You look tired,” or ask, “Is something wrong?” then that could be a sign that your stress has spilled over into your workday and is obvious to the rest of your office, says Davis-Laack. Another sign: You’re unusually cranky and people are giving you more distance than usual. If that’s the case, you may not need to take much time off—just a day or two or a long weekend, she explains. Andrew Shatte, PhD, a stress resilience expert and co-author of meQuilibrium: 14 Days to Cooler, Calmer, and Happier also recommends trying to work more “microbreaks” into your day. For example, all it may take to give you a quick mood boost is a 2-minute lap around the office floor or a short coffee break.

You start making mistakes

“Chronic stress is a well-known cause of workplace errors, and it’s a sign that you may need to take a step back,” says Davis-Laack. Studies show that when doctors and pharmacists are stressed or have a heavy workload, they could be prone to more mistakes—a serious problem in the medical community, since they can be potentially fatal to patients.

If you’re in the middle of a project and have been slipping up, finish the project and then arrange for some time off, advises Davis-Laack. “You don’t have to tell everyone on your team what’s happening,” she says, “but you might want to let your supervisor or client know that you’ve fixed your mistake and are taking steps to ensure it doesn’t happen again.”

You’re feeling pretty cynical

Everything bores you, nothing excites you, and you can’t muster up any positive thoughts about the company you work for. Once those cynical thoughts start percolating in your brain, it may be a sign that you could be headed for burnout. Try to counter it ASAP: Davis-Laack advises employees to keep at least a three-to-one ratio of positive to negative experiences. (And she also says that highly successful teams have a ratio of about six to one.) Shatte’s advice: “If you have an upsetting conversation with someone at the office, jump on the phone with another long-term colleague and ask to chat for a few minutes,” he says. “You want to balance out the bad experiences with even more good ones.”

You start ‘borrowing’ the office supplies

Sure, we’ve all snatched a pen or two, but when you’re practically shopping at the supply closet, that’s a sign that you’re stressed out. Researchers actually have a name for these habits: “counterproductive work behaviors,” or “CWB,” for short. And one new 2015 study found that it may take weeks or even months before they start showing up in stressed-out employees. “Uncertainty [in the workplace] drives a great deal of stress,” says Davis-Laack. “As a result, people tend to turn inward, seek to protect their own turf, and become less likely to help others because they don’t know what’s going to happen outwardly.” If you’re engaging in counterproductive work behaviors, like picking fights with your co-workers or taking extra-long lunch breaks, she says, you may need a day off to help reset your priorities or even seek out new opportunities.

Everything hurts

Backaches. Headaches. Eye strain. All of these painful conditions are your body’s not-so-subtle way of telling you that you might need a day off. One 2011 University of South Florida review about stress in the workplace found that heavy workloads, negative environments, and obstacles that prevent people from completing their tasks were all factors linked to pain-related health problems in employees. The researchers say that when people find themselves in a stressful situation, their bodies release chemicals that trigger inflammation and increase their sensitivity to pain.

Your stomach basically hates you

A killer headache isn’t the only physical sign that you’re feeling frazzled—cramping and bloating might be other indicators. “Some people say they’re more likely to have stomach problems and digestive issues when they’re feeling stressed,” says Davis-Laack. That could be because stress can cause changes to the bacteria that reside in our guts, which could make us more vulnerable to upset stomachs. In fact, a 2010 study in the Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease found that people with gastrointestinal disorders may be more likely to have chronic stress than their calmer GI counterparts.

And you can forget about getting a decent night’s sleep

If you’re having trouble sleeping, that can also be a side effect of too much stress, says Shatte. In one 2007 study from the University of Georgia at Athens, people who believed they did “excessive” amounts of work were more likely to have difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and spending more time in the restorative part of their sleep cycle than those who weren’t as overloaded at the office. And another 2005 study by Swedish researchers also found that overworked employees were more likely to have trouble unwinding before bed and have increased amounts of daytime sleepiness, possibly because their bodies were trying to make up for lost shut-eye. Some researchers speculate that the hormones involved in the flight-or-fight response—which is activated when we encounter a particularly stressful situation—may cause lasting tension and sabotage your sleep.

When you get home, you reach for a glass of wine

Do you bolt straight for the wine cabinet when you come home? If so, says Davis-Laack, you might be using alcohol as a coping mechanism for too-stressful days at the office. One 2012 study conducted in people in the nursing field—a particularly challenging occupation—found that drinking alcohol was a common way they dealt with the pressure. And another 2012 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that women who were experiencing burnout were more susceptible to emotional and uncontrolled eating—two habits that could boost your risk for obesity. A better way to send stress packing? Exercise. One study from the University of Maryland found that when people performed 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, they were calmer in the face of an anxiety-inducing situation than those who had just rested quietly. (Now you know what to do on your day off!)

You can’t remember why you wanted this job in the first place

Some people who are under a lot of pressure lose perspective of why they keep coming to work, says Shatte. This is one of the more serious signs of burnout, so if this is you, you may need to take a longer break from the office—and you may also need to reframe your thinking. “Sometimes people can become siloed at their job, and when that happens, they fail to see how their work affects their country or community,” he explains. Think about how your day-to-day impacts your life’s big picture: do you have a family to support? That’s one major reason to stay positive, says Shatte. So keep a picture of your relatives on hand, and remind yourself that you’re working for them, not just The Man.

This article originally appeared on Health.com

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