TIME Money

Why You Should Never Buy Stuff When You’re Sad

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Elizabeth Renstrom for TIME

When retail therapy backfires

If you lose out on a plum assignment or get passed over for a promotion, your first tendency might be to head to the mall or click over to Amazon for a pick-me-up in the form of some discretionary splurging. It’s a common response, but a new study says it’s not the best one.

In fact, researchers warn that those purchases could leave you feeling worse about yourself, not to mention leaving a hole in your wallet as well as make you less resistant to future temptation.

A new study in the Journal of Consumer Research finds uncovers some interesting findings about how we cope with failures. A big personal or professional disappointment disrupts how we see ourselves, and we often respond unconsciously. Say you get passed over for a big promotion. You might go out and buy the luxury watch or designer handbag you were going to reward yourself with anyway, as if to say, “See? I don’t need them to look successful,” in an attempt to bolster your bruised ego.

But there’s a catch: The researchers suggest that, instead of cheering you up, anything you buy that’s associated with whatever you’re trying to forget actually just serves to remind you of that flub or failure. Instead of being a consolation prize, it acts as a trigger that makes you feel even worse, chips away at your self-control and even impairs your ability to focus on completing difficult tasks.

In experiments, subjects were asked to think about a past intellectual failure, then choose a copy of brainy-sounding Scientific American magazine. Afterwards, they reported that selecting the magazine made them dwell on that past incident when they felt dumb. When researchers offered these subjects chocolate candy, they found that those negative feelings led to lower self-control, with subjects less able to resist the offer of junk food.

“After experiencing a setback in one area of their life, consumers might be better off boosting their sense of self in a different area of their life,” the researchers say. For instance (if you must indulge in retail therapy) they suggest following up an experience that makes you feel dumb with a purchase intended to make you feel better about your social standing rather than one aimed at make you feel better about your intellect.

TIME real estate

These Are the Safest States in America

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The list was compiled based on crime data, median household income, poverty rates, and educational attainment rates

This post is in partnership with 24/7 Wall Street. The article below was originally published on 247WallSt.com.

The number of violent crimes dropped across the United States by 4.4% in 2013 compared to the year before, according to estimates released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). In the last decade, the number of violent crimes declined by nearly 15%.

In a previous interview with 24/7 Wall St., John Roman, senior fellow at public policy research organization The Urban Institute said, “A 4.4% reduction in violent crime is astonishing. If you saw a similar increase in GDP, or a similar decrease in unemployment, it would be huge national news.”

The national improvement in crime levels has not been uniform across all states, nor were the resulting crime rates. While some states were relatively more dangerous despite the improvement, others were considerably safer than most states. In Vermont, the violent crime rate dropped by more than 19% in 2013 from 2012 — the largest reduction in the country. The state was also the safest, with 115 violent crimes reported per 100,000 people.

Nationwide, 368 violent crimes were reported for every 100,000 people in 2013. Such crimes include murder, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery. In six of America’s 10 safest states, there were less than 200 violent crimes reported per 100,000 residents. Based on violent crime rates published by the FBI’s 2013 Uniform Crime Report, these are America’s safest states.

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter were especially uncommon in the nation’s safest states. Half of the 10 states reported less than two such crimes per 100,000 people last year, and the murder rates in all of the safest states were below the national rate of 4.5 incidents per 100,000 people. Similarly, aggravated assault rates did not exceed the national rate of 229 incidents per 100,000 Americans in any of the safest states. In three states — Kentucky, Maine, and Vermont — less than 100 assaults were reported per 100,000 state residents last year.

Not only were residents of these states relatively sheltered from violence, but other sorts of crimes were also less common. For example, nine of the 10 safest states reported less property crimes per 100,000 residents than the national rate of 2,730 property crimes per 100,000 Americans. Motor vehicle crimes in particular were especially uncommon. There were less than 100 vehicle thefts reported per 100,000 state residents in five of the 10 states, versus 221.3 such thefts per 100,000 people nationwide.

While explanations for the level of safety in a particular area are by no means concrete, socioeconomic indicators are powerful predictors of crime. Just as in large U.S. cities, income plays a major role at the state level in predicting crime levels. A typical household earned more than the national median household income of $52,250 in six of the 10 states last year. Kentucky households were the exception among the safest states, with a median income of less than $44,000.

People living in the nation’s safest states were also far less likely than other Americans to live in poverty. The poverty rate in all but two of the 10 states was lower than the national rate of 15.8% last year. New Hampshire, the sixth safest state, led the nation with just 8.7% of residents living below the poverty line in 2013.

Educational attainment rates are yet another factor contributing to violent crime. Lower levels of education result in lower incomes later in life, which in turn can contribute to higher crime rates. In addition, as Roman explained in a previous discussion at the city level, poor education is part of several structural disadvantages that make crime very difficult to address. According to Roman, addressing these underlying economic and social issues is critical to reducing crime. Unsurprisingly, residents in the safest states tended to be more highly educated. More than 90% of adults in seven of the 10 states had completed at least high school last year, versus the national rate of 86.6%. And while less than 30% of Americans had attained at least a bachelor’s degree as of 2013, more than one-third of residents in four of the nation’s safest states had done so.

To identify the safest states in America, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed violent crime rates from the FBI’s 2013 Uniform Crime Report. Property crime rates also came from the FBI’s report. The data were broken into eight types of crime. Violent crime was comprised of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault; and, property crime was comprised of burglary, arson, larceny, and motor vehicle theft. In addition to crime data, we also reviewed median household income, poverty rates, and educational attainment rates from the 2013 Census Bureau’s American Community Survey.

These are the safest states in America.

10. Montana
> Violent crimes per 100,000: 240.7
> Population: 1,015,165
> Total 2013 murders: 22 (tied-6th lowest)
> Poverty rate: 16.5% (19th highest)
> Pct. of adults with high school diploma: 92.7% (3rd highest)

There were nearly 241 violent crimes reported per 100,000 residents in Montana in 2013, a third lower than the national rate. While the violent crime rate fell 5.1% nationwide between 2012 and 2013, it fell more than 13% in Montana. Low crime rates may be attributable to high levels of education. Nearly 93% of Montana residents had at least a high school diploma as of 2013, the third highest rate in the country. Despite the state’s relatively well-educated population, Montana struggled with poverty last year. The state’s poverty rate was 16.5% in 2013, one of only two of the safest states with a poverty rate above the national rate of 15.8%. This was likely due in part to the state’s large Native American population, which tends to be more impoverished.

ALSO READ: States Where People Live Longest

9. Minnesota
> Violent crimes per 100,000: 223.2
> Population: 5,420,380
> Total 2013 murders: 114 (20th lowest)
> Poverty rate: 11.2% (7th lowest)
> Pct. of adults with high school diploma: 92.4% (4th highest)

Minnesota households had a median income of $60,702 in 2013, more than $8,000 higher than the national benchmark. Additionally, state residents were quite educated, as 33.5% of adults aged 25 and older had obtained a bachelor’s degree as of 2013, well above the 29.6% of adults nationwide. The strong socioeconomic environment likely contributed to the low violent crime rate of only 223.2 incidents reported per 100,000 residents in 2013. Overall, the state’s violent crime rate fell 3.3% despite incidents of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter increasing more than 14% between 2012 and 2013.

8. Utah
> Violent crimes per 100,000: 209.2
> Population: 2,900,872
> Total 2013 murders: 49 (14th lowest)
> Poverty rate: 12.7% (14th lowest)
> Pct. of adults with high school diploma: 91.5% (tied-9th highest)

Only 12.7% of Utah residents lived below the poverty line in 2013, more than 3 percentage points below the national rate. As in several other relatively safe states, Utah had one of the smallest income gaps between rich and poor in the country — relatively few residents lived on less than $10,000 a year and more than $200,000 a year. Despite low poverty rates and a relatively balanced income distribution, Utah was one of only a handful of states where the violent crime rate rose between 2012 and 2013, driven largely by a 10.7% increase in reported robberies.

For the rest of the list, please go to 24/7WallStreet.com.

TIME Careers & Workplace

How You Can Turn a Job Rejection Into Another Job Offer

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Every opportunity is a networking opportunity, and every job interview can lead to a job

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This post is in partnership with The Muse. The article below was originally published on The Muse.

Having managed a fellowship program, I know what it’s like to meet an applicant and think she’s awesome—but not quite as qualified as someone else. Often, I would go out of my way to help these candidates—pointing them toward other resources or, if they really impressed me, introducing them to the manager of another program or someone at Career Services.

Turns out, this can happen in the real world, as well.

Many would say that, when you interview for a job and find out you don’t get it, that’s the end of the story. But think about it: If you’ve made it to the final rounds of an interview process, you’ve clearly impressed the hiring manager. And, having spent several hours discussing your work experience, skills, and goals, you’ve built a professional (albeit new) relationship. So, why not use this person as a tool in your ongoing job hunt?

Recently, I did just that. After a great (but not so great that it landed me the job) interview process, I networked with my interviewer and asked him to connect me to other positions. And it worked.

Read on for my story and the steps to take if you want to try this approach for yourself.

Step 1: Rock the Interview Process

Every stage of the hiring process is an opportunity to make your best impression. For starters, I stepped out of my comfort zone and wrote a more creative cover letter than I ever had before. (I referred to this article while I wrote it!) I wanted to get noticed—and I did.

My application skipped past the job I was applying for and was sent to the CEO. He said he’d like to talk to me about a different position—designing and running the program I’d applied to write for.

I took copious notes during my phone interview, after which I was asked to submit a proposal for how I’d run the new initiative. I’d been burned by such an assignment a few weeks prior: I’d been asked to come up with solutions to fix a program as part of a hiring process—and the person interviewing me took my ideas and cut off all communication. But this ask felt a lot more legitimate, and I decided the opportunity was worth the risk. I couched it in a way that made sure I was still the piece that made the proposal work together, but made it enough of a window into my thinking that he could tell that I could hit the ground running and do something special.

I submitted the proposal, made it to the final round, and then, I didn’t get the job. It could have ended there—but it didn’t.

Step 2: Look for Positive Reinforcement

Here’s where got me thinking: You always hear that your network is a critical piece of your job search, because your network is made up of people who believe in you. So, what happens when you win someone over, make her believe in you, but simply aren’t applying for the right post at the right time? What happens when she thinks you’re talented, but that you just couldn’t do a specific job as well as someone else?

Over the course of this hiring process, he got to know me better than someone I’d meet an event and follow up with over coffee. He had insight into my critical thinking, people skills, writing ability, and strict adherence to deadlines.

I knew this CEO believed in me, because he told me so. He told me he loved my cover letter, because it showed passion. When I submitted my proposal, he praised me for being the first applicant to turn it in (despite being the last one to interview and therefore having the least amount of time). When he reviewed the proposal, he said I had great ideas. Even when sharing that I didn’t get the job, he took the time to tell me that he had no doubt I could do it, but I had lost out to a firm who already had an entire staff in place. He even ended my rejection email wishing me success and saying, “I hope our paths cross again.”

So, I knew he was a fan of my candidacy.

To be clear, if you follow up with someone who hasn’t told you he believes in you, you’re wasting your time as well as his—and can easily cross into nuisance territory. It would be downright awkward to try to call upon an interviewer as a trusted connection if you never established a connection beyond setting a date and time for the interview.

But if you did have that connection? Proceed.

Step 3: Follow Up

So, I had just received an email that told me I did great, but didn’t get the position. I had three options: I could not respond; I could write, “Thank you for letting me know,” and leave it at that; or I could ask if he knew of any additional opportunities. Part of what inspired me to go with the third option is that I’d originally applied for a lower-level role.

So here’s what I wrote:

Thank you for your email and kind words. I enjoyed learning more about [company], and should there be a more appropriately suited writing or editing opportunity in future (including freelance and/or part-time), I hope you’ll keep me in mind.

It was brief. It was proportionate to the connection. And, best of all, it worked.

Four minutes later, the CEO emailed me back that he’d be happy to make an introduction to the firm he’d given the contract to. The next thing I knew, the co-founder of that firm emailed to say that I’d been referred by my new contact. She requested writing samples and said that she’d love to have me join her team.

Basically, the CEO had done the legwork for me. He vouched for my candidacy, and I ended up landing the job he referred me for.

Even better, that job gave me my start in the sector, and opened the door for additional paid writing and editing opportunities down the road—which I plan to tell him when we meet for coffee this week.

The moral of the story is that every opportunity is a networking opportunity, and every job interview can lead to a job—even if it’s not the one you applied for. So put your best foot forward, and if you know someone is in your corner, ask him to help.

Oh, and regardless? Always say, “thank you.”

More from The Muse:

TIME Careers & Workplace

10 Ways to Overcome Your Fear of Failure

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Failure is not the opposite of success

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Question: What’s your best tip for overcoming the fear of failure?

Diversify

“When I have many irons in the fire, I feel far less desperation around the success of any one. In fact, it is their cumulative successes that has created our brand identity at RTC.” — Corey Blake, Round Table Companies

Embrace a Terrible First Draft

“We tend to compare our own blooper reel to everyone else’s highlights reel. Instead just start with a first draft and embrace the fact it might be terrible. But the second try or draft will be better, the third even better. For me the only failure is not improving (or trying in the first place).” — Kelly Azevedo, She’s Got Systems

Failure Is Not the Opposite of Success

“If you chose to do something and “failed,” you received valuable feedback on what to do or not to do in the future. If you chose not to do something (this most often takes the form of “waiting” or “thinking about it”), you are guaranteed to be in the same position until you decide to do something about it. Failure is progress. Stagnation is what should be feared.” — Brennan White, Cortex

Failure Is Growth

“The risks of starting and running a business are great, and there are times when you may be tempted to throw in the towel. However, it’s important to remind yourself that with every failure you experience in business, there is another lesson learned that will aid your company and team moving forward.” — Zach Cutler, Cutler PR

Travel Will Broaden Your Perspective

“Go to the Third World, get out of your bubble and realize that even if you fail, life is not so bad.” — Raaja Nemani, BucketFeet

You Won’t Succeed Without Overcoming

“If fear of failure is disabling you from trying or starting at all, then you won’t succeed or truly fail. Instead, you will remain the same — which in the business world is as close to failure as you can get without calling it that. Realize that by encouraging a fear of failure, you have failed yourself and your business because you will neither succeed nor improve with lessons learned.” — Fabian Kaempfer, Chocomize

So What If You Fail?

“Most entrepreneurs are playing a high-risk game, so fear of failure comes with the territory. In the worst case scenario, you fail, but so what? It will free up your time to work on your next business, and you will have more knowledge about starting and running a business. Just remember: fear makes you human, and when you hit rock bottom, there is nowhere to go but up.” — Nikki Robinson, Gloss and Glam

Regret Is Worse Than Failure

“When I fear failure, one thing that never fails to overcome that fear is thinking about the terrible feeling of regret. Regret lasts much longer than failure, and it is a thousand times worse. When you fear failure and quit, be warned that regret will always be right around the corner.” — Phil Chen, Systems Watch

Failure Is Like Practice

“I try to think of failure like exercise or practice. You’re going to do things, and you’re going to be terrible at first. The more you do it, the better you will get as time goes on. You will learn a lot if you look at failure as practice.” — Henry Balanon, Protean Payment

You Must Fail to Learn Success

“Do something incorrectly. Make a mistake. Mess up. Then, learn from it. Don’t run from the failure. Evaluate your shortcomings, and use that to propel yourself into your future endeavors. If you never fail, you will never know when you’ve reached true success.” — Joe Apfelbaum, Ajax Union

This article was originally published on StartupCollective.

TIME Money

Apple CEO Tim Cook Earned $9 Million Last Year, Double His 2013 Pay

Pay hike comes after a stellar 2014 for the tech firm

Apple CEO Tim Cook’s total pay for 2014 was $9.22 million, more than double the financial compensation he received the year before.

Cook earned a salary of $1.75 million and his non-equity incentive compensation was $6.7 million, reports Bloomberg. His 2013 pay package was $4.25 million, according to files sent to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on Thursday.

The pay increase comes after a highly successful 2014 in which Apple’s company value exceed $700 billion and the price of stocks rose above $119 per share, according to Bloomberg.

The boost comes amid optimism surrounding new products such as the iPhone 6 Plus and Apple Pay.

Cook succeed Steve Jobs as head of Apple just months before the company’s enigmatic founder died of pancreatic cancer.

[Bloomberg]

TIME Telecommunications

Hong Kong Billionaire Li Ka-shing Eyes British O2 Telecoms Network

Li Ka-shing, Victor Li
Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing, right, and his son Victor Li, react during a press conference in Hong Kong Friday, Jan. 9, 2015. Vincent Yu—AP

Acquiring O2 may allow a merger with Li's Three mobile network

Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing is negotiating to spend almost $15 billion to acquire O2, Britain’s second-largest mobile network.

Taking over O2, currently owned by Spain’s Telefonica, would allow Li, 86, to merge the company with Three mobile network, which is currently owned by his firm Hutchison Whampoa. That would create Britain’s largest mobile telecommunications group, reports the BBC.

Hutchison shares increased by 4% after reports of a potential deal emerged, but negotiations with Telefonica are expected to take weeks. The purchase may also be hampered if European industry regulators perceive the move infringes on competition protocols.

In a bid to restructure his business empire, which spans everything from telecommunications to ports, Li, who until he was overtaken by Alibaba boss Jack Ma this year was the richest man in Asia, has spent nearly $30 billion this year acquiring foreign assets to diversify his Hong Kong holdings.

[BBC]

TIME energy

Oil Prices Spike After Saudi King’s Death

King Abdullah waves as he arrives to open a conference in Riyadh.
King Abdullah waves as he arrives to open a conference in Riyadh on Feb. 5, 2005 Zainal Abd Halim—Reuters

Last month, Saudi Arabia pumped 9.5 million oil barrels a day, but uncertainty clouds the future of oil prices

Oil prices spiked following the death on Friday of Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah, whose country’s oil production is the largest of any state in the 12-member Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a cartel responsible for approximately 40% of the global oil supply.

The monarch’s passing also increased oil futures in New York by 3.1 and London by 2.6, according to Bloomberg. As the globe’s biggest exporter of crude oil, Saudi Arabia helped maintain an OPEC production quota last year that helped keep oil prices low by ensuring a high supply of crude in the worldwide market. Prices nearly halved last year when OPEC’s output did not drop to reflect oversupply, as the U.S., the globe’s largest consumer of oil, pumped more oil than it had in over three decades.

“The passing of King Abdullah is going to increase uncertainty and increase volatility in oil prices in the near term,” said financial analyst Neil Beveridge in a phone interview with Bloomberg.

U.S. crude stockpiles jumped by 10.1 million barrels, its largest volume increase since early 2001, according to the Energy Information Administration’s reports up to Jan. 16.

Crown Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz succeeds King Abdullah, who helmed the kingdom for nearly a decade and significantly enlarged Saudi Arabia’s economy, which is now the largest in the Arab world in terms of total GDP.

[Bloomberg]

TIME Food & Drink

Yelp Has Spoken: These Are the 100 Best-Reviewed Places to Eat in America

Yelp IPO Puts Consumer-Review Site up for Review
The Yelp Inc. logo is displayed in the window of a restaurant in New York, U.S. Bloomberg—Bloomberg via Getty Images

Yelp's list of top-rated spots across the U.S. might surprise you

Yelp released its 2015 edition of the top 100 places to eat in the United States Thursday — and the list may surprise you.

Rather than displaying an array of Michelin-starred establishments, the list is made up of food carts, delis and feel good BBQ spots that rarely exceed the “$$” price range. This could be because rankings were determined based on consumer reviews. (And who doesn’t like getting more bang for your buck?)

Here’s a sampling of the top 10:

1. Copper Top BBQ – Big Pine, CA
2. Art of Flavors – Las Vegas, NV
3. Soho Japanese Restaurant – Las Vegas, NV
4. TKB Bakery and Deli – Indio, CA
5. Ono Seafood – Honolulu, HI
6. Shark Pit Maui – Lahaina, HI
7. Gaucho Parilla Argentina – Pittsburgh, PA
8. Bobboi Natural Gelato – La Jolla, CA
9. Golden Bear Trading Company – San Francisco, CA
10. Little Miss BBQ – Phoenix, AZ

Check out the rest of the list at Yelp.

TIME Companies

Amazon Is Making It Easier to Publish Your Own Kindle Textbooks

Amazon.com Illustrations Ahead Of Earnings
The Amazon.com Inc. homepage and Amazon Kindle logo are displayed on laptop computers in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Wednesday, Oct. 23, 2013. Andrew Harrer—Bloomberg/Getty Images

The commerce giant is moving further into the education market

Amazon announced Thursday that it’s making it possible for authors to create and distribute digital textbooks using its self-publishing tool, Kindle Direct Publishing.

The e-commerce giant expects the new initiative mostly to be used by independent authors, particularly those who have regained the rights to their textbooks, or smaller publishers. The self-published textbooks, Amazon expects, would be purchased and read mostly by higher education students.

“A professor might have an extra packet for their class that they could upload and make digitally available,” says a spokeswoman for Amazon.

Textbook writers will be paid on Amazon’s familiar royalty scheme: for all textbooks priced under $9.99, authors will earn 70% of the royalties. For all textbooks $10 and over, authors receive just 35%. That model helps Amazon encourage authors to price their books under $10. However, it’s unclear whether that model will disadvantage writers of textbooks, which are traditionally much more expensive than your average novel or non-fiction book.

For readers, Amazon says the new feature means they will be able to interact with more textbooks in a deeper way. Digital textbooks allow readers to highlight sections of text, add passages or images to a virtual notebook, create flashcards and click on words to look them up in a dictionary.

Amazon’s new initiative comes as technology companies and publishers explore new options in the education market to make up for slowing textbook sales. Publishers like McGraw-Hill and Prentice Hall are investing in adaptive learning software, while Apple is pushing its iBooks textbook platform. With the launch of textbook self-publishing, Amazon is moving deeper into a coveted market with a familiar approach for the company: do it yourself and skip the publisher.

“It’s a tool to help them push more into the eduction market. You’re using their app now,” says Colin Gillis, an analyst at BGC Financial. “It slows the iPad march.”

Amazon’s textbook sales have been lagging as of late. When its North American book and media sales posted their slowest growth in more than five years in the third quarter of 2014, Amazon Senior Vice President Tom Szkutak put the blame on readers switching from buying textbooks to renting them. Amazon now says its goal is to get more books into digital form — healthy sales of self-published textbooks could help offset physical textbooks’ tepid performance.

TIME stocks

European Stimulus Encourages Gain in U.S. Stocks

European Central Bank President Mario Draghi meets the press at the European Central Bank Headquarters in Frankfurt on Jan. 22, 2015.
European Central Bank President Mario Draghi meets the press at the European Central Bank Headquarters in Frankfurt on Jan. 22, 2015. Horacio Villalobos—Corbis

Thursday’s strong gains turn the S&P 500 and Nasdaq composite positive for 2015

—Wall Street soared Thursday, with U.S. stocks chalking up their fourth straight day of gains, as the world’s stock markets cheered a European Central Bank stimulus program worth more than one trillion euros.

ECB president Mario Draghi said the central bank will buy a total of 60 billion euros in assets every month in an effort to stimulate the region’s economy that is reminiscent of the stimulus program put into place several years ago by the U.S. Federal Reserve. (Fortune took an in-depth look at the ECB’s larger than expected quantitative easing earlier today.) London’s FTSE 100 improved by 1% following the news on Thursday while Germany’s DAX rose 1.3%.

Investors readying for a rise in global liquidity initially lifted U.S. Treasuries, whose relatively rich yields grew more attractive with prospects of lower euro zone bond yields, before they turned lower at midsession.

“It’s likely to impact yields everywhere,” said Aaron Kohli, an interest rate strategist at BNP Paribas in New York. “When you put this much stimulus into the markets, it’s going to go other places that you hadn’t intended, and one of those places is going to be U.S. debt.”

U.S. stocks rallied, with the Dow Jones industrial average jumping 260 points, or 1.5%. The Dow finished at 17,814, just a few points below where it started 2015. Meanwhile, the S&P 500 and the Nasdaq composite gained 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively, in a day that saw both indices wipe out all previous losses for 2015 seen earlier in January.

U.S. stocks have had a turbulent start to the year as low oil prices and concern over economic growth overseas have wreaked havoc on investor confidence and sent stocks on several losing streaks.

A handful of strong quarterly earnings reports also gave the U.S. market a boost on Thursday as shares of Southwest Airlines and railroad company Union Pacific both surged on strong financial numbers. EBay’s shares also gained 7% one day after the e-commerce giant announced massive job cuts and a standstill agreement with activist investor Carl Icahn.

—Reuters contributed to this report.

This article originally appeared on Fortune.com.

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